生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (5): 597-604.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.08072

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京及其邻近地区野生鱼类物种多样性及其资源保育

张春光1,*(), 赵亚辉1,*(), 邢迎春2, 郭瑞禄3, 张清3, 冯云3, 樊恩源2   

  1. 1中国科学院动物研究所动物系统与进化院级重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2中国水产科学研究院, 北京 100141
    3北京市农业局, 北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2011-04-26 接受日期:2011-06-15 出版日期:2011-09-20 发布日期:2011-10-08
  • 通讯作者: 张春光,赵亚辉
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: fish@ioz.ac.cn; zhaoyh@ioz.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    全国物种资源预测预警关键技术与示范项目(2008BAC39B06)

Fish species diversity and conservation in Beijing and adjacent areas

Zhang Chunguang1,*(), Zhao Yahui1,*(), Xing Yingchun2, Guo Ruilu3, Zhang Qing3, Feng Yun3, Fan Enyuan2   

  1. 1Key Laboratory of Zoological Evolution and Systematics, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing 100141
    3Beijing Municipal Bureau of Agriculture, Beijing 100029
  • Received:2011-04-26 Accepted:2011-06-15 Online:2011-09-20 Published:2011-10-08
  • Contact: Zhang Chunguang,Zhao Yahui

摘要:

作者2002-2010年间, 连续多年对北京及周边地区的野生鱼类进行了实地调查和采集, 结合对中国科学院动物研究所国家动物博物馆馆藏鱼类标本及相关文献资料的整理, 得出北京及其邻近地区分布过的鱼类计有93种, 隶属于13目23科73属; 去除引入种, 自然分布于该地区的原生野生鱼类为85种(包括经通海河流上溯至区域内的河口咸淡水、洄游性及原产但现为引入的物种), 隶属于12目21科65属。目前, 区域内自然—半自然水体中可以见到的野生鱼类计有49种(包括引入种6种), 原生的野生鱼类为43种, 隶属于6目12科36属。与历史记录相比, 从目到种各分类阶元的消失率均超过40%, 特别是原生野生鱼类的消失率更接近50%; 伴随着大量土著鱼类的消失, 物种组成的异质性明显降低, 物种多样性下降的程度十分明显。自然环境持续干旱、兴修水利、城市建成区面积迅速扩张和人口膨胀等引起的水域面积减小、原有水域环境的改变、过度捕捞等应是引起土著鱼类物种多样性急剧下降的主要原因。为了能使原有土著鱼类资源尽快得到更有效的保护和恢复, 建议进一步做好鱼类资源本底调查、进一步加强渔政管理包括对现有水生生物保护区的管理、筹建新的水生生物保护区、建立种质资源库、订立地方性水生野生动物保护名录、加强对水生野生动物保护的宣传教育、严控引入鱼种等。

关键词: 北京及其邻近地区, 鱼类物种多样性, 资源衰退, 资源保护和恢复

Abstract

Based on field surveys between 2002 and 2010, and fish collections in the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a total of 93 wild fish species including 12 introduced species had been recorded in Beijing and adjacent areas. Eighty five of these species, including some migratory and estuarine fishes, are native to the region. Only 43 native wild species were collected in our field work from 2002 to 2010. Compared with the historical records, nearly 50% of native fish species may have extirpated during the last over 30 years. Major reasons for these losses may include continuous natural drought, anthropogenic water use, aquatic environmental changes associated with rapid city expansion and overpopulation, and overexploitation of wild fish. In order to recover and ensure sustainable use of regional wild fish resources, measures such as systematic and thorough investigation of fish resources, enhanced management of aquatic protected areas, construction of a fish germplasm bank, and legislation on local protection of species are urgently needed.

Key words: Beijing and adjacent areas, fish species diversity, decline, conservation and recovery