生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (4): 451-462.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015043

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青藏高原高寒草甸物种多样性的海拔梯度分布格局及对地上生物量的影响

刘哲1, 2, 李奇1, 陈懂懂1, 翟文婷1, 2, 赵亮1, , A;*(), 徐世晓1, 赵新全1, 3, , A;*()   

  1. 1 (中国科学院西北高原生物研究所, 西宁 810008)
    2 (中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
    3 (中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041);① 索南措 (2013) 青藏高原东缘高寒草甸植被特征与土壤性质随海拔变化的响应研究。西北师范大学硕士学位论文, 兰州。① 索南措 (2013) 青藏高原东缘高寒草甸植被特征与土壤性质随海拔变化的响应研究。西北师范大学硕士学位论文, 兰州。
  • 收稿日期:2015-02-25 接受日期:2015-06-25 出版日期:2015-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 赵亮,赵新全 E-mail:lzhao@nwipb.cas.cn;xqzhao@nwipb.cas.cn
  • 基金项目:
    青海省科技项目(2013-Z-941Q)、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA05070200)、国家科技支撑计划(2014BAC05B04)、中国科学院西北高原生物研究所知识创新工程领域前沿项目(2011)

Patterns of plant species diversity along an altitudinal gradient and its effect on above-ground biomass in alpine meadows in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Zhe Liu1, 2, Qi Li1, Dongdong Chen1, Wenting Zhai1, 2, Liang Zhao1, *(), Shixiao Xu1, Xinquan Zhao1, 3, *()   

  1. 1 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Chendu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
  • Received:2015-02-25 Accepted:2015-06-25 Online:2015-07-20
  • Contact: Zhao Liang,Zhao Xinquan E-mail:lzhao@nwipb.cas.cn;xqzhao@nwipb.cas.cn

植物物种多样性在海拔梯度上的变化规律以及物种多样性与生产力的关系是生态学研究的热点, 至今还没有得出一般性规律。本文以青海省海南藏族自治州贵德县的拉脊山(36°21′ N, 101°27′ E, 海拔3,389-3,876 m)和果洛藏族自治州的玛沁县军牧场山体(34°22′ N, 100°30′ E, 海拔4,121-4,268 m)为研究对象, 对植物高度、盖度、地上生物量和物种多样性随海拔高度的变化进行调查和统计分析, 以探讨青藏高原高寒草甸的物种多样性和地上生物量在海拔梯度上的变化规律及两者的关系。结果表明: (1)两条山体样带上地上生物量与物种多样性随海拔的变化规律一致: 随着海拔的升高, 地上生物量线性降低; Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数和物种丰富度都呈单峰曲线, 在中间海拔最大, 而Pielou指数随海拔的升高线性增加。结合目前针对青藏高原高寒草甸的研究数据, 发现物种丰富度随海拔高度的变化均呈单峰曲线, 说明随着海拔的升高物种多样性先升高后降低可能是青藏高原物种多样性分布的普遍规律。(2)地上生物量与物种多样性的关系在两条山体样带上表现一致: 地上生物量随Shannon- Wiener指数、Simpson指数和Pielou指数的升高而线性降低, 但与物种丰富度不相关。综合两条山体样带所有样方数据, 发现地上生物量与Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数不相关, 而随物种丰富度的升高线性增加。结合目前在青藏高原的相关研究数据, 发现地上生物量与物种丰富度呈S型曲线(logistic model)。

关键词: 物种多样性, 物种丰富度, 地上生物量, 生产力, 海拔, 多样性指数

Changes in plant species diversity along an altitudinal gradient and the relationship between biodiversity and productivity are important issues in ecology, which have not been addressed fully. To clarify the patterns of species diversity and above-ground biomass along an altitudinal gradient in alpine meadows, two representative mountains in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were chosen as study subjects: Laji Mountain (36°21′ N, 101°27′ E) in Guide County, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Junmuchang Mountain (34°22′ N, 100°30′ E) in Maqin County, Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Plant height, coverage, above-ground biomass, and species diversity with altitude change were investigated. We found that the patterns of above-ground biomass and species diversity along an altitudinal gradient in the two mountain transects are consistent. With an increase in altitude, the above-ground biomass decreased linearly; Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index and species richness present hump-shaped distributions, with the maximum value found in the middle altitudinal gradient, while the Pielou index increased regularly in a straight line with an increase in altitude. Combined with the present data for the alpine meadows in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we found that species richness shows a hump-shaped curve with the increase in altitude, with the pattern first increasing and then decreased. It may exhibit the universal law of the species distribution in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The relationship between above-ground biomass and species diversity in the two mountain transects also appeared uniform: above-ground biomass linearly decreased with increased in Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index and Pielou index, but it was not associated with species richness. Integrating all data from the two mountain transects, we found that the above-ground biomass was not related to Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices, however it increases linearly with increases in species richness. Based on the research data in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we found the relationship between above-ground biomass and species richness presented an “S” curve (logistic model).

Key words: species diversity, species richness, above-ground biomass, productivity, altitude, diversity index

表1

样地详细信息及调查结果(平均值±标准差)"

图1

贵德县拉脊山(a)和玛沁县军牧场山体(b)地上生物量随海拔梯度的变化"

图2

贵德县拉脊山(a至d)和玛沁县军牧场山体(e至h)物种多样性随海拔梯度的变化(平均值±标准误)"

图3

贵德县拉脊山和玛沁县军牧场山体地上生物量与物种多样性的关系"

图4

综合贵德县拉脊山和玛沁县军牧场山体样带数据的地上生物量与物种多样性的关系(n = 45)"

图5

青藏高原物种丰富度沿海拔梯度的分布格局。数据分别来源于下列文献: ◇ 孙海群等, 2000; □ 贺连选和刘宝汉, 2005; ▲ 安尼瓦尔·买买提等, 2006; △ Wang et al., 2007; ◆ 胡玉昆等, 2007; ▼ 段敏杰等, 2011; ■ 周芸芸等, 2011; ○ Sa et al., 2012); ● 索南措①; ▽本研究。"

图6

青藏高原自然放牧生态系统地上生物量与物种丰富度的关系。数据分别来源于下列文献: △ 安尼瓦尔·买买提等, 2006; ◇ Wang et al., 2007; □ 段敏杰等, 2011; ○ Sa et al., 2012; 索南措①; ▲ 本研究。"

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