生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (2): 118-125.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.07339

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

长期不同施肥方式对稻油两熟制油菜田杂草群落多样性的影响

李儒海1, 2, 强胜1*, 邱多生3, 储秋华3, 潘根兴4   

  1. 1 (南京农业大学杂草研究室, 南京 210095)
    2 (湖北省农业科学院植保土肥研究所, 武汉 430064)
    3 (江苏省苏州市吴江农业生态办公室, 苏州 222300)
    4 (南京农业大学农业资源与生态环境研究所, 南京 210095)
  • 收稿日期:2007-11-05 修回日期:2008-02-14 出版日期:2008-03-20 发布日期:2008-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 强胜

Effects of long-term different fertilization regimes on the diversity of weed communities in oilseed rape fields under rice–oilseed rape cropping system

Ruhai Li1,2, Sheng Qiang1*, Duosheng Qiu3, Qiuhua Chu3, Genxing Pan4   

  1. 1Weed Research Laboratory, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095
    2Institute of Plant Protection and Soil Science, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430064
    3Bureau of Agricultural Ecology of Wujiang Municipality, Suzhou 222300
    4Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095
  • Received:2007-11-05 Revised:2008-02-14 Online:2008-03-20 Published:2008-02-20
  • Contact: Sheng Qiang

摘要: 为揭示长期不同施肥管理措施下农田生态系统生物多样性的变化规律, 作者于2006年4月在太湖地区一个长期肥料试验定位监测田, 运用群落生态学方法研究了7种长期不同施肥处理持续20年后对水稻—油菜两熟制油菜田杂草群落多样性的影响。试验区共记录到杂草17种, 隶属于11科。不同施肥处理小区中杂草种类以单施化肥区(6种)和施化肥+全年秸秆区(5种)最少, 纯氮肥区最高(12种); 以看麦娘(Alopecurus aequalis)、日本看麦娘(A. japonicus)、菵草(Beckmannia syzigachne)、牛繁缕(Malachium aquaticum)、野老鹳草(Geranium carolinianum)等5种发生密度较大, 它们分别在不同施肥小区中占据优势。长期不同施肥措施下, 田间杂草群落的物种多样性有明显差异: 纯氮肥区Shannon-Wiener指数显著大于其他小区, 但Simpson优势度指数最低; 不施肥区(对照区)和纯氮肥区Pielou均匀度指数显著高于其他施肥处理区; 施化肥+秸秆还田显著提高了田间杂草的优势度。田间杂草群落的优势种组成也发生了一定变化, Whittaker指数表明施化肥+夏季秸秆还田和单施化肥的影响最显著, 常规施肥和施化肥+秋季秸秆还田次之, 而施化肥+全年秸秆还田和单施氮肥没有显著影响。Sørenson群落相似性指数及聚类分析结果也得到同样的结论。本文研究结果表明, 单施化肥(平衡施用N、P、K肥)、常规施肥和化肥配施秸秆处理均能显著改变田间杂草群落的组成, 降低某些优势杂草在群落中的优势地位, 从而抑制其发生危害程度。

Abstract: The effects of long-term different fertilization regimes on weed species diversity were evaluated in this study. Seven different fertilization treatments, each with three replicated plots and 20 years of fertilization, were investigated in oilseed rape fields under a rice–oilseed rape cropping system in Tai Lake region. Overall, 17 weed species from 11 families were recorded. Of these, Alopecurus aequali, A. japonicas, Beck-mannia syzigachne, Malachium aquaticum, and Geranium carolinianum had high population density, and were dominant in different plots. The weed species richness varied significantly among different fertilization treatments, ranging from 5 species in chemical fertilizer with oilseed rape stalk and rice straw treatment (CFOR) to 12 in N fertilizer treatment (NF). The composition and abundance of weed species also differed in different fertilization treatments. Shannon-Wiener index in NF was significantly higher than that in any other fertilization treatment while Simpson dominance index was the lowest. Pielou evenness index in non-fertilizer treatment (NoF) and NF were significantly higher than those in other fertilization treatments. As suggested by Whittaker index, chemical fertilizer and oilseed rape stalk treatment (CFO) and chemical fertilizer treatment (CF) had the most significant effects on weed community composition, chemical fertilizer and pig manure treatment (CFM) and chemical fertilizer and rice straw treatment (CFR) ranked the second, while NF and CFOR had no significant effect on weed community composition. Sørenson similarity index and clustering analysis suggested similar trends as Whittaker index. The results have indicated that the appli-cation of balanced N, P, K fertilizer and even plus organic manure (pig manure, oilseed rape stalk, and rice straw) was beneficial to effectively control dominant weeds and maintain weed species diversity by decreas-ing the abundance of those otherwise dominant species.