生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 76-80.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018273

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

钱江源国家公园体制试点区鸟类多样性与区系组成

钱海源1, 余建平1, 申小莉2, 丁平3, 李晟4, *()   

  1. 1 钱江源国家公园生态资源保护中心, 浙江开化 324300
    2 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    3 浙江大学生命科学学院, 杭州 310058
    4 北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-15 接受日期:2019-01-14 出版日期:2019-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 李晟 E-mail:shengli@pku.edu.cn

Diversity and composition of birds in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot

Qian Haiyuan1, Yu Jianping1, Shen Xiaoli2, Ding Ping3, Li Sheng4, *()   

  1. 1 Center of Ecology and Resources, Qianjiangyuan National Park, Kaihua, Zhejiang 324300
    2 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    3 College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
    4 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2018-10-15 Accepted:2019-01-14 Online:2019-01-20
  • Contact: Li Sheng E-mail:shengli@pku.edu.cn

生物多样性编目是自然保护地有效管理与政策制定的基础。本研究收集整理了钱江源国家公园体制试点区(简称钱江源国家公园)内的鸟类记录, 数据来源包括专项鸟类调查、红外相机调查、自动录音调查、公众科学活动4大类。共记录到分属17目64科的252种鸟类。其中, 国家I级重点保护鸟类2种, 为白颈长尾雉(Syrmaticus ellioti)和白鹤(Grus leucogeranus), 国家II级重点保护鸟类34种; 在IUCN物种红色名录和中国脊椎动物红色名录中被评估为受威胁(即极危、濒危、易危和近危)的分别有10种和34种: 共计有46种鸟类为需受重点关注的物种, 占总物种数的18.25%。记录到4种浙江省鸟类新记录, 分别为黄嘴角鸮(Otus spilocephalus)、方尾鹟(Culicicapa ceylonensis)、远东苇莺(Acrocephalus tangorum)和蓝短翅鸫(Brachypteryx montana)。钱江源国家公园内鸟类组成兼具古北界和东洋界成分, 东洋种(45.24%)占比略高于古北种(42.46%); 留鸟和迁徙性鸟类的物种数近似; 繁殖鸟类中以东洋种为主(68.79%), 冬候鸟中则以古北种占绝对优势(94.83%)。本研究结果表明, 钱江源国家公园虽然面积有限(252 km 2), 但记录鸟种数占浙江全省的52%, 在鸟类多样性保护中有重要价值; 同时本研究的结果将为该国家公园管理以及未来的鸟类监测和研究提供基础本底。

关键词: 钱江源国家公园, 鸟类监测, 生物多样性编目, 本底调查

Assessments of biodiversity are the foundation to support the management and policy-making of protected areas. In order to determine the diversity and composition of avian fauna in Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot, we collected bird observations through bird field surveys, camera-trapping surveys, acoustic recordings, and citizen science observations. Based on this compilation, we produced a list of 252 species composed of 17 orders and 64 families. Observed species include 36 nationally protected species: two class-I species—Elliot’s Pheasant Syrmaticus ellioti and Siberian Crane Grus leucogeranus—and 34 class-II species. In addition, 10 species are threatened globally and 34 are threatened at the state level (i.e. listed as CR, EN, VU or NT by the IUCN or China’s red list of vertebrates). In total, 46 species (18.25%) are of conservation concern. Four species (Mountain Scops-owl Otus spilocephalus, Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis, White-browed Reed-warbler Acrocephalus tangorum and Javan Shortwing Brachypteryx montana) are newly recorded in Zhejiang Province. The Qianjiangyuan National Park bird community is evenly composed of species from the Oriental (45.24% of species) and Palaearctic (42.46%) realms, with the remaining are widespread species (12.30%). The percentage of resident and migratory species is also roughly equivalent (46.03% and 53.57%). Of the species that breed in Qianjiangyuan National Park, 68.79% are Oriental realm species, whereas most of winter non-breeding visitors are Palaearctic realm species (94.83%). Qianjiangyuan National Park harbors a rich bird community, accounting for over half (52%) of the total number of bird species in Zhejiang Province. These results confirm the park’s significant value for avian conservation, despite its small size (252 km 2), and provide important baseline information for future avian research and conservation in this region.

Key words: Qianjiangyuan National Park, bird monitoring, biodiversity inventory, baseline survey

表1

钱江源国家公园体制试点区鸟类组成与保护级别"


Order

Family

Species
国家保护级别 National protection category
I II
鸡形目 Galliformes 1 5 1 2
雁形目 Anseriformes 1 12 0 3
鸊鷉目 Podicipediformes 1 2 0 0
鸽形目 Columbiformes 1 2 0 0
夜鹰目 Caprimulgiformes 2 3 0 0
鹃形目 Cuculiformes 2 7 0 1
鹤形目 Gruiformes 2 8 1 0
鸻形目 Charadriiformes 6 19 0 0
鲣鸟目 Suliformes 1 1 0 0
鹈形目 Pelecaniformes 2 13 0 1
鹰形目 Accipitriformes 1 12 0 12
鸮形目 Strigiformes 2 11 0 11
犀鸟目 Bucerotiformes 1 1 0 0
佛法僧目 Coraciiformes 2 6 0 0
啄木鸟目 Piciformes 2 7 0 0
隼形目 Falconiformes 1 3 0 3
雀形目 Passeriformes 36 140 0 1
合计 Total 64 252 2 34
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