生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (5): 494-500.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004061

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

鸟类和蚂蚁对桃金娘种子传播的初步研究

韦明思1, 陈章和1*, 任海2, 邹发生3, 殷祚云2,4   

  1. 1 (华南师范大学生命科学学院,广州510631)
    2 (中国科学院华南植物园,广州510650)
    3 (华南濒危动物研究所,广州510260)
    4 (广东省林业科学研究院,广州510520)
  • 收稿日期:2004-04-25 修回日期:2004-08-31 出版日期:2004-09-20 发布日期:2004-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈章和

Seed dispersal of the pioneer shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa by frugivorous birds and ants

WEI Ming-Si1, CHEN Zhang-He1*, REN Hai2, ZOU Fa-Sheng3, YIN Zuo-Yun2,4   

  1. 1 College of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631
    2 South China Botanical Garden,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Guangzhou510650
    3 South China Institute of Endangered Animals,Guangzhou 510260
    4 Guangdong Research Institute of Forestry, Guangzhou 510520
  • Received:2004-04-25 Revised:2004-08-31 Online:2004-09-20 Published:2004-09-20
  • Contact: CHEN Zhang-He

摘要: 在中国科学院鹤山丘陵综合开放试验站观察研究了鸟类和蚂蚁对桃金娘 (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) 种子的传播。据野外观察和网捕法所捕鸟的情况可知:红耳鹎 (Pycnonotus jocosus) 和白头鹎 (P. sinensis) 两种鸟传播桃金娘种子,白头鹎比红耳鹎的数量多。在网捕到的红耳鹎和白头鹎的粪便中收集到的桃金娘种子分别为8.0±3.0 粒/只和10.0 ±2.0粒/只。在显微镜下观察经过鸟消化道的桃金娘种子都没有破损。传播桃金娘种子的蚂蚁有全异巨首蚁 (Pheidologetion diversus)和梅花山大头蚁(Pheidole meihuashanensis

AbstractField work was done in Heshan city, Guangdong Province on seed dispersal of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa by frugivorous birds and ants. R. tomentosa is a very common pioneer species in the South China, and its pulp is rich in glucide and fat. Pycnonotus jocosus and P. sinensis were the birds that ate R. tomentosa fruits and dispersed the seeds in the study area, and the later was more than the former in number during the observation period. The seed number of this shrub in the feces of P. jocosus and P. sinensis caught in mist nets were 8.0±3.0 and 10.0 ±2.0, respectively. Two species of ants, Pheidologetion diversus and Paratrechina flavipes, were observed eating R. tomentosa pulp.Pheidologetion diversus and another ant species Pheidole meihuashanensis were observed carrying the seeds. The longest distances of movement by Pheidologetion diversus and Pheidole meihuashanensis were 4 m and 5 m, respectively, and the mean distances of dispersal by these agents were 1.1±0.09 m and 1.3±0.07 m, respectively. 657 ants were collected in the study area by pitfall trapping, comprising 394 Pheidologetion diversus (60.0%), 144 Paratrechina flavipes (21.9%), 53 Pheidole meihuashanensis (8.1%) and other species. The average number of stored seeds in a Pheidologetion diversus nest was 195.0±82.9, among which 73.2% were intact. And the average number of stored seeds in a Pheidole meihuashanensis nest was 28.8±11.4, all of which were intact. The seedlings of R. tomentosa could be found at canopy gaps, on bare land and at the forest edge. There were also many seedlings near ant's nests wherever sunlight was high.

中图分类号: