Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 3-11.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015157

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Identification of lotus cultivars using DNA fingerprinting

Jianhua Xue1, *(), Li Jiang2, #, Xiaolin Ma2, Yanhong Bing1, Sichen Zhao2, Keping Ma1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 Yuanmingyuan Administration, Beijing 100084
  • Received:2015-06-08 Accepted:2015-09-13 Online:2016-06-12
  • Xue Jianhua E-mail:xuejianhua@ibcas.ac.cn

DNA fingerprinting is a fast and accurate method for cultivar identification, which can overcome the limitation of morphological traits. We used DNA fingerprinting to identify 72 lotus (Nelumbo) cultivars collected from the Resources Garden of the Yuanmingyuan Park in Beijing. We used 1,409 samples of N. nucifera and 58 samples of N. lutea as a genetic background reference. Fifteen out of 104 pairs of nucleus microsatellite primers (nSSR) and 2 out of 17 pairs of chloroplast microsatellite primers (cpSSR), for a total of 17 pairs of fluorescent primers, were selected as the barcode for fingerprint identification of the 72 lotus cultivars. For the 15 nSSR primers, 94 alleles were examined (with an average of 6.27). Out of the 94 alleles, 11 belong to N. lutea, 65 belong to N. nucifera, and the remaining 18 alleles could not be identified. The polymorphism information content (PIC) range between 0.3899 and 0.8023, with an average value of 0.5748. For the two pairs of cpSSR primers, 13 haplotypes were examined. Among them, 9 haplotypes belong to N. nucifera and 4 haplotypes belong to N. lutea. Results of identification of all 17 pairs of primer markers showed that 19 cultivars included genes from N. lutea, and 8 cultivars had female parents from N. lutea. There were 36 cultivars (using 12 pairs of primers) which had at least one unique genotype. With a minimum of 8 pairs of primers, 68 cultivars could be distinguished. Among the 72 cultivars, four cultivars in two groups could not be distinguished based on the whole set of 17 primers. Using the core primer combination method, we developed specific DNA fingerprints for each of the 68 lotus cultivars. Based on the above results, we recommended 15 pairs of primers including 13 pairs of nSSR and 2 pairs of cpSSR as the core barcode for lotus cultivar identification.

Key words: DNA fingerprint, microsatellites, Nelumbo, cultivar identification, molecular ID

Table 1

Number of alleles, number of genotype, and polymorphic information content (PIC ) of 17 core SSR primers"

引物
Primer
72个品种莲
72 lotus cultivars
1,409份野生莲
等位基因数
Alleles number in 1,409 samples of N. nucifera
58份美洲黄莲等位基因数
Alleles number in 58 samples of N. lutea
种间共享等位基因数
Shared alleles between species
等位基因数
Alleles number
基因型数
Genotype number
特有等位
基因数
Specific allele
number
PIC N. lutea成分的品种数 Number in cultivars of Nelumbo lutea
SSR030[1]** 10 26 0 0.8023 0 15 2 0
SSR040[1] 12 24 2 0.7426 0 10 5 2
SSR064[1] 8 18 0 0.7199 4 15 1 0
SSR016[1] 9 18 1 0.6576 6 16 6 3
SSR088[1] 5 10 0 0.6284 0 4 2 0
Nelumbo14[2] 6 12 0 0.6051 11 5 5 0
NS034[3] 8 14 1 0.6022 0 9 5 4
SSR067[1] 5 9 0 0.5846 0 6 2 0
SSR285[1] 7 12 3 0.5795 0 6 4 0
SSR074[1] 7 9 0 0.5379 0 10 3 1
Nelumbo13[2] 4 6 1 0.5010 19 5 2 0
SSR472[1] 3 5 0 0.4575 12 3 1 0
SSR049[1] 3 4 0 0.4134 0 7 1 0
SSR482[1] 3 5 0 0.4003 0 4 5 0
SSR045[1] 4 7 0 0.3899 0 3 1 0
Lotus12[4] 10 10 0 - 8 16 3 0
Lotus17[4] 3 3 0 - 8 1 2 0

