生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 532-538.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13200

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国海域海洋生物的营养级指数变化特征

杜建国1, 叶观琼2, 陈彬1, , A;*(), 郑新庆1   

  1. 1 .国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 福建厦门 361005
    2.新加坡国立大学生物科学系, 新加坡 117543
  • 收稿日期:2013-09-04 接受日期:2014-07-16 出版日期:2014-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈彬 E-mail:chenbin@tio.org.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31101902)、福建省自然科学基金(2012J05074)、国家留学基金(201309660067)、国家海洋局第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费专项资金(海三科2011006)、国家海洋局“中国海洋生物多样性保护战略与行动计划”项目

Changes in the marine trophic index of Chinese marine area

Jianguo Du1, Guanqiong Ye2, Bin Chen1, *(), Xinqing Zheng1   

  1. 1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China
    2 .Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
  • Received:2013-09-04 Accepted:2014-07-16 Online:2014-07-20
  • Contact: Chen Bin E-mail:chenbin@tio.org.cn

利用联合国粮农组织(FAO)1950-2011年渔获物捕捞量资料, 分析了我国海域(包括大陆海域、台湾海域、香港海域和澳门海域)129种渔获物的营养级指数变化特征。研究表明, 1950-1974年我国海洋营养级指数在3.45左右波动, 1975-1978年下降至3.35左右, 1982-1987年急剧下降到3.25并维持到1996年, 1997-2011年平稳回升至3.34。与全球海洋营养级指数相比, 1984年之前我国高于全球水平, 而1984年之后则低于全球水平。就生物类群而言, 鱼类对我国海洋营养级指数的贡献最大, 达73.1-85.8%; 甲壳动物次之, 为9.2-15.5%; 软体动物较小, 为3.3-11.6%; 其他无脊椎动物的贡献最小, 不超过1.8%。过度捕捞使我国部分渔获物由原来的长寿命、高营养级的底层鱼类变为现在的短寿命、低营养级的无脊椎动物和中上层鱼类。渔业捕捞许可管理制度、禁渔期和禁渔区制度、海洋捕捞产量“零增长”和“负增长”计划、增殖放流、扩大海洋保护区面积等措施的实施可能是我国海洋营养级指数回升的主要原因。

关键词: 中国沿海, 海洋生物多样性, 营养级指数, 海洋食物网

Using the fishery catches and landings data from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Fishery Statistics (1950 to 2011) for 129 marine species, we analyzed changes in the trophic index of captured species in China (including 4 sea areas: Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau). The results showed the following: the marine trophic index remained stable from 1950 to 1974, fluctuating around 3.45, then declined to 3.35 during the period 1975-1978, declined again sharply to 3.25 between 1982 and 1987, remained stable in the following 10 years, and then increased gradually to 3.34 from 1997 to 2011. Comparing to global marine trophic index, China’s marine trophic index was higher than the global level before 1984, but became lower after 1984. Comparing the contributions of the 4 main biological groups used in the calculation of the index showed that fish species contributed the mostly at 73.1-85.8%, crustaceans contributed 9.2-15.5%, molluscs contributed 3.3-11.6%, and other invertebrates contributed less than 1.8%. The general decline we observed in China’s marine trophic index is associated with shifts in fishery catches from benthic fishes with a long lives and high trophic levels, to invertebrates and pelagic fishes with short lives and low trophic levels. Increasing Chinese marine trophic index from 1997 to 2011 may be attributed to a series of fishery management countermeasures, including new fishing permits regulations, closed fishing seasons, “zero and negative growth plans” for marine fishery catches and landings, artificial breeding and stocking of juveniles fishes, and marine protected areas for spawning and feeding grounds.

