生物多样性

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盐地碱蓬盐沼与相邻滩涂湿地鸻鹬类的群落结构及行为组成差异

张菁1,白煜1,黄子强1,张正旺2,李东来1   

  1. 1. 辽宁大学
    2. 北京师范大学生命科学学院
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-07 修回日期:2020-07-31 出版日期:2020-09-20 发布日期:2020-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 李东来

The difference in community structure and behavioral composition of shorebirds between two habitats within a Suadae salsa saltmarsh-mudflat wetland mosaics

Jing Zhang1,Yu Bai1,Ziqiang Huang1,Zhengwang Zhang2,Donglai Li1   

  1. 1. Liaoning University
    2. Beijing Normal University
  • Received:2020-05-07 Revised:2020-07-31 Online:2020-09-20 Published:2020-09-20
  • Contact: Donglai Li

摘要: 盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地是黄渤海地区河口地区的重要湿地类型,是水鸟迁徙停歇期的重要栖息地。然而,关于该生境在水鸟群落构建和物种多样性维持中的作用还未见专门报道。本研究以辽河口国家级自然保护区为研究地点,通过对盐地碱蓬和相邻泥质滩涂两个固定样区连续3年的水鸟组成调查和行为观察,分析盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地在鸻鹬类多样性维持和栖息地利用中的作用。调查共记录到鸻形目水鸟28种6,348只次,其中盐地碱蓬湿地记录到4科13种;泥质滩涂记录到4科27种,泥质滩涂的物种多样性显著高于翅碱蓬(春季:t=-2.342, df=19, P=0.03; 秋季:t=-3.656, df=30, P=0.001)。此外,盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地与相邻的潮间带滩涂的鸻鹬类鸟类群落组成存在较大差异,盐地碱蓬的鸟类群落组成以体型较大的大杓鹬(Numenius madagascariensis)、白腰杓鹬(N. arquata)、灰斑鸻(Pluvialis squatarola)等为主,而泥质滩涂以环颈鸻(Charadrius alexandrinus)、黑腹滨鹬(Calidris alpina)等小型鸻鹬类为主。这说明两种生境在鸟类多样性维持中具有不同的功能。行为分析发现,泥质滩涂生境中栖息的鸟类的主要行为为取食(58.71-93.26%),而盐地碱蓬生境鸟类的行为既包括较大比例的取食,也包括休息,特别是在春季迁徙期(23.3%)。这进一步说明,两种生境在水鸟的栖息地利用中具有一定的生态功能差异。尽管盐地碱蓬滩涂湿地记录到的鸟类物种数和数量均低于泥质滩涂,但是,两种生境中存在较大比例的共同分布物种(12种),这说明其生态功能具有较强的生态互补性,二者作为一种独特的湿地景观组合,在鸻鹬类迁徙停歇期的栖息地利用和物种多样性维持中发挥着不可替代的作用。

关键词: 盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地, 群落结构, 栖息地利用, 鸻鹬类, 辽河口湿地

Abstract: The Suaedas salsa saltmarsh is a typical estuarine wetland along the coast of Yellow Sea and provides an important stopover habitat for migratory waterbirds. However, within a saltmarsh-mudflat estuarine wetland landscape mosaics, how can the waterbirds, especially the shorebirds, use this kind of wetland and the ecological contribution of this habitat on the diversity of shorebirds has rarely been documented. Here, we systematically conducted a waterbird count and behavioral observation of the shorebirds in two adjacent S. salsa saltmarsh and mudflat tideland habitats at Liaohekou National Nature Reserve from 2017 to 2019 to examine the community composition and habitat use differences between these two habitat types. In total, 6,348 waterbirds belonging to 4 families and 28 species (saltmarsh: 13 species; mudflat: 27 species) were recorded within two 400m*500m sampling plots, and the avearge species richness was higher in mudflat than that in S. salsa saltmarsh during both migratory seasons (spring: t=-2.342, df=19, P=0.03; fall: t=-3.656, df=30, P=0.001). Furthermore, we found there were significant difference in the shorebird community composition between two habitats: the S. salsa saltmarsh were dominantly used by large-bodied shorebirds (Numenius madagascariensis, N. arquata and Pluvialis squatarola) while the adjacent mudflat was largely used by small birds (Charadrius alexandrinus and Calidris alpina). This indicates that the S. salsa saltmarsh has a distinct ecological function on the community construction and maintenance of species diversity of local waterbirds. In addition, behavioral data showed the foraging (58.71-93.26%) was dominant behavior of shorebirds in two habitats, but significant higher percentage of roosting behavior (23.3%) was found in the S. salsa saltmarsh, particularly during the spring stopover stage. This indicated that the saltmarsh was also an important roosting habitat, except for the foraging site, for many shorebirds that could not be replaced by adjacent intertidal mudflat. While the general biodiversity indices (species richness and abundance) of saltmarsh were lower than that of mudflat, the large proportion of shared species (12 species) in two habitats implied that these two kind of habitats were different and yet complementary stopover site for shorebirds across the saltmarsh and mudflat tidal wetland mosaics.

Key words: S. salsa saltmarsh, Community structure, Habitat use, shorebirds, Liaohe Estuary wetland