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Table of Content
    Volume 30 Issue 8
    20 August 2022
    The pictures show some representative new species/new record described in 2021 (left to right, top to bottom): Puchiumazus lanceifolius, Polystichum castaneum, Anhinga melanogaster, Gekko jinjiangensis, Leptobrachella yeae, Triplophysa wulongensis, Cortinarius tibeticisalor, Pholcus yuhuangshan, Airapus rakovici, Paraclius ventralis, and Lista zhengi. (Photograph credit: Xinxin Zhou, Xia Wan, Siqi Li, Shengchao Shi, Shengchao Shi, Shijing Chen, Mengle Xie, Zhiyuan Yao, Yuanyuan Lu, Chen Lin, and Houhun Li)
      
    Special Feature: 2021 New Taxa Collection
    Global new taxa of vascular plants published in 2021
    Xia Wan, Li-Bing Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22116.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022116
    Abstract ( 518 )   HTML ( 32 )   PDF (2139KB) ( 440 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: Vascular plants provide most of the planet’s biomass. Thousands of new vascular plant species have been discovered and described every year recently. Timely analysis of the published data of new vascular plants taxa can show the research hotspots of vascular plant taxonomy in details and provide reference data for studies of related fields such as botany, ecology, and conservation science.

    Methods: The data were derived from the IPNI (https://www.ipni.org/), Tropicos (https://www.tropicos.org/), WCSP (https://wcsp.science.kew.org/) and The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/). Statistics of new taxa of vascular plants published in 2021 were available as of April 16, 2022 excluding new combinations, new statuses or new names and bryophyte data.

    Results: In 2021, at least 2,219 new taxa of vascular plants were described worldwide, including 1 new subfamily, 7 new tribes, 7 new subtribes, 68 new genera, 7 new subgenera, 15 new sections, 8 new subsections, 10 new series, 1,979 new species, 46 new subspecies, 59 new varieties, and 12 new forms. These new taxa belong to 185 families and 881 genera, among which Orchidaceae, Asteraceae and Rubiaceae had received more attentions. In 2021, 2,219 new taxa of vascular plants were described worldwide in 165 journals and 14 books by 1,942 scholars, of which 42 authors have published more than 11 new taxa. Phytotaxa and PhytoKeys were the top two journals in terms of the numbers of new taxa of vascular plants published in 2021 and published 586 and 112, respectively. Among the 2,096 new species and infraspecific taxa, 1,940 belonged to angiosperms, 147 to pteridophytes, and only 9 to gymnosperms, among which Orchidaceae are the most, with 227. The 2,096 new species and infraspecific taxa were from 115 countries and regions in the world. Asia and South America were the hotspots of discoveries of new species and infraspecific taxa, with 837 and 571, respectively. By country, China, Brazil, and Madagascar were the top three with the most new species and infraspecific taxa discovered in 2021, with 283, 269, and 169, respectively. Considering the fact that IPNI added 797 new species described in 2020 after February 1, 2021, we estimate ca. 700 new species described in 2021 will be added in various databases after April 16, 2022. This will increase the number of new species (and infraspecific taxa) published in 2021 to ca. 2,800, which is comparable to the annual numbers since 2001.

    2021 annual report on new taxa and nomenclatural changes of Chinese plants
    Cheng Du, Jun Liu, Wen Ye, Shuai Liao
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22207.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022207
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    Aim: Each year, more than 220 species from China are documented as new species. However, much of this information has yet to be updated in international databases. Here we aimed to update the annual report with the newly discovered taxa and name changes of existing plants in China from the year 2021.

    Methods: Information on newly discovered taxa and name changes for Chinese higher plants were collected by reviewing 222 journals and monographs, where 380 articles published in 62 journals and 2 monographs concerning the new taxa and nomenclatural changes of higher plants published in 2021. For each species, we compiled the scientific name, author, location, type specimen, and other relevant information.

    Results: In 2021, a total of 342 new taxa of higher plants from China were reported, including 1 new family, 11 new genera, 289 new species, 3 new subspecies, 18 new varieties, and 20 new forms. The newly described species belong to the Marchantiophyta (5 species), Bryophyta (4 species), Lycopodiophyta (3 species), Pteridophyta (22 species), Gymnospermae (2 species), and Magnoliophyta (253 species). A total of 111 new species had been published with detailed molecular evidence, 76 of which were considered threatened species according to IUCN standards. Four provinces in southwestern China, including Yunnan, Xizang, Sichuan, and Guangxi, were the sources of the majority of the discoveries. The species found in these regions account for 63.3% of the total reports collected in our review. Taiwan, Hainan, Yunnan, Zhejiang, and Guangdong have the highest densities of newly discovered species. Additionally, we identified 134 new combinations and new rank names. We identified 9 replacement names transferred from other species distributed across China. Sixty-two plants were reported as novel to China, 92 names were given as synonyms of 62 taxa, 7 names were revised, and 2 genera and 10 species were re-recognized. Further, 49 names were designated lectotypes or neotypes, 9 species were rediscovered, and 7 were considered no longer present in China.

    Conclusion: In 2021, a net increase of 364 new plant taxa of higher plants occurred in China, accounting for 0.98% of the total growth. Also, 230 plant names have been changed, accounting for 0.62% of total changes. The high number of new plant species found in China has been consistent and held in the year 2021, implying that the country, mainly located in the subtropical regions of the northern hemisphere, still has many plants waiting to be discovered.

    New vertebrate forms discovered in China in 2021
    Jianping Jiang, Bo Cai, Bin Wang, Weitao Chen, Zhixin Wen, Dezhi Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22225.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022225
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    Aims: To collate and report new vertebrate species discovered in China in 2021.

    Methods: This paper summarized the basic information of new vertebrates published in literature in 2021, including 83 papers and one website (http://www.birdreport.cn/).

    Results: In 2021, 95 vertebrate species were newly discovered in China, including 80 new species and 15 national new record species. Among them, there were 15 new species of fish, 28 new species of amphibian, 31 new species and 10 national new record species of reptiles, 1 new species and 3 national new record species of bird, 5 new species and 2 national new record species of mammal. Among them, cold-blooded vertebrates accounted for 88%, suggesting that they are the focus of future taxonomic research of vertebrates; most of amphibians and reptiles are Anuran and Squamata, having 27 and 40 species, accounted 96% and 98% of the total new species of them, respectively. All newly added mammals belong to small types. The distribution of these new vertebrates involves 30 provincial regions, including 33 species in Yunnan, 11 species in Sichuan, 10 species in Guangxi, 7 species in Xizang and Guangdong, 6 species in Taiwan, totally accounting for 70.5% of the total new vertebrates. Only 5 or fewer species were discovered in other provincial regions. A total of 84 species (accounting for 88%) have been supported from molecular systematics, suggesting that the application of molecular systematics technology is still an important method for the classification of taxa. Most of the species of new vertebrates discovered in China in 2021 were published by Chinese scholars, except for the 3 new national record species of birds, the rest were officially published in English journals, of which 3 journals in China have published 21 new species and 2 new records.

    Conclusion: This work provides comprehensive basic information for the classification and protection of vertebrates in China, also indicates that taxonomic studies, particularly the cold-blooded vertebrates, should be the continuous focus of biodiversity research in China. An integrative taxonomic approach, including molecular genetic data, should be more important in future studies.

    New taxa of the order Hymenoptera in 2021
    Huanxi Cao, Arong Luo, Zeqing Niu, Yanzhou Zhang, Hui Xiao, Chaodong Zhu
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22162.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022162
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    Aim: The aim of this study is to catalogue and summarize new taxa of the order Hymenoptera published in 2021.

    Methods: In 2021, 355 journal publications on new taxa in the order Hymenoptera were obtained and analyzed by researching the available zoological databases.

    Results: Based on the collected journal publications, there were 1,152 records on the new taxa of Hymenoptera for 66 families and 416 genera in 21 superfamilies, including 5 new families, 4 subfamilies, 83 new genera, 3 subgenera, 1,054 new species, and 3 new subspecies. A total of 980 extant hymenopterans from 52 families and 332 genera in 18 superfamilies were recorded in 309 of the 355 journal publications, including 2 new families, 26 new genera, 3 new subgenera, 946 new species, and 3 new subspecies. Another 46 journal publications on fossil Hymenoptera recorded 172 extinct Hymenoptera from 27 families and 86 genera in 14 superfamilies, including 3 new families, 4 new subfamilies, 57 new genera, and 108 new species. In 2021, 235 new taxa from 34 families and 91 genera in 17 superfamilies were recorded in 83 of the 309 relevant journal publications in China. These include 3 new genera (1 extinct) and 232 new species (2 extinct). The above 2 new extant genera were described from Taiwan and Zhejiang, China. The five Chinese provinces with the most new species published in 2021 are Yunnan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Xizang, and Xinjiang. Based on the publications in 2021, Ichneumonoidea was the superfamily with the highest number of new species, accounting for 32.5% (307/946), 19.4% (21/108), and 37.0% (85/230) of the extant, extinct, and Chinese new species in the Hymenoptera database, respectively. Grouping the extant Hymenoptera new species by continental regions and subregions shows that 56.9% (538) of the new species were discovered in Asia, 28.6% (271) in East Asia and 24.3% (230) in China, which tops the list of regions, subregions, and countries with the most new species. Of the 355 publications in 76 journals, 348 were published in English, 4 in Chinese, and 3 in French.

    Conclusion: These results indicate that the taxonomy of Hymenoptera in China plays an important positive role in expanding our understanding of the order Hymenoptera around the world.

    Annual report of new taxa for Chinese Lepidoptera in 2021
    Abdukirim Gulzar, Xiuying Zhang, Subinur Eli, Houhun Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22191.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022191
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    Aim: Lepidoptera is one of the largest orders in Insecta. It is of high economic importance, as many Lepidopteran pest species occur all over the world. China crosses the Palaearctic and the Oriental regions and has many new species described each year, making it one of the most biodiverse countries in the world. The aim of this study is to summarize the new taxa of Lepidoptera from China reported in 2021.

