生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (3): 351-360.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020189

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

盐地碱蓬盐沼与相邻泥质滩涂湿地迁徙期鸻鹬类的群落组成及行为差异

张菁1, 白煜1, 黄子强1, 张正旺2, 李东来1,*()   

  1. 1.辽宁大学生命科学院, 沈阳 110036
    2.北京师范大学生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-07 接受日期:2020-08-15 出版日期:2021-03-20 发布日期:2020-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 李东来
  • 作者简介:E-mail: lidonglai@lnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31672316);国家自然科学基金(31911540468);中国海油海洋环境与生态保护公益基金(CF-MEEC/TR/2020-20)

Community composition and behavioral differences of migrating shorebirds between two habitats within a Suaeda salsa saltmarsh-mudflat wetland mosaics

Jing Zhang1, Yu Bai1, Ziqiang Huang1, Zhengwang Zhang2, Donglai Li1,*()   

  1. 1. College of Life Sciences, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036
    2. Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Received:2020-05-07 Accepted:2020-08-15 Online:2021-03-20 Published:2020-09-20
  • Contact: Donglai Li

摘要:

盐地碱蓬(Suaeda salsa)盐沼湿地是黄渤海地区河口区域的重要湿地类型, 是水鸟迁徙停歇期的重要栖息地。本研究以辽河口国家级自然保护区为研究地点, 通过对盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地和相邻泥质滩涂两个固定样区连续三年的水鸟组成调查和行为观察, 分析盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地在鸻鹬类多样性维持和栖息地利用中的作用。共记录到鸻鹬类水鸟28种6,348只次, 其中盐地碱蓬湿地记录到4科13种, 泥质滩涂记录到4科27种, 泥质滩涂的物种多样性显著高于盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地。此外, 盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地与相邻的泥质滩涂的鸻鹬类鸟类群落组成存在较大差异, 盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地的鸟类群落组成以体型较大的大杓鹬(Numenius madagascariensis)、白腰杓鹬(N. arquata)、灰鸻(Pluvialis squatarola)等为主, 而泥质滩涂以环颈鸻(Charadrius alexandrinus)、黑腹滨鹬(Calidris alpina)等小型鸻鹬类为主, 这说明两种生境在鸟类多样性维持中具有不同的功能。行为分析发现, 泥质滩涂中栖息鸟类的主要行为为取食(58.71%-93.26%), 而盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地鸟类的行为既包括较大比例的取食, 也包括休息, 特别是在春季迁徙期。这进一步说明, 两种生境在水鸟的栖息地利用中具有一定的生态功能差异。尽管盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地记录到的鸟类物种数和数量均低于泥质滩涂, 但是, 两种生境中存在较大比例的共同分布物种, 这说明其生态功能具有较强的生态互补性, 二者作为一种独特的湿地景观组合, 在鸻鹬类迁徙停歇期的栖息地利用和物种多样性维持中发挥着不可替代的作用。

关键词: 盐地碱蓬盐沼湿地, 大杓鹬, 栖息地利用, 鸻鹬类, 辽河口湿地

Abstract

Aims: The Suaeda salsa saltmarsh is a typical estuarine wetland along the coast of the Yellow Sea and provides an important stopover habitat for migratory waterbirds. From 2017 to 2019, we conducted a bird count and behavioral observation at Liaohekou National Nature Reserve to examine the community composition and behavioral differences of shorebirds in adjacent S. salsa saltmarsh and mudflat tideland habitats.
Methods: In adjacent S. salsa saltmarsh and mudflat tideland habitats, we counted and comparied the difference of shorebird community composition and behavior during low tide period.
Results: A total of 6,348 birds comprising 4 families and 28 species were recorded. Species richness was higher in the mudflat than S. salsa saltmarsh in the spring and autumn. Moreover, we found there were significant differences in shorebird community composition between the two habitats—theS. salsa saltmarsh was used more by large-bodied shorebirds (e.g., Numenius madagascariensis, N. arquata, Pluvialis squatarola) while the adjacent mudflat was used more often by small birds (e.g., Charadrius alexandrinus and Calidris alpina). These patterns indicated that the S. salsa saltmarsh has a distinct ecological function for the community formation and maintenance of species diversity of migratory shorebirds. In addition, behavioral data showed that foraging (58.71%-93.26%) was a dominant behavior of shorebirds for both habitats, but a significantly higher percentage of roosting behavior was found in the S. salsa saltmarsh, particularly during the spring stopover stage.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that the saltmarsh is an important roosting habitat for many shorebirds, and this function cannot be replaced by the adjacent intertidal mudflat. While the general biodiversity of the saltmarsh was lower than that of the mudflat, the large proportion of shared species-composition between the two habitats imply that these two habitats are complementary. As a unique combination for a wetland landscape, the S. salsa saltmarsh and mudflat play irreplaceable roles for providing stopover habitat and maintaining species diversity of shorebirds during migration.

Key words: Suaeda salsa saltmarsh, Numenius madagascariensis, habitat use, shorebirds, Liaohe Estuary wetland