Key words: Chinese marine area, marine biodiversity, marine trophic index, marine food web

图1

我国沿海不同海域历年营养级指数变化趋势"

图2

我国海洋营养级指数与渔获量的关系"

图3

海洋生物各类群对全国海洋营养级指数的贡献"

表1

我国不同海域不同年份营养级指数的比较(括号内为鱼类营养级指数)"

年份 Year 文献来源 Reference
1959 1982-
1983
1985-
1986
1992-
1993
1998-
1999
2000-
2001
2008-
2010
渤海 Bohai Sea 4.06 3.70 - 3.51 3.41 - - 张波和唐启升, 2004
黄海 Yellow Sea - - 3.66 - - 3.40 - 张波和唐启升, 2004
东海 East China Sea - - - - - 3.68 - 张波和唐启升, 2004
闽东 East Fujian - - - - 3.57 - - 李雪丁和卢振彬, 2008
闽中 Middle Fujian - - - - 3.55 - - 李雪丁和卢振彬, 2008
闽南 South Fujian - - - - 3.54 - - 李雪丁和卢振彬, 2008
泉州湾 Quanzhou Bay - 3.79 3.79 - 3.58 3.58 3.54 杜建国等, 2010
九龙江口 Jiulongjiang Estuary - 3.82 3.82 - 3.58 3.58 3.55 杜建国等, 2012
全国 China 3.46
(3.65)
3.44
(3.59)
3.32
(3.58)
3.26
(3.51)
3.22
(3.47)
3.23
(3.48)
3.34
(3.53)

附表1

中国4个海域海洋营养级指数研究所用物种数"