Fig. 1

The floral morphologies of 72 lotus cultivars used in this study 1. 建选17号‘Jian Xuan Shiqihao’; 2. 沂蒙颂‘Yimeng Song’; 3. 绿如意‘Lvruyi’; 4. 蟹爪红‘Xiezhua Hong’; 5. 卓越‘Zhuoyue’; 6. 红唇‘Hong Chun’; 7. 千瓣莲‘Qianban Lian’; 8. 红樱桃‘Hongyingtao’; 9. 白芍药莲‘Bai Shaoyao Lian’; 10. 案头春‘Antou Chun’; 11. 一丈青‘Yizhangqing’; 12. 白湘莲‘Baixianglian’; 13. 黄舞妃‘Huang Wu Fei’; 14. 冰心‘Bing Xin’; 15. 珠峰翠影 ‘Zhufeng Cuiying’; 16. 新红‘Xin Hong’; 17. 大洒锦‘Dasajin’; 18. 中日友谊莲‘Zhong-ri Youyi Lian’; 19. 心洁‘Xin Jie’; 20. 晨光‘Chenguang’; 21. 星空牡丹‘Xingkong Mudan’; 22. 栀子碗莲‘Zhizi Wanlian’; 23. 粉千叶‘Fen Qianye’; 24. 日出‘Richu’; 25. 素质冰姿‘Suzhi Bing Zi’; 26. 红牡丹‘Hong Mudan’; 27. 古代莲‘Gudai Lian’; 28. 白雪公主‘Baixue Gongzhu’; 29. 紫重阳‘Zi Chongyang’; 30. 伯里夫人‘Boli Furen’; 31. 玫园秀色‘Meiyuan Xiu Se’; 32. 丹鹤‘Dan He’; 33. 金凤展翅‘Jinfeng Zhanchi’; 34. 英华‘Yinghua’; 35. 杏花春雨‘Xinghua Chunyu’; 36. 喜笑颜开‘Xixiaoyankai’; 37. 普者黑白荷‘Puzhehei Baihe’; 38. 粉楼春‘Fenlou Chun’; 39. 建乡壮士‘Jianxiang Zhuangshi’; 40. 希望‘Xiwang’; 41. 红领巾‘Honglingjin’; 42. 丹凤朝阳‘Dangfeng Chaoyang’; 43. 小洒锦‘Xiaosajin’; 44. 普者黑红荷‘Puzhehei Honghe’; 45. 蝶恋花‘Die Lian Hua’; 46. 小精灵‘Xiao Jingling’; 47. 红边玉蝶‘Hongbian Yudie’; 48. 佛见笑‘Fojianxiao’; 49. 莺莺‘Yingying’; 50. 奔月‘Benyue’; 51. 粉娃莲‘Fenwalian’; 52. 睡美人‘Shui Meiren’; 53. 东湖夕照‘Donghu Xi Zhao’; 54. 粉青莲‘Fen Qing Lian’; 55. 红湘莲‘Hongxianglian’; 56. 姬妃莲‘Jifei Lian’; 57. 点额妆‘Dian E Zhuang’; 58. 曙光‘Shuguang’; 59. 露半唇‘Lu Ban Chun’; 60. 桃红宿雨‘Tao Hong Su Yu’; 61. 春桃 ‘Chun Tao’; 62. 彩蝶‘Cai Die’; 63. 小佛手‘Xiao Foshou’; 64. 飞虹‘Fei Hong’; 65. 红楼‘Hong Lou’; 66. 粉霞‘Fen Xia’; 67. 丹绣球‘Dan Xiuqiu’; 68. 钗头凤‘Chai Tou Feng’; 69. 红盏托珠‘Hong Zhan Tuo Zhu’; 70. 平山芙蓉‘Pingshan Furong’; 71. 中山红台‘Zhongshan Hongtai’; 72. 至尊千瓣‘Zhizun Qianban’"

Table 2

Alleles encoded standard of 17 core SSR primers"

引物
Primer
编码 Code
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0a 1 2
Lotus12 374* 375 379* 380 385 390 395 400 410 415
SSR040 205+ 211 213* 215 217 223 225 229 231 233 235 237+
SSR030 130* 142 145 148 151 154 160 163 166 169
SSR016 190* 215 218 221 224 233 236 242 254+
SSR285 262 272 274 276 292+ 300+ 316+
NS034 98 102 104 112 114 116 118 124+
Nelumbo14 147 149 151 153 171* 173 *
SSR074 154 160 163 169 172 178 181
SSR049 233 245 248
SSR064 178* 187 190 193 199 202 205 208
SSR067 238 244 247 253 262*
SSR088 285 297 301 305* 309*
SSR482 172 200 203
Lotus17 231* 242 246*
Nelumbo13 142* 146 156+ 160
SSR045 187* 211 214 217
SSR472 196* 223 229
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