    Methods: Information regarding new species, newly recorded species, new synonyms and combinations were collected from related taxonomic journals. In total, 104 articles and 1 monograph were selected, based on which the scientific names, the type localities, and the other relevant information were sorted out. The new taxa of the Chinese Lepidoptera published by domestic and foreign researchers in 2021 were summarized.

    Results: A total of 230 new taxa were recorded, including 7 new genera, 215 new species, 8 new subspecies, and 78 newly recorded species (including 2 subspecies) for China. Additionally, 31 new combinations, 4 new synonyms and 2 new replacement names were proposed. All of the new species and subspecies belong to 34 families of Lepidoptera.

    Conclusions: The number of new species and newly recorded species published in Yunnan Province in 2021 was significantly higher than that in other regions of China, accounting for 36.8% and 39.7% of the total published new species and newly recorded species in China, respectively. All the data show that the published new species and newly recorded species collected from southern China in 2021 are still significantly higher than those collected from northern China.

    New taxa of Diptera from China in 2021
    Chen Lin, Bing Zhang, Liang Wang, Ding Yang
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22192.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022192
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    Aims: Diptera is one of the most diverse insect groups in the world with the high economic and ecological significance. The aim of this study was to summarize the new taxa of Diptera from China published in 2021.

    Methods: In this study, the taxonomic literature of Diptera from China published in 2021 were systematically collected and analyzed.

    Results: In 2021, a total of 136 new taxa of Diptera from China were published, including 1 new genus and 135 new species. There are 41 new taxa recorded from China for the first time. All the new species and new records belong to 27 families. The taxa of greatest attention included Drosophilidae, Empididae, Chironomidae and Tipulidae by covering about 1/2 of 135 new species published in 2021, and 23 Chinese provincial-level administration areas contributed to new taxa and records. The number of new species from Yunnan was significantly higher than that in other regions, accounting for 1/3 of the total number of new species published in China. The 177 new taxa described this year were contributed by 150 authors, and totally 70 articles were published. Zootaxa, ZooKeys and Entomotaxonomia were the main publication journals for these descriptions.

    Conclusion: In 2021, significant progress has been made in Diptera from China, while the research level of different areas and groups are still uneven, and more attention and support are needed in the future.

    Taxonomic yearbook of extant Coleoptera in 2021
    Shuangyi Wang, Xuan Zhou, Yiping Luo, Qiang Ding, Lulu Li, Yuanyuan Lu, Sheng Li, Ning Liu, Chenyang Zhang, Ziyue Guo, Aimin Shi, Ming Bai
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22140.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022140
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    Aims: Coleoptera is the largest group of insects. The aim of this study is to summarize the new taxa and taxonomic changes of Coleoptera from the world in 2021, and sort out the new species and new records in China separately.

    Methods: By searching the online databases and some papers from peer experts, 1,114 journal publications related to the new taxa and taxonomic changes of Coleoptera from the world were obtained and analyzed.

    Results: Totally, 3,375 new taxa of Coleoptera from the world were reported in 2021, including 2 new subfamilies, 1 new supertribe, 9 new tribes, 3 new subtribes, 178 new genera, 36 new subgenera, 3,070 new species and 76 new subspecies. In addition, 1,071 new combinations, 485 new synonyms, 70 upgradations and 26 degradations were provided. There are 534 new staphylinids and 461 new scarabaeids, accounting for about 31.6% of the total species. China with the largest number of Coleoptera new species founded in the world, and it has published 13 new genera, 4 new subgenera, 635 new species, 6 new subspecies and 2 newly recorded subfamily, 13 newly recorded genera, 1 new recorded subgenera, 112 newly recorded species, 6 newly recorded subspecies in 2021. There are 204 new species of Coleoptera in China published in 2021 belong to Scarabaeidae, and Yunnan is the region with the highest number of new species discovered, with 172 new species reported.

    Conclusion: Summarizing and sorting out taxonomic information timely has an important impact on guiding taxonomic research.

    Annual report of new insect taxa of Chinese Hemiptera and 28 other orders described in 2021
    Tongyi Liu, Liyun Jiang, Gexia Qiao
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22300.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022300
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    Aims: This study aims to review and update information from 2021 about newly described taxa of Chinese Hemiptera and 28 other insect orders (all orders except Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera).

    Methods: We reviewed the literature on new taxa of Chinese Hemiptera and 28 other insect orders described in 2021 and compiled a list of type specimens and a bibliography. We characterized the hotspots for new species discovery by analyzing provincial administrative regions and at the spatial scale of 200 km × 200 km, respectively. We also examined the specimen preservation sites, the authorship of new species descriptions, and the journals where the work was published.

    Results: In 2021, 422 new taxa—including 35 new genera, 386 new species, and 1 new subspecies—were described in Chinese Hemiptera and 28 other insect orders. The hotspots for new species discovery were mainly in Southwest China (Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, etc.) and the adjacent areas (Guangxi, Xizang, etc.). And at the spatial scale of 200 km × 200 km, the hotspots are mainly located in mountainous regions. Three hundred ninety-five researchers participated in the naming and description of new taxa this year, and related works were published in 28 journals, with a total of 205 articles.

    Conclusion: This timely study updates basic biodiversity data about Chinese insects in Hemiptera and 28 other insect orders. This work plays an essential role in accelerating the construction of a data-sharing platform, supporting biodiversity conservation and management, and ensuring national biosecurity.

    New spider taxa of the world in 2021
    Ludan Zhang, Ying Lu, Chang Chu, Qiaoqiao He, Zhiyuan Yao
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22163.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022163
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    Aim: Spiders are the most common and abundant predators in terrestrial ecosystems. Regularly summarizing the new taxa of the Araneae will help disseminate recent achievements in the field of spider diversity. The aim of this paper is to provide a global tally of new spider taxa published in 2021.

    Progresses: A total of 975 new taxa (including species in amber) were described in 2021, including 47 new genera and 928 new species. They belong to 81 families, with type localities spanning across 81 countries. The new taxa were reported by 304 arachnologists in 254 papers, published in the 64 journals. China is the country where the most new species have been discovered, accounting for 28.7% of the worldwide. The most productive arachnologist is Shuqiang Li from China, who has discovered the most new taxa (21.8%) of the worldwide. Digital images have become the most predominant means of illustration, with 95.2% of publications using photomicroscopy images. New species published with both sexes described (60.3%) outnumbered those described based on specimens described from either a holotype male or female. The contribution of Chinese arachnologists took up a lion’s share of the new taxa of spiders described in 2021 in the world. Altogether, they described a total of 330 new taxa, comprising 13 new genera and 317 new species belonging to 39 families, from 15 countries, including China, Myanmar, etc. These new taxa described by Chinese arachnologists made up 33.8% of the 2021 global aggregate, an improvement over the Chinese output during the 2016-2020 period, which averaged at 28.1% within that time frame.

    Annual review on nomenclature novelties of fungi in the world (2021)
    Ke Wang, Lei Cai
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22277.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022277
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    Aim: Since the 21st century, taxonomists have accelerated the discovery of new fungal species. The summary and analysis of the yearly new published names of fungi can reveal the research trend and existing problems for future development of mycology.

    Method: The taxonomic data of newly published fungal names were retrieved and analyzed from the three recognized fungal name repositories of Fungal Names, Index Fungorum and MycoBank.

    Results: In 2021, a total of 3,734 new fungal names were published all over the world, including 288 new higher taxa (i.e., 1 new phylum, 2 new classes and subclasses, 16 new orders and suborders, 36 new families, 233 new genera and subgenera), 2,551 new species and intraspecific taxa, 782 new combinations, 113 other new names. These new names belonged to 3 kingdoms, 13 phyla, 40 classes, 159 orders, 425 families and 1,165 genera, among which ascomycetes and agaricomycetes have received more attentions. There were 2,060 scholars worldwide participated in the new name publishing this year, reaching the historically highest annual number of authors. The newly published 2533 new fungal species were discovered from 101 countries and regions in the world. East and South Asia were the hottest spots of new species discovery, while China was the country with the highest number of new species discoveries (756 species), accounting for nearly 30% of the world’s total. Besides, Chinese scholars has made the most contributions in the word. Almost 380 Chinese scholars participated in the publications of 1,124 new fungal names in 2021, contributing about 30% of the world’s total.

    Conclusion: Although the number of newly published fungal names declined from last year, but it still kept the increasing trends compared to the average number of last few years. The most concerned groups by researchers and localities of new species were similar with last year. A suggestion for the future taxonomic research of fungi is to continue to expand the research groups and field survey area.

    Original Papers: Plant Diversity
    The climate niche is stable and the distribution area of Ageratina adenophora is predicted to expand in China
    Bo Wei, Linshan Liu, Changjun Gu, Haibin Yu, Yili Zhang, Binghua Zhang, Bohao Cui, Dianqing Gong, Yanli Tu
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  21443.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021443
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    Aim: Understanding the spatiotemporal climate niche dynamics of invasive species not only helps us recognize the trend of change in their niche, but also enables a more accurate prediction of the distribution model for the diffusion dynamics of species. In this study, Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae), a highly aggressive invasive plant, was selected to analyze whether its climate niche changed and predicted its distribution pattern in future.

    Methods: We utilized the species occurrence data and bioclimatic variables to analyze the spatiotemporal climate niche dynamics, pattern of geographical distribution, and main limiting factors of the species based on a niche analysis and species distribution model.

    Results: We found that the climate niche of A. adenophora slightly expanded, but remained highly stable. The climate niche of the initial introduction stage (before 1980) was the most stable, and the stability of its climate niche gradually decreased over time. In particular, this species was more inclined to grow in humid (high precipitation of warmest quarter), cold (low mean temperature of driest quarter), and low mean diurnal range habitats in China. The suitable distribution range of A. adenophora increased significantly from 151.77% to 271.14% during the past five decades, and the center of its suitable distribution area exhibited a trend of diffusion to the Northeast (Southwest Guizhou and Southern Sichuan) before 2010, and to the Southwest (Northern Yunnan and Northern Guizhou) after 2010. The stability of the climate niche of this species also tended to decrease as the species diffused to higher latitudes. The suitable distribution range of A. adenophora will increase by 111.97% and can basically disperse to the whole potential suitable distribution range in 2040. Only a small range of suitable habitat in the southeastern Xizang was immune to colonization due to dispersal limitation.

    Conclusion: As the suitable distribution area of A. adenophora in China has increased during the past five decades, its climate niche has remained highly stable. Ageratina adenophora could disperse further in the future, and the min temperature of coldest month is the main variable that limits the northward dispersal of A. adenophora.

    Original Papers: Animal Diversity
    Effect of anthropogenic disturbance on Lady Amherst’s pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) activity
    Yuanfang Hu, Binqiang Li, Dan Liang, Xingquan Li, Lanxiang Liu, Jiawei Yang, Xu Luo
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  21484.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021484
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    Aims: The expanding human footprint has increased the frequency of interactions between humans and wildlife. Understanding how fauna respond to anthropogenic disturbances in protected areas is vital to guide management decisions and conservation efforts. Previous studies suggest that wildlife tends to avoid humans both spatially and temporally. However, little attention has been given to how wild pheasants respond to anthropogenic disturbances in protected areas. The Lady Amherst’s pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) is a widely-distributed wild pheasant found in low- to mid-elevation environments across Southwest China, an area that has been perturbed by extensive human activity. This study assesses the Lady Amherst’s pheasant’s spatial and temporal responses to anthropogenic activity in a nature reserve in the subtropical forests of Southwest China.

    Methods: Between November 2017 and October 2018, we deployed 36 infrared camera traps to survey Lady Amherst’s pheasant behavior and the extent of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e., livestock grazing, the presence of domesticated dogs and cats, and human activity). We then assessed the spatial and temporal responses of pheasants to anthropogenic disturbances in breeding and non-breeding seasons.

    Results: Lady Amherst’s pheasant exhibited temporal, but not spatial, avoidance of anthropogenic disturbance. Daily activity of the pheasant peaked from 17:30 to 18:30, avoiding the most vigorous anthropogenic disturbance (occurring at approximately 12:00) in the non-breeding season. In the breeding season, daily activity levels increased rapidly and coincided more frequently with anthropogenic disturbance than during the non-breeding season. This may have been related to breeding activities such as territorial defense and mating displays. Furthermore, pheasants in more intensely disturbed sites were more likely to be active at dusk when human activity was low, suggesting that they adjust their behavior in response to anthropogenic disturbance.

    Conclusion: Lady Amherst’s pheasants tend to avoid anthropogenic disturbance in the non-breeding season, but reduce avoidance in the breeding season. Management measures such as limiting human activity, grazing, and the number of domestic dogs and cats in the breeding season may help support populations of this wild pheasant and other ground-breeding species in this nature reserve.

    Geographical distribution of freshwater and estuarial fish archaeological remains since the Neolithic Age in China and its biogeographical implications
    Weinuo Liang, Liang Hu
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  21471.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021471
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    Aims: Freshwater and estuarial fish remains recovered from archaeological sites are critical data for exploring the historical distribution of extant fish species. In this paper, records of freshwater and estuarial fish archaeological remains in China from the Neolithic Age to the Ming Dynasty will be studied to reveal the historical distribution of relevant extant species.

    Methods: We conducted a taxon-distribution matrix based on freshwater and estuarial fish archaeological remains from 101 sites (or site clusters) in China. The historical distributions of the identified fish species were reconstructed and compared with their extant distributions. The reasons for the changes in the distribution of species historically compared to present distributions were discussed.

    Results: A total of 72 taxa of freshwater and estuarial fish remains from 8 orders and 12 families were recorded, of which Cypriniformes was the largest order with 43 taxa. Forty-two taxa had been identified as extant species, of which Cyprinus carpio and Mylopharyngodon piceus were the most frequently recorded species (both were recorded in 46 sites). Of these 101 studied sites, 68 sites belong to the Neolithic Age and a total of 60 fish taxa were recorded. The Yangtze River Basin had the largest number of identified taxa (55), followed by the Huai River Basin (24), and the Amur River Basin (22). In contrast, there was only one taxon recorded in the South Rivers Basin, the Southwest Rivers Basin and the Taiwan Island Rivers Basin. The following eight species had been recorded at least once outside their extant distribution range: Ctenopharyngodon idella, Mylopharyngodon piceus, Megalobrama amblycephala, Carassioides acuminatus, Cyprinus longzhouensis, Aristichthys nobilis, Monopterus albus, and Lateolabrax japonicas. Except for the first two species, the remaining species had been recorded at least once farther north of their extant distribution range.

    Conclusions: The geographical patterns of freshwater and estuarial fish fauna since the Neolithic Age in China were largely consistent with the current patterns. However, a few species displayed a historical distribution pattern wider than that of their present distribution range. This may be because the paleo-climate where these species unearthed was warmer than today, or because the subsequent changes in climate or water system have narrowed the distribution range of those fish species.

    Cavity-dwelling ants tend to colonize close to artificial light
    Runming Yang, Akihiro Nakamura
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22067.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022067
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    Aim: Light pollution is considered as an “environmental trap” that can attract insects from surrounding areas. Increased availability of insects and the presence of light itself may attract predators to colonize and nests near to the artificial lights, potentially altering insect diversity and ecosystem services. Ants (Formicidae: Hymenoptera) are one of the dominant predatory insects, and many cavity-dwelling ants use hollow branches or bamboo to build nests and reproduction. Despite their significance in predation and other ecosystem functions, the effects of light pollution on nesting ant communities remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of light-emitting diodes (LED) on nesting patterns and community composition in three different habitats (primary forest, secondary forest, and rubber plantation) in rainy and dry seasons.

    Methods: In total, 15 LED lights were installed across three habitats, and artificial bamboo nests with different entrance sizes were set at 0 m, 10 m, 50 m, and 100 m away from the light source. Bamboo nests were left for seven weeks.

    Results: We found 12 ant genera with 40 morphospecies in bamboo nests, among which Camponotus was the dominant genus. Our results reveal that areas immediately adjacent to the light source increased the occupancy rate but this was only evident in dry season. The occupancy rate remained low across distances away from the light (10-100 m). The same pattern was found across the three different habitats. The community composition of ants was significantly different between the seasons, but was marginally significant among the three habitats in the dry season only. Community composition did not change with the distance from the light source. Entrance size had no significant effect on bamboo nest occupancy.

    Conclusion: Our study shows that light pollution attracted nesting ants and altered their spatial distribution which may result in modified ecosystem functions near the artificial lights.

    Original Papers: Ecosystem Diversity
    Spatial pattern of soil multifunctionality and its correlation with environmental and vegetation factors in the Junggar Desert, China
    Shihang Zhang, Ye Tao, Yusen Chen, Hao Guo, Yongxing Lu, Xing Guo, Chaohong Liu, Xiaobing Zhou, Yuanming Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22097.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022097
    Abstract ( 246 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (1231KB) ( 229 )   Save
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    Aims: This study was conducted to analyze the soil multifunctionality (SMF) pattern and their driving factors of the Junggar Desert. We tested that whether climate factors (temperature, precipitation and Aridity), soil environment (soil water content, soil temperature and pH) and vegetation factors would be the main driving factors of the spatial variability of SMF in the Junggar Desert.

    Methods: The data of the sampling were collected from 79 sample sites of the Junggar Desert. The SMF indices were calculated by mean method and factor analysis method. The spatial characteristics of SMF in the Junggar Desert were obtained by using Kriging interpolation method in ArcGIS. Correlation analysis between single soil function and SMF was performed in R language software, and the best-fit model was used to fit the environmental factors and SMF of the 79 sample sites. The best-fit model was selected applied on the R2 and the AIC value of the model. Structural equation model (SEM) analysis was performed using the “Lavaan” package in R language. Direct and indirect effects of different variables on SMF were identified, and the driving factors of spatial variability of the SMF in the Junggar Desert were determined.

    Results: Overall, the SMF in the Junggar Desert showed large heterogeneity in spatial distribution, with an increasing trend of SMF from west to east, and trend of increasing first and then decreasing from south to north of the desert. The best-fit model showed that SMF had a significant quadratic function with MAP (mean annual precipitation) and MAT (mean annual temperature), and showed a decreasing first and then increasing trend of with the increase in MAP and MAT. The SMF had a significant primary function with pH and EVI (enhanced vegetation index). Specially, SMF had a trend of significant decreasing along with the increase in pH, and a significant increasing trend along with the increase in EVI. The SMF and Aridity (drought) showed both quadratic and linear (R2 was the same for both) relationship, with SMF decreasing with the increase in Aridity. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that, SWC was the most important driver of SMF change, followed by EVI. Soil pH, SWC (soil water content), MAT, Aridity and EVI had significant direct effects on SMF in the desert area, with SWC and EVI having significant positive effects and the others having negative effects. MAP, Lon (longitude), Lat (latitude) and Alt (altitude) had indirect effects on SMF by affecting factors such as MAT.

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the changes in SMF are caused by the combined effect of multiple environmental conditions. The results are important for the in-depth understanding of the spatial pattern and driving factors of the SMF in the Junggar Desert, which will be beneficial for the assessment of the effects of environmental changes on the multifunctionality and for the ecosystem managements of the desert ecosystems.

    Bioinventories
    The alien invasive plants in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei
    Xia Cui, Quanru Liu, Chaoran Wu, Yufei He, Jinshuang Ma
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  21497.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021497
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    Aim: To compose a comprehensive research report of alien plants that characterizes the taxonomic work of the last 20 years in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei.

    Methods: A total of 46 families, composed of 141 genera and 210 species, that were previously reported as alien invasive plants were characterized on the basis of available literature reports, taxonomic studies, and field surveys in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. The primary considerations for the classification of invasive species were: (1) the number of specimens collected, (2) the time point of collection, (3) the amount of relevant literature reports, and (4) the level of national invasion determined through field investigation.

    Results: Based on taxonomic classification of the available data, 57 and 153 species were broadly categorized as native and alien, respectively. Of those considered as alien plant species, 82 species were determined to be invasive in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei.

    Conclusions: Overall, the taxonomic work of the last 20 years in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei has demonstrated an inaccurate representation of its resident alien invasive plant populations. This is particularly due to the lack of relevant research and basic knowledge. Therefore, it is necessary to launch a more comprehensive investigation on these plant populations to identify alien invasive plants more easily and to implement effective management strategies for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei.

    Additions to the seed plant flora in Xizang, China
    Hongbo Ding, Shishun Zhou, Jianwu Li, Jianyong Shen, Xingda Ma, Jian Huang, Yu Song, Xuemei Wen, Ming Lei, Yanli Tu, Yaowu Xing, Yunhong Tan
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22085.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022085
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    Aims: The Himalaya contains many V-shaped valleys owing to the steep slopes, these valleys add to the flora and vegetation diversity. To better understand flora diversity and vegetation structure of the south slope of the Himalaya, especially the top five valleys (Yadong Valley, Chentang Valley, Gama Valley, Zhangmu Valley and Gyirong Valley), we conducted the investigation in the top five valleys July to August 2021.

    Methods: In this study, 1,490 specimens were collected and photographed through field investigation, made into specimens, and sorted out and identified. The voucher specimens for each reported species were preserved in the Herbarium of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (HITBC), Chinese Academy of Sciences and Herbarium of Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology (XZ).

    Results: Eight species, Marsdenia roylei, Trachycarpus takil, Sonerila khasiana, Cissampelos convolvulacea, Herminium edgeworthii, Passiflora napalensis, Hedychium ellipticumand Roscoea brandisii are reported as newly recorded species from the south slope of the Himalaya in China. One genus, Belostemma (Belostemma hirsutum) is reported as newly recorded genus in Xizang Autonomous Region.

    Conclusions: The south slope of the Himalaya harbors one of richest floras in Xizang. But the floristic survey in this area is still insufficient, and should be further strengthened in the floristics and specimen collection in the future.

    An updated species checklist of amphibians and reptiles in Fujian Province, China
    Chunpeng Guo, Maojun Zhong, Xiaoyi Wang, Shengnan Yang, Ke Tang, Lele Jia, Chunlan Zhang, Junhua Hu
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22090.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022090
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    Aim: We aim to provide an updated species checklist for extant, native amphibians and reptiles of Fujian Province, China, to meet the conservation needs of the province by integrating previous modifications in herpetological taxonomy and nomenclature, as well as incorporating discoveries of newly recorded or resurrected species.

    Methods: The updated species checklist was revised based on the results of 125 sample grids uniformly distributed across Fujian, and an extensive review of the literature up to December 2021. We incorporated any newly-recorded or resurrected species from the literature, excluding historical records that were misidentified or otherwise questioned, and updating scientific names and Chinese common names.

    Results: Compared to previous checklists, we added 22 species, excluded 8 previously recorded species, and renamed 64 species. The updated species checklist contained 55 amphibian species, belonging to 29 genera across 9 families and 2 orders, and 126 reptile species, belonging to 72 genera in 25 families and 2 orders. Among them, 4 amphibians and 2 reptiles were endemic to Fujian. Additionally, Fujian represented the type locality of 24 amphibians and 18 reptiles. Six reptiles were listed as national first-class protected wild animals in China. Five amphibians and 25 reptiles were listed as national second-class protected wild animals. Ten amphibians were assessed as threatened species by China’s Red List of Biodiversity, with two Critically Endangered, one Endangered and seven Vulnerable (accounting for 3.64%, 1.82% and 12.73% of the amphibian species in Fujian, respectively); 41 reptiles were assessed as threatened species, with 11 Critically Endangered, 15 Endangered and 15 Vulnerable (accounting for 8.73%, 11.90% and 11.90% of the reptile species in Fujian, respectively).

    Conclusions: By validating each species and assessing their threatened and protected status, this study provides up-to-date information for future biodiversity research and conservation in Fujian Province.

    Technology and Methodology
    Proposing a quantitative selection method for determining flagship species based on an analytic hierarchy process
    Wenxuan Xu, Feng Xu, Wei Ma, Muyang Wang, Jiancheng Wang, Weikang Yang
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  21536.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021536
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    Aims: Flagship species is a widely used concept in conservation biology. Species designated as such have an important role in the conservation of biodiversity by inspiring interest in and motivating support for conservation activities. Despite their importance, flagship species are not chosen with the guidance of quantitative analysis. Instead, species are chosen for the role based upon subjective measures. We improved our understanding and proposed a more informed selection of flagship species by laying out a definition, discussing previous uses, and developing selection criteria based upon quantitative selection methods.

    Method: We reviewed the history and development of the flagship species concept. We also determined flagship species should adhere to the following three main eco-biology and cultural selection criteria: (1) having legal protection; (2) having an important role for the maintenance of local ecosystems; (3) being well recognized and highly influential among the general public. On these bases, eight factors that characterize the socio-cultural and eco-biological attributes of flagship species were identified in this paper. After evaluating these factors using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) decision analysis, a quantitative flagship species selection method was proposed. Specifically, the analytic hierarchy process consists of establishing a hierarchical structure, constructing a comparison matrix, and using consistency testing and a weight calculation. In this method, factors were integrated to calculate a score for each species in consideration, and the flagship can be selected based upon these scores.

    Results: The eight factors that capture the key socio-cultural and eco-biological attributes of flagship species are: C1—the legal protection level, C2—whether that level rises to ‘endangered’, C3—whether the target species is endemic to the region or country, C4—trophic level, C5—niche breadth, C6—home range size, C7—recognition among the general public locally, and C8—international recognition. Using a hierarchical process, the weight coefficient of each factor was calculated according to a judgment matrix. After the weight coefficient of each factor was calculated, the score of each was obtained by multiplying the assigned value of each factor by its corresponding weight coefficient. Then the total score of each candidate species was obtained by summing the score value of the eight factors. For an empirical example, we consider 14 candidate species in Tajikistan. Flagship species can be selected based upon the quantitative evidence we report, with the highest score can being the preferred candidate but the specific number chosen to be flagship species being based on the experience of researchers and conservation needs.

    Conclusion: The first quantitative method for the selection of flagship species was proposed. The principles and methods we discussed may also inspire further proposals of models and algorithms for flagship species selection. Although our proposed method relies on expert experience, it attempts to mollify the impact of this subjectivity by quantifying expert experience, weighting the coefficient of each selection factor, designing a qualitative and quantitative evaluation system, and ultimately proposing to select flagship species based upon a quantitative evaluation. Importantly, this method provided a rapid means to comprehensively compare candidate species in a certain ecosystem, country, or region, and provided a list of potential flagship species based upon an objective scientific evaluation, and allow it to be considered by researchers and conservation managers for further selection and judgment.

    Review
    An overview of advances in soil microbial diversity of urban environment
    Bing Yan, Qing Lu, Song Xia, Junsheng Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22186.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022186
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    Background & Aims: The impact of urbanization on biodiversity is one of the hotspot issues of ecology, which has attracted extensive attention. Soil microorganisms are the key driver of ecosystem process, which is very important in the exertion of ecosystem function and the provision of ecosystem services. Soil microbial diversity as an important part of urban biodiversity play vital roles in maintaining the health and stability of urban ecosystem. In recent years, studies have focused on the structure and diversity of urban soil microbial community and addressed some key questions, but the related systematic summary and discussion remains limited.

    Progresses: Here we analyzed the impact of urbanization on soil microbial characteristics, community composition, function and diversity. Then we summarized the main factors affecting urban soil microbial diversity. We found that urbanization has changed the community composition and function of soil microorganisms, and had different impacts on bacterial and fungal diversities. Urban environmental factors affected soil microbial diversity through direct and indirect effects.

    Prospects: We discussed the maintaining mechanisms and protection of urban soil microbial diversity. Finally we highlighted the questions needing attention in the future research of urban soil microorganisms. We recommend that future researches need focus on (1) influence mechanism of urbanization on soil microbial diversity in urban green space; (2) effects of microbial diversity change in urban soil on ecosystem multi-function; and (3) relationship between soil microbial diversity and human health. This could provide guidance for the protection of urban soil biodiversity.

    Conservation and Governance
    The trade-off between biodiversity and carbon sink of urban ecosystem under the carbon peaking and carbon neutrality strategy
    Tonggang Niu, Wei Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (8):  22168.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022168
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    Background & Aims: “Carbon peaking and carbon neutrality” is an important strategy to guide the current development of China. Based on the spatial distribution of carbon emission areas, cities and their surrounding areas are the most carbon emission areas. With the urbanization in China, how to effectively reduce carbon emissions and increase carbon sinks has become a key issue. As the only natural carbon sink in urban space, the role of the urban greenspace system in carbon sequestration and increasing carbon sink is becoming prominent. However, it is unclear whether improving the carbon sequestration capacity of urban greenspace will affect biodiversity. Here we use the general principle of life-history evolution in ecology to analyze the trade-off between the carbon sink capacity and the ability to adapt to climate change in urban greenspace.

    Results: This paper proposed that urban greenspace can both have biodiversity and carbon sink according to the following suggestions. First, the species database should incorporate the carbon reduction capacity, the ability to adapt to environmental changes, and the ability to cope with extreme changes. Second, the trade-off relationship between carbon sink capacity and ability to cope with climate change will divide species into different types, such as high carbon sink with low adaptation, and low carbon sink with high adaptation. Third, appropriate species are selected to improve the carbon sink function through diverse combinations. The carbon sink capacity could be stronger when the environment is stable, more stable when the environment is changing, and less loss of carbon sink when the environment is extreme. Finally, native plants should be used to improve biodiversity and reduce carbon emissions in the management process.

    Conclusion: Improving the carbon sink capacity and biodiversity conservation will be achieved in the urban greenspace. The structure and function of the urban ecosystem are equally significant for the carbon peaking and carbon neutrality strategy and the construction of ecological civilization.


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