生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (1): 29-36.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.029

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

辽宁和江苏两省杂草稻植物性状多样性

吴川*, 戴伟民*, 宋小玲, 强胜**()   

  1. 南京农业大学杂草研究室, 南京 210095
  • 收稿日期:2009-03-28 接受日期:2010-01-26 出版日期:2010-01-20 发布日期:2010-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 强胜
  • 作者简介:** E-mail: wrl@njau.edu.cn

    * 共同第一作者 Co-first author

  • 基金资助:
    国家基础研究与发展项目(2007CB109202);国家转基因重大专项(2008ZX08011);国家自然科学基金(30800604);江苏省博士后基金(0701040B)

Diversity of plant traits of weedy rice in Liaoning and Jiangsu provinces

Chuan Wu*, Weimin Dai*, Xiaoling Song, Sheng Qiang**()   

  1. Weed Research Laboratory, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095
  • Received:2009-03-28 Accepted:2010-01-26 Online:2010-01-20 Published:2010-01-20
  • Contact: Sheng Qiang

摘要:

辽宁和江苏两省是我国杂草稻(Oryza sativa f. spontanea)发生最为严重的地区之一, 为明确两省杂草稻识别特征和类型, 我们在两省14个市29个样点采集样品, 与当地栽培水稻品种一并在南京种植, 观测了营养生长期和生殖生长期的23个植物性状。结果表明, 两省杂草稻在营养生长期的1月株高、1月和2月分蘖数, 在生殖生长期的果皮色、谷粒长/宽比、百粒重、落粒性、秆硬度、剑叶宽、剑叶长、有效穗数、50%黄熟、50%黄熟-50%抽穗和全黄熟等性状与相应的当地栽培稻存在差异;主成分1和主成分2组成的二维散点图(累计贡献率达43.24%)也显示出两省杂草稻间以及与栽培稻间的差异性。采用欧氏距离对两省杂草稻进行系统聚类可以将杂草稻分为籼型和粳型。其中辽宁省杂草稻全部聚在粳型类群中, 它们又可细分为两类; 江苏省杂草稻既有粳型, 又有籼型, 其中粳型与辽宁省杂草稻聚在粳型类群中, 籼型又可分为3类。这6个类群分别具有如下突出特点: 第1类为强落粒、粒轻、秆矮、早熟、偏粳等; 第2类为无芒、穗多、强休眠、剑叶窄、偏粳等; 第3类为长芒、弱分蘖、穗少、弱落粒、偏粳等; 第4类为硬秆、剑叶宽、迟熟、强休眠、偏籼等; 第5类为红果皮、粒长、软秆、粒重、偏籼等; 第6类为无芒、株高、穗长、剑叶长、偏籼等。上述杂草稻的形态学指标和类型的研究将为两省开展杂草稻危害防治工作提供理论依据。

关键词: 杂草稻, 栽培稻, 性状多样性, 形态分类, 营养生长期, 生殖生长期

Abstract

Liaoning and Jiangsu are main regions seriously infested by weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea ) in China. Weedy rice samples collected from 29 sites in 14 cities of the two provinces were cultivated in Nanjing, and 23 traits during vegetative and reproductive growth stage were observed and measured in order to reveal the diversity and identification traits of weedy rice. The results showed that there were differences of traits in terms of plant height after one month, tiller number after one month or two months during vegetative stage, and in terms of pericarp color, grain length/width ratio, 100-seed weight, shattering habit, culm rigidity, flag leaf width, flag leaf length, yellow maturity, half-yellow maturity-half-heading, full yellow maturity during reproductive stage between weedy rice and cultivated rice in the two provinces. The scatter plot of the first and second principlal components (their cumulative contribution accounting for 43.24%) also showed that there were differences between Liaoning and Jiangsu weedy rice, as well as between weedy and cultivated rice of the two provinces. Cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance showed that weedy rice populations could be divided into two types: Japonica-like and Indica-like weedy rice. Liaoning weedy rice populations fall into first category. Jiangsu weedy rice populations fall into both categories. Weedy rice of the two provinces can be further divided into 6 classes: (I) the Japonica-like type with strong shattering, light grain weight, short stem and prematurity; (II) the Japonica-like type with no awn, many panicle, late maturity, narrow flag leave and strong dormancy; (III) the Japonica-like type with long awn, weak tillering, few pancle and weak shattering; (IV) the Indica-like type with hard culm, wide flag leave, late maturity and strong dormancy; (V) the Indica-like type with red pericarp, long grain, soft culm, and heavy grain weight; (VI) the Indica-like type with no awn, tall stem, long flag leave and long panicle. The study on the morphological index and classification of weedy rice in the two provinces may provide theoretical basis for prevention and control of weedy rice.

Key words: weedy rice, cultivated rice, trait diversity, morphological classification, vegetative and reproductive growth stage