生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (1): 34-43.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.07231

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同扰动生境中动物对酸苔菜种子的捕食和散布

赵瑾1,2, 陈进1,*(), 马绍宾2   

  1. 1 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南勐腊 666303
    2 云南大学生命科学学院, 昆明 650091
  • 收稿日期:2007-08-29 接受日期:2008-01-02 出版日期:2008-01-27 发布日期:2008-01-27
  • 通讯作者: 陈进
  • 作者简介:*E-mail:biotrans@bn.yn.cninfo.net

Seed predation and dispersal of Ardisia solanacea in habitats with different degree of disturbance

Jin Zhao1,2, Jin Chen1,*(), Shaobin Ma2   

  1. 1 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
    2 School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
  • Received:2007-08-29 Accepted:2008-01-02 Online:2008-01-27 Published:2008-01-27
  • Contact: Jin Chen

摘要:

有效的种子散布是木本植物形成入侵种需要经历的过程之一, 但在预测入侵种时却常常被忽略。紫金牛科东方紫金牛(Ardisia elliptica)原产热带亚洲而在北美成为入侵植物, 分布在云南南部的其同属种酸苔菜(A. solanacea)与之具有相似的生物学特征。本文以酸苔菜为研究对象, 于2004年12月至次年2月分别在人为干扰轻的野象谷和人为干扰重的植物园进行酸苔菜的种子散布及捕食研究, 试图了解生境变化对其种子散布和种子捕食的影响。结果表明, 酸苔菜在两地的种子散布者均为白喉冠鹎(Alophoixus pallidus)、黑冠黄鹎(Pycnonotus melanicterus)和灰眼短脚鹎(Iole propinqua), 但3种食果实鸟类的组成比例、拜访行为、频率及种子捕食者的影响在两地均不相同。人为干扰轻的野象谷生境中白喉冠鹎、黑冠黄鹎与灰眼短脚鹎的拜访频率分别为25%、32%和26%, 取食后的第一次停栖地点有4%在10 m以外; 人为干扰重的植物园生境中3种鸟的拜访频率分别为67%、8%、5%, 取食后的第一次停栖地点有26%在10 m以外。人工摆放种子试验表明, 地面上种子捕食者主要是啮齿类;在两生境中种子捕食率均较低(2-6%), 但野象谷生境中种子捕食率仍显著高于植物园生境。野象谷生境中种子还受到象鼻虫幼虫的危害, 危害率为17.9±3.5%(n = 512); 而植物园生境中未发现种子被象鼻虫危害(n = 489)。干扰对生境中的动物组成及行为造成了明显影响, 并可能通过种子散布与捕食的改变而间接影响与其有密切关系植物的种群动态。

关键词: Ardisia solanacea, 人类扰动, 食果鸟, 种子散布, 种子捕食

Abstract

Effective dispersal is one essential course for invasive species on their process of invasion, while study on the effectiveness of seed dispersal was often neglected when predicting species’ invasion. Native to Tropical Asia,Ardisia elliptica is an invasive species in North America. A. solanacea is a tree naturally distributed in southern Yunnan with biological characteristics similar to A. elliptica. In this study, we conducted observation on seed dispersal and seed predation of A. solanacea in two habitats with different degree of disturbance: the Wild Elephant Valley (WEV) with few disturbances and the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG) with high disturbances. The aim of the study was to understand how disturbances affect seed dispersal and seed predation of A. solanacea.In both habitats, three frugivorous birds were the main seed dispersers, i.e., Alophoixus pallidus, Pycnonotus melanicterus and Iole propinqua. However, the visiting frequency and feeding behaviour differed in the two habitats. In WEV, the visiting frequency of the three birds was 25%, 32% and 26%, respectively; while in XTBG, it was 67%, 8% and 5%, respectively. Only 4% of the birds got first stop far than 10 m away from the fruiting tree after feeding in WEV, but 26% in XTBG. Seed placement experiment indicated that rodents were the major predators to the seeds on ground. The predation rate in both habitats were rather low (2-6%) while seed predation rate in WEV was significantly higher than that in XTBG. In WEV, larvae of Curculionidae were another seed predator, which caused 17.9±3.5% (n = 512) of seeds parasitized. In contrast, no seeds was found to be parasitized by the larvae (n = 489) in XTBG. Disturbance significantly affect the composition and behaviour of animals inhabited. Consequently, those changes may influence seed dispersal and seed predation of related plants, and indirectly, affect the population recruitment of plants.

Key words: Ardisia solanacea, different disturbed habitats, frugivorous birds, seed dispersal, seed predation