年份
Year
大陆物种数
Specie number
in Mainland
台湾物种数
Specie number
in Taiwan
香港物种数
Specie number in Hong Kong
澳门物种数
Specie number in Macau
年份
Year
大陆物种数
Specie number
in Mainland
台湾物种数
Specie number
in Taiwan
香港物种数
Specie number in Hong Kong
澳门物种数
Specie number in Macau
1950 9 31 22 2 1982 18 71 30 4
1951 9 32 22 2 1983 18 73 30 4
1952 9 34 22 2 1984 18 71 30 4
1953 9 34 23 2 1985 18 72 30 4
1954 9 35 24 2 1986 19 74 30 4
1955 9 36 24 2 1987 21 73 31 4
1956 9 44 22 2 1988 21 72 31 4
1957 9 44 24 2 1989 21 91 31 4
1958 9 58 22 2 1990 27 92 31 4
1959 9 58 22 2 1991 27 90 32 4
1960 9 57 22 2 1992 27 91 32 4
1961 9 59 22 2 1993 27 93 30 4
1962 9 61 23 2 1994 27 93 30 4
1963 9 60 23 2 1995 31 92 31 4
1964 9 61 25 2 1996 30 90 30 4
1965 9 60 24 2 1997 30 90 30 4
1966 9 63 24 2 1998 31 91 30 4
1967 9 65 27 2 1999 31 89 29 4
1968 9 63 29 2 2000 31 88 29 4
1969 9 65 29 2 2001 36 89 29 4
1970 14 69 29 2 2002 37 85 29 4
1971 13 73 29 2 2003 49 90 29 4
1972 14 71 29 2 2004 43 84 29 4
1973 11 71 29 4 2005 43 83 29 4
1974 10 70 29 4 2006 43 85 29 4
1975 10 71 29 4 2007 43 84 29 4
1976 12 70 29 4 2008 42 84 29 4
1977 13 71 30 4 2009 42 85 29 4
1978 17 73 30 4 2010 41 81 29 4
1979 18 72 30 4 2011 41 85 29 4
1980 18 75 30 4 总计 51 101 32 4
1981 18 73 30 4 Total
[1] Baeta F, Costa MJ, Cabral H (2009) Changes in the trophic level of Portuguese landings and fish market price variation in the last decades.Fisheries Research, 97, 216-222.
[2] Branch TA, Watson R, Fulton EA, Jennings S, McGilliard CR, Pablico GT, Daniel Ricard D, Tracey SR (2010) The trophic fingerprint of marine fisheries.Nature, 468, 431-435.
[3] Chao M (晁敏), Quan WM (全为民), Li CH (李纯厚), Cheng YH (程炎宏) (2005) Changes in trophic level of marine catches in the East China Sea region.Marine Sciences(海洋科学), 29(9), 51-55. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[4] Cheng JH (程家骅) (2008) Summer Fishing Ban implementa- tion review: the role of Summer Fishing Ban in resource conservation.China Fisheries(中国水产), (8), 17-19. (in Chinese)
[5] Cheng JS (程济生), Zhu JS (朱金声) (1997) The feeding characteristics and throphic level of main commercial invertebrates in the Yellow Sea.Acta Oceanologica Sinica(海洋学报), 19, 102-108. (in Chinese)
[6] Deng JY (邓景耀), Jiang WM (姜卫民), Yang JM (杨纪明), Li J (李军) (1997) Species interaction and food web of major predatory species in the Bohai Sea.Journal of Fishery Sciences of China(中国水产科学), 4, 1-7. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[7] Du JG (杜建国), Chen B (陈彬), Lu ZB (卢振彬), Song PQ (宋普庆), Xu ZC (许章程), Yu WW (俞炜炜), Song XK (宋希坤) (2010) Changes of fish diversity and trophic levels in Quanzhou Bay.Biodiversity Science(生物多样性), 18, 420-427. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[8] Du JG (杜建国), Liu ZH (刘正华), Yu XG (余兴光), Xu ZC (许章程), Hu WJ (胡文佳), Chen B (陈彬), Ma ZY (马志远), Lin JL (林金兰) (2012) Fish species diversity and trophic level in the Jiulong Estuary. Journal of Tropical Oceanography(热带海洋学报), 31(6), 76-82. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[9] Edwards M, Richardson AJ (2004) Impact of climate change on marine pelagic phenology and trophic mismatch.Nature, 430, 881-884.
[10] Huang LM (黄良敏), Zhang YZ (张雅芝), Pan JJ (潘佳佳), Cui YX (崔裕侠), Wu YJ (吴亚娟) (2008) Food web of fish in Xiamen eastern waters.Journal of Oceanography in Taiwan Strait(台湾海峡), 27, 64-73. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[11] IMBER (2005) Science Plan and Implementation Strategy. IGBP Report No. 52, IGBP Secretariat, Stockholm.
[12] Li XD (李雪丁), Lu ZB (卢振彬) (2008) The productivity of fishery resources and the maximum sustained yield in Fujian Coastal Water.Journal of Xiamen University (Natural Science)(厦门大学学报 (自然科学版)), 47, 596-601. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[13] Lu ZB (卢振彬), Huang MZ (黄美珍) (2004) Studies on trophic level and organic carbon contents of main economic nekton in Fujian coastal waters.Journal of Oceanography in Taiwan Strait(台湾海峡), 23, 153-158. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[14] Milessi AC, Arancibia H, Neira S, Defeo O (2005) The mean trophic level of Uruguayan landings during the period 1990-2001.Fisheries Research, 74, 223-231.
