Biodiversity Science ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (6): 708-715.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015131


• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Development of foreign ecological protected areas and linkages to ecological protection redline delineation and management in China

Dong Liu, Naifeng Lin, Changxin Zou*(), Guangyong You   

  1. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2015-05-18 Accepted:2015-11-23 Online:2015-12-02
  • Zou Changxin

Ecological protection redline (EPR) is a new concept recently put forward in the Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China and the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Policy regarding the implementation of protection is strictest in EPR areas. Although there was no EPR worldwide previously, most countries had established protected areas, a similar practice to EPR, in natural or near natural areas, aiming at protecting species, habitats and ecosystems. In this paper, we summarize the ecological protection systems and their management practice executed by IUCN and in other foreign countries (USA, EU, Russia, Japan, etc.) based on relevant literature. Ecological protection areas range from 5% to 40% for most countries. In these countries, a specific management system is either governed by a special protection management department or a multi-sectoral management division. Different management and control measures are decided according to the human activity intensities. Based on gap analysis research in China’s presently protected areas and problems in classification management of protected areas, we suggest integrating and optimizing different types of protected areas by evalua- ting their importance and sensitivity. Land with important ecological service, biodiversity and habitat protection functions should be preferentially included in EPR. The area ratio assigned to EPR should be up to 30% of the total land area. We propose that unified supervision and management by China’s environmental protection departments should be strengthened, establishing EPR management laws and regulations, and implementing different management measures according to its classifications.

Key words: ecological protection redline, protected area, ecological security, management practice

Table 1

Similar concepts with China’s ecological protection redline in the world"

类型 Type 保护内容 Content of protection
National Park
1872 年美国建立世界上第一个国家公园黄石公园, 开创了国外自然资源与历史文化遗迹保护的先河。目的为了维持生态系统的完整性, 以便为生态旅游、科学研究和环境教育提供场所。
The first national park, Yellowstone National Park, was established in 1872 in the United States, creating a precedent for natural resources and historical, cultural heritage protection. The protection aim is to maintain the integrity of the ecosystem, in order to provide a place for ecotourism, scientific research and environmental education.
Special Protected Area, (SPA)
1979年欧盟《鸟类指令》中被认定的保护地, 主要保护候鸟及濒危鸟类的栖息地。
SPAs are the protected areas identified under Birds Directive in the European Union. The aim is to protect migratory birds and endangered bird habitats.
Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)
1992 年欧盟《栖息地指令》中由成员国共同认定的保护区, 目的是保护栖息地和物种。
SACs are protected areas identified under Habitat Directive by member states in the European Union. The purpose is to protect the habitat and species.
Pan-European Ecological Network (PEEN)
1995年欧洲部长级会议在保加利亚首都索非亚召开, 55个泛欧洲国家通过了泛欧生态与景观多样性战略(Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy, PEBLDS), 并着手建构泛欧生态网络, 以生态廊道连结各自孤立的重要生境, 使之在空间上成为一个整体, 保护物种扩散与迁徙。
European Ministerial Conference was held in Sofia, Bulgaria in 1995. Fifty five pan European countries passed Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy (PEBLDS), and started building a pan European ecological network, with important isolated ecological corridor connecting in space to protect species diffusion and migration.
Natura 2000
欧盟最大的跨界环境保护行动, Natura 2000在欧洲大陆建立生态廊道, 并开展区域合作, 以保护野生动植物物种、受到威胁的自然栖息地和物种迁徙的重要地区。由SPAs、SAC和生物多样性丰富的私有土地组成。
Natura 2000 is the largest cross-border environmental protection act in EU. Ecological corridor was established to carry out regional cooperation for protecting the wild animals and plants species, threatened natural habitats and species migration in important areas.
Emerald Network
绿宝石网络是在《欧洲野生生物与自然生境保护伯尔尼公约》的基础上发起的, 旨在提供一种一般性保护方法, 以在管理欧洲的非欧盟国家和北非确定和管理与Natura 2000类似的保护区。
Emerald network is launched based on the Convention of European Wildlife and natural habitat protection of Berne. The aim was to provide a general protection method to manage Natura 2000 similar protection zone in non-EU members and North Africa.
American Greenway Network (AGN)
1987年的美国总统委员会的报告中提出建设绿道, 绿道就是沿着诸如河滨、溪谷、山脊线等自然走廊, 或是沿着诸如用作游憩活动的废弃铁路线、沟渠、风景道路等人工走廊所建立的线型开敞空间。
AGN was proposed in the United States Presidential Commission Report in 1987. Greenway is the space area along riverside, valley, ridge or artificial established corridors along such uses as a recreation of the disused railway line, ditches, and scenic roads.

Fig. 1

Number of countries with different proportions of protected areas (Source: IUCN, 2014)"

Table 2

Proportions of protected areas of different regions in the world"

Protected land area (km2)
Land area (km2)
Proportions of protected land area (%)
中美洲 Central America 133,731 521,600 25.6
南美洲 South America 2,056,559 9,306,560 22.1
北美洲 North America 4,231,839 23,724,226 17.8
东亚 East Asia 1,904,342 11,799,212 16.1
东南亚 Southeast Asia 715,218 4,480,990 16.0
非洲东南部 Southeast Africa 1,825,918 11,487,920 15.9
加勒比地区 Caribbean region 36,469 234,840 15.5
欧洲 Europe 634,248 5,119,172 12.4
非洲中西部 Midwest Africa 1,293,206 12,804,860 10.1
大洋洲 Oceania 54,949 553,058 9.9
北非和中东 North Africa and the Middle East 1,226,928 12,954,170 9.5
北亚 North Asia 1,789,006 22,110,050 8.1
南亚 South Asia 339,058 4,487,510 7.6
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