生物多样性 ›› 1998, Vol. 06 ›› Issue (4): 253-259.DOI: 10.17520/biods.1998037

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

刺五加(Eleutherococcus sentincosus)会成为濒危种吗?

祝宁,卓丽环,臧润国   

  1. (东北林业大学,  哈尔滨 150040)
    (中国林业科学研究院,  北京 100091)
  • 收稿日期:1998-01-19 修回日期:1998-05-25 出版日期:1998-11-20 发布日期:1998-11-20

Will Eleutherococeus senticosus become an endangered species?

ZHU Ning1),ZHUO Li-Huan1),ZANG Run-Guo   

  1. 1) Northeast Forestry University , Harbin  150040
    2) Chinese Academy of Forestry , Beijing  100091
  • Received:1998-01-19 Revised:1998-05-25 Online:1998-11-20 Published:1998-11-20

摘要:

刺五加是阔叶红松林及其次生林下的重要灌木。因其优良的药用功能和疗效,自70年代末进行工业生产以来,资源消耗与日俱增,1992年出版的《中国植物红皮书——稀有濒危植物》中,被列为渐危植物。
本文通过野外调查、长期定位观测和实验生态学的试验,对影响刺五加种群持续和发展的内外因素进行了研究。认为造成刺五加种群迅速缩小的主要外因是不合理采挖。刺五加结实的植丛少,种子产量低、质量差、传播动力弱,并具有先天性休眠及自毒现象等一系列种群过程,是制约刺五加种群持续和扩展的内在因素。无性繁殖是维持现有种群的主要途径。长期无性繁殖可能导致遗传多样性下降,从而减弱了它对多变环境的抗逆性,若在外因的作用下可能使种群进一步缩小,进而增加其濒危的程度。

关键词: 水生高等植物, 受危种, 划分标准, 内陆水体, 海域

Abstract: Eleutherococcus senticosus , an important shrub under broad2leaved Korean pine and its seconday forests , has been declining since 1970’s , due to its effective therapeutic function in traditional Chinese medicine. So E. senticosus has been listed as vulnerable species in Plant Red Data Book of Chinese Rare and Endangered Plants (1992) . In this paper , the external and innate factors restricting the sustenace and expansion of E. senticosus populations were studied by field investigation , long-term observation and experimental ecology. Results showed that excessive excavation was the main external factor. The innate factors included high proportion of fruitless plants , few seed production , poor seed quality , weak disperse power , the phonomena of innate dormant seed and autotoxicity. Therefore , the vegetative reproduction has become the main approach for the sustenane of existing populations. But vegetative reproduction may result in decline of genetic diversity , thus cause the decrease in its resistance to variable environments. Under the co-action of the above factors , Eleutherococcus senticosus populations may reduce further , and their endangerment degree may increase.

Key words: aquatic higher plants, threatened species, classified standard, inland waters, sea area