[15] Pauly D, Christensen V, Dalagaard J, Froese R, Torres F (1998) Fishing down marine food webs.Science, 279, 860-863.
[16] Pauly D, Christensen V, Guenette S, Tony JP, Sumaila UR, Walters CJ, Watson R, Zeller D (2002) Towards sustainability in world fisheries.Nature, 418, 689-695.
[17] Pauly D, Hilborn R, Branch TA (2013) Fisheries: does catch reflect abundance?Nature, 494, 303-306.
[18] Pauly D, Palomares ML, Froese R, Sa-a P, Vakily M, Preikshot D, Wallace S (2001) Fishing down Canadian aquatic food webs.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 58, 51-62.
[19] Pauly D, Watson R (2005) Background and interpretation of the ‘Marine Trophic Index’ as a measure of biodiversity.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 360, 415-423.
[20] Perry AL, Low PJ, Ellis JR, Reynolds JD (2005) Climate change and distribution shifts in marine fishes.Science, 308, 1912-1915.
[21] Powers JE (2010) Fisheries: measuring biodiversity in marine ecosystems.Nature, 468, 385-386.
[22] Qiu SY (丘书院), Yang SY (杨圣云), Hong GC (洪港船) (1991) Food relationship of the principal pelagic fishes in Minnan-Taiwan Bank Fishing Ground. In: Minnan-Taiwan Bank Fishing Ground Upwelling Ecosystem Study (闽南-台湾浅滩渔场上升流区生态系统研究) (eds Hong HS (洪华生), Qiu SY (丘书院), Ruan WQ (阮五崎), Hong GC (洪港船)). Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[23] Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2010) Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. Montréal.
[24] Tang QS, Jin XS, Wang J, Zhuang ZM, Cui Y, Meng TX (2003) Decadal-scale variation of ecosystem productivity and control mechanisms in the Bohai Sea.Fisheries Oceanography, 12, 223-233.
[25] Wei S (韦晟), Jiang WM (姜卫民) (1992) Study on food web of fishes in the Yellow Sea.Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica(海洋与湖沼), 23, 182-192. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[26] Xu HG, Tang XP, Liu JY, Ding H, Wu J, Zhang M, Yang QW, Cai L, Zhao HJ, Liu Y (2009) China’s progress toward the significant reduction of the rate of biodiversity loss.BioScience, 59, 843-852.
[27] Yang JM (杨纪明) (2001) A study on food and trophic levels of Bohai Sea fish.Modern Fisheries Information(现代渔业信息), 16(10), 10-19. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[28] Zhang B (张波), Tang QS (唐启升) (2004) Study on trophic level of important resources species at high trophic levels in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea.Advances in Marine Science(海洋科学进展), 22, 392-404. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[29] Zhang QY (张其永), Lin QM (林秋眠), Lin YT (林尤通), Zhang YP (张月平) (1981) Food web of fishes in Minnan-Taiwan Chientan Fishing Ground.Acta Oceanologica Sinica(海洋学报), 3, 275-290. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[1] 陈作艺, 许晓静, 朱素英, 翟梦怡, 李扬. (2019) 中国沿海洛氏角毛藻复合群的多样性组成及地理分布. 生物多样性, 27(2): 149-158.
[2] 廖建基, 黄浩, 李伟文, 王磊, 安丽娜. (2019) 国家管辖范围以外区域海洋生物多样性保护的新视域: 包括海洋保护区在内的划区管理工具. 生物多样性, 27(10): 1153-1161.
[3] 银森录, 郑苗壮, 徐靖, 刘岩, 刘文静. (2016) 《生物多样性公约》海洋生物多样性议题的 谈判焦点、影响及我国对策. 生物多样性, 24(7): 855-860.
[4] 黄备, 魏娜, 孟伟杰, 张明霞. (2016) 基于压力-状态-响应模型的辽宁省长海海域海洋生物多样性评价. 生物多样性, 24(1): 48-54.
[5] 廖建基, 郑新庆, 杜建国, 陈彬, 马志远, 胡文佳. (2014) 厦门同安湾定置网捕获鱼类的多样性及营养级特征. 生物多样性, 22(5): 624-629.
[6] 刘瑞玉. (2011) 中国海物种多样性研究进展. 生物多样性, 19(6): 614-626.
[7] 杜建国, 陈彬, 卢振彬, 宋普庆, 许章程, 俞炜炜, 宋希坤. (2010) 泉州湾海域鱼类多样性及营养级变化. 生物多样性, 18(4): 420-427.
[8] 王斌. (1999) 中国海洋生物多样性的保护和管理对策. 生物多样性, 07(4): 347-350.
[9] 陈清潮. (1997) 中国海洋生物多样性的现状和展望. 生物多样性, 05(2): 142-146.
[10] 郑成兴. (1995) 中国沿海海鞘的物种多样性. 生物多样性, 03(4): 201-205.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed