生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (3): 303-310.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.08314

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

欧美陆地鸟类监测的历史、现状与我国的对策

斯幸峰, 丁平*()   

  1. 濒危动植物保护生物学教育部重点实验室, 浙江大学生命科学学院, 杭州 310058
  • 收稿日期:2010-12-19 接受日期:2011-02-28 出版日期:2011-05-20 发布日期:2013-12-10
  • 通讯作者: 丁平
  • 作者简介:*E-mail:dingping@zju.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划(2008BAC39B02)

History, status of monitoring land birds in Europe and America and cou- ntermeasures of China

Xingfeng Si, Ping Ding**()   

  1. The Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education and College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
  • Received:2010-12-19 Accepted:2011-02-28 Online:2011-05-20 Published:2013-12-10
  • Contact: Ping Ding*

摘要:

鸟类是生物多样性评估与监测, 以及生态环境影响评价的重要指标。有关鸟类种类组成、数量与分布动态的长期监测工作在欧美地区已有100多年的历史。本文在总结欧美陆地鸟类监测历史与现状的基础上, 着重介绍了英国繁殖鸟类调查(the Breeding Bird Survey, BBS)、北美繁殖鸟类调查(the North American Breeding Bird Survey, BBS)和圣诞鸟类调查(the Christmas Bird Count, CBC)等重要的陆地鸟类长期监测计划。同时, 本文在分析中国鸟类调查和现状的基础上, 参照英国BBS计划的调查设计与野外方法, 提出了中国BBS(the Chinese Breeding Bird Survey, Chinese BBS)计划的具体建议: (1)以国家相关部门为实施主体、然后逐渐向以非政府组织(non-government organization, NGO)为主体过渡, 并以学术团体为技术依托, 组织全国鸟类学工作者、观鸟爱好者和志愿者参与野外调查工作; (2)根据各地观鸟志愿者的数量采用分层随机抽样(stratified random sampling)的取样策略选取调查样方, 并结合样线法(line transects)和样点法(point transects)进行鸟类调查; (3)组建中国BBS信息共享平台, 要求鸟类调查者按照统一的数据格式将调查结果在线输入平台之中; (4)相关部门和学术团体积极推动各地观鸟组织的发展, 充分利用志愿者力量实施中国BBS计划。

关键词: 陆地鸟类监测, 重要监测计划案例, 中国BBS计划

Abstract

Because birds are important indicators of biodiversity, and useful for Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA), scientists have monitored the abundance, richness and distribution of bird species for >100 years throughout the world. In this paper, we reviewed the history and status of land bird monitoring, particularly some well-known long-term monitoring programs such as the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) in the UK, and the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) in North America. We also evaluated the status of large-scale bird monitoring programs in China, and propose a monitoring program called the Chinese Breeding Bird Survey (Chinese BBS) based on methodology of BBS in the UK. We suggest the following: (1) the Chinese BBS could initially be administered by relevant government departments with support from academia, with responsibility gradually transitioned to non-government organizations to implement the monitoring scheme and organize professionals, amateurs and volunteers to conduct field surveys; (2) survey squares could be randomly selected after stratification by volunteer density, and surveyed for birds using line and point transect surveys; (3) the results of all bird surveys should be recorded using a standard data format and could be edited and submitted via the Internet through a system named the Chinese BBS information sharing platform; (4) relevant governmental departments and academic organizations should actively promote the development of local bird watching societies, and implement the Chinese BBS with support from volunteer surveyors.

Key words: monitoring land birds, cases of bird monitoring schemes, the Chinese Breeding Bird Survey