生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (6): 645-650.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017237

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

《名古屋议定书》背景下我国传统知识的保护:以德昂族酸茶为例

傅玮琳1, 董梅2, 杨文华3, 杨兴媛4, 王玉珏4, 成功4,*()   

  1. 1 中国人民大学知识产权学院, 北京 100872
    2 《云南农业大学学报》编辑部, 昆明 650201
    3 云南省德宏傣族景颇族自治州文物管理所, 云南芒市 678400
    4 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-02 接受日期:2017-12-27 出版日期:2018-06-20 发布日期:2018-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 成功
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    中央民族大学“111校内学科创新引智计划”(B08044);中央民族大学少数民族事业发展协同创新中心(中央民族大学一流学科建设基金)

Protection of Chinese traditional knowledge in the backdrop of the Nagoya Protocol: A case study on acid tea of the De’ang Minority

Weilin Fu1, Mei Dong2, Wenhua Yang3, Xingyuan Yang4, Yujue Wang4, Gong Cheng4,*()   

  1. 1 College of Intellectual Property Law, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872
    2 Editorial Office of the Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201
    3 Administration of Cultural Heritage of Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Mangshi, Yunnan 678400
    4 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2017-09-02 Accepted:2017-12-27 Online:2018-06-20 Published:2018-09-11
  • Contact: Cheng Gong
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

中国于2016年9月6日成为《名古屋议定书》缔约方, 意味着遗传资源及相关传统知识的保护以及获取与惠益分享制度, 在国际和国内层面已经步入履行阶段。传统知识的防御性保护是防范生物剽窃, 建设性保护是促进惠益分享。本研究通过多年的实地调研发现, 德昂族酸茶作为一类与遗传资源相关的传统知识, 在原持有方不知情同意的情况下, 被某利用方申请了专利, 构成了生物剽窃。本研究指出, 传统知识防御性保护可考虑修订国内专利法, 将传统知识强制性来源披露要求纳入其中, 进而防范生物剽窃。为促进传统知识的持有方分享应得惠益和可持续利用, 本研究建议依据《名古屋议定书》精神, 通过立法制定特殊制度, 创造性地发展出可行的惠益分享制度, 区分不同的传统知识主体资格, 以事先知情同意程序和共同商定条件为途径, 以补偿责任或知识共享许可协议为手段, 来实现《生物多样性公约》的保护与可持续利用两大目标, 方能达成传统知识的建设性保护。

关键词: 名古屋议定书, 获取与惠益分享, 酸茶传统知识, 生物剽窃, 来源披露制度

Abstract:

China entered the Nagoya Protocol on September 6, 2016, signaling its establishment of the regime regarding protection of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as well as the Access and Benefit Sharing system (ABS) at both the national and international levels. It is stated that the purpose of defensive protection is to prevent bio-piracy while that of constructive protection is to facilitate benefit sharing. Based on years of field research, we reveal in this study that a user of De’ang acid tea, which is associated with local traditional knowledge, has applied for its patent without the consent of the original holder of its traditional knowledge, thereby constituting an act of bio-piracy. To achieve the purpose of defensive protection, we suggest that domestic patent laws be amended to make it mandatory (for any applicant) to disclose the origin of the traditional knowledge concerned to prevent bio-piracy. To achieve the purpose of constructive protection, we propose that, in accordance with the Nagoya Protocol, a sui generis system should be established through legislation to creatively develop a workable benefit sharing system, which involves identification of various traditional knowledge holding subjects, follows the principles of Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and Mutually Agreed Terms (MAT), and adopts the measure of compensation liabilities or Creative Commons License (CC) with the view to fulfill two major objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, namely conservation and sustainable use.

Key words: Nagoya Protocol, access and benefit sharing (ABS), traditional knowledge associated with acid tea, bio-piracy, disclosure of origin (DOO)