生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (10): 1056-1068.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019215

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

木论喀斯特常绿落叶阔叶混交林群丛数量分类及稳定性

陈惠君1, 2, 杜虎1, 2, 宋同清1, 2, 彭晚霞1, 2, 张浩1, 2, 苏樑1, 2, 曾馥平1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125
    2 中国科学院环江喀斯特生态系统观测研究站, 广西环江 547100
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-03 接受日期:2019-10-08 出版日期:2019-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 曾馥平 E-mail:fpzeng@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    广西重点研发计划(桂科AB16380255);广西重点研发计划(桂科AB17129009);国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0502405);国家自然科学基金(31770495);国家自然科学基金(31870712);国家自然科学基金(31971487);广西特聘专家项目

Numerical classification of associations and their stabilities of karst evergreen deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests in Mulun National Nature Reserve

Chen Huijun1, 2, Du Hu1, 2, Song Tongqing1, 2, Peng Wanxia1, 2, Zhang Hao1, 2, Su Liang1, 2, Zeng Fuping1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125
    2 Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi 547100
  • Received:2019-07-03 Accepted:2019-10-08 Online:2019-10-20
  • Contact: Zeng Fuping E-mail:fpzeng@163.com

加深对喀斯特顶极群落植物组成、群落结构和群落分布的认识可以为该区域生物多样性保护和森林管理提供参考。本文基于广西木论喀斯特常绿落叶阔叶混交林25 ha森林动态监测样地地形、土壤和物种组成数据, 采用多元回归树对该群落进行群丛分类, 并分析各群丛多样性和稳定性。结果表明, 群落可分为6个群丛, 分别为群丛I: 长序厚壳桂+栀子皮+香叶树群丛(Ass. Cryptocarya microcarpa + Itoa orientalis + Lindera communis), 群丛II: 长序厚壳桂+灰岩棒柄花+罗伞群丛(Ass. Cryptocarya microcarpa + Cleidion bracteosum + Brassaiopsis glomerulata), 群丛III: 圆果化香树+密花树+齿叶黄皮群丛(Ass. Platycarya longipes + Rapanea neriifolia + Clausena dunniana), 群丛IV: 圆果化香树+滇丁香+齿叶黄皮群丛(Ass. Platycarya longipes + Luculia intermedia + Clausena dunniana), 群丛V: 长序厚壳桂+罗伞+伞花木群丛(Ass. Cryptocarya microcarpa + Brassaiopsis glomerulata + Eurycorymbus cavaleriei), 群丛VI: 小叶栾树+长管越南茜+圆果化香树群丛(Ass. Boniodendron minus + Rubovietnamia aristate + Platycarya longipes)。除群丛I外, 各群丛总体的多样性指数较高。Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数以及Pielou均匀度指数表现出一致的变化趋势: 群丛VI > 群丛V > 群丛IV > 群丛III > 群丛II > 群丛I, 而丰富度则为群丛VI > 群丛IV > 群丛V > 群丛I > 群丛III > 群丛II, 物种多样性在中海拔群丛最高。中上坡部位群丛稳定性最高, 洼地群丛稳定性最低。海拔在群落结构及组成中起重要作用, 可能是影响群落分布的重要因素。

关键词: 植被分类, Godron稳定性分析, 多元回归树, 喀斯特生态系统, 木论国家级自然保护区

Understanding plant composition, community structure and community distribution of karst climax communities can provide a reference for biodiversity conservation and forest management. Based on topographic factors, soil factors and species composition data of a 25 ha forest dynamic plot in Mulun, Guangxi, we numerically classified the association of karst evergreen deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests multivariate regression trees and a modified Godron stability analysis ( Godron, 1971; Zheng, 2000) method to measure the stabilities of associations. The results showed that the forest community was divided into six associations. They were as follows: (I) Ass. Cryptocarya microcarpa + Itoa orientalis + Lindera communis, (II) Ass. Cryptocarya microcarpa + Cleidion bracteosum + Brassaiopsis glomerulata, (III) Ass. Platycarya longipes + Rapanea neriifolia + Clausena dunniana, (IV) Ass. Platycarya longipes + Luculia intermedia + Clausena dunniana, (V) Ass. Cryptocarya microcarpa + Brassaiopsis glomerulata + Eurycorymbus cavaleriei, (VI) Ass. Boniodendron minus + Rubovietnamia aristate + Platycarya Longipes. Except for Ass. I, diversity indices of each association were higher. Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index and Pielou evenness index showed similar trends: Ass. VI > Ass. V > Ass. IV > Ass. III > Ass. II > Ass. I. Species richness did not follow this trend and decreased in the following order: Ass. VI > Ass. IV > Ass. V > Ass. I > Ass. III > Ass. II. Species diversities of these associations were highest at middle altitudes. The stabilities of associations were highest at medium-high slope positions, while associations were lowest in depressions. Elevation is critical for community structure and composition and may be an important factor affecting community distribution.

Key words: vegetation classification, Godron stability analysis, multivariate regression trees, karst ecosystem, Mulun National Nature Reserve

图1

木论25 ha森林动态监测样地群丛分类相对误差及交叉验证相对误差变化图。▲: 相对误差变化趋势; ●: 交叉验证相对误差变化趋势; ■: 交叉验证相对误差最小点; |: 标准差; ★: 根据“1-SE”规则确定的分类树规模点。"

图2

木论25 ha森林动态监测样地群落分类多元回归树。n表示每组包含的样地数, 柱状图表示各物种在各个群丛中的重要值(各柱状图物种排列完全一致)。"

图3

木论25 ha森林动态监测样地6类群丛的20 m × 20 m的样方分布图。左, 修正前。右, 修正后。"

表1

木论25 ha森林动态监测样地6类群丛的物种丰富度和植株密度"

参数
Parameter
大样地
Whole plot
群丛I
Association I
群丛II
Association II
群丛III
Association III
群丛IV
Association IV
群丛V
Association V
群丛VI
Association VI
面积 Area (ha) 25 9.88 2.44 1.64 2.68 4.28 4.08
丰富度 Richness (ind.) 227 154 130 145 187 174 194
平均胸径 Average DBH (cm) 4.78 4.87 5.54 3.9 3.78 4.83 4.18
最大胸径 Max. DBH (cm) 115.12 115.12 89 55.3 68 57 48.72
植株密度 Density (ind./ha) 5,479 4,912 3,246 9,109 8,693 4,367 5,782

表2

木论25 ha森林动态监测样地6类群丛中各径级植株数占总植株数的比例(%)"

径级
DBH class
大样地
Whole plot
群丛I
Association I
群丛II
Association II
群丛III
Association III
群丛IV
Association IV
群丛V
Association V
群丛VI
Association VI
1-5 cm 72.10 67.58 61.45 77.04 79.85 68.94 75.87
5-10 cm 19.02 21.43 25.75 16.25 14.61 20.73 16.99
10-20 cm 7.68 9.64 10.24 5.98 4.92 8.71 6.12
20-30 cm 1.02 1.16 2.10 0.64 0.54 1.33 0.88
30-40 cm 0.14 0.14 0.27 0.07 0.06 0.27 0.12
40-50 cm 0.03 0.05 0.13 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.01
≥ 50 cm 0.01 0.00 0.06 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00

图4

木论25 ha森林动态监测样地6类群丛的多样性指数"

图5

木论25 ha森林动态监测样地6类群丛的稳定性"

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