生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (1): 114-120.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015151

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《生物多样性公约》框架下合成生物学 谈判新进展及我国对策

邱明昊1, 黄越1, 张洁清2, 黄艺1,*()   

  1. 1 (北京大学环境科学与工程学院, 北京 100871)
    2 (环境保护部国际合作司, 北京 100035);
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-03 接受日期:2015-09-15 出版日期:2016-01-20 发布日期:2016-06-12
  • 通讯作者: 黄艺

International negotiations on synthetic biology and China’s implementation strategies within the Convention on Biological Diversity framework

Minghao Qiu1, Yue Huang1, Jieqing Zhang2, Yi Huang1,*()   

  1. 1 College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Department of International Cooperation, Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, Beijing 100035
  • Received:2015-06-03 Accepted:2015-09-15 Online:2016-01-20 Published:2016-06-12
  • Contact: Huang Yi

摘要:

合成生物学技术和产品因其广阔的应用前景和难以预知的生态风险, 受到各国的广泛关注。2014年10月在韩国平昌召开的《生物多样性公约》第十二次缔约方大会上, 合成生物学首次被作为正式议题进行讨论。本文梳理了《生物多样性公约》框架下合成生物学从提出到成为“新的与正在出现的议题”的过程, 分析了《生物多样性公约》在该议题上对缔约国的最新要求, 以及我国合成生物学技术发展和风险评估现状。当前我国合成生物学研究处于起步阶段,近年来的科研投入不断增大,但距离成熟的商业化仍有相当距离。我国对相关技术风险评估能力欠缺,且尚未明确负责其生物安全管理的主管部门。本文提出了以严控风险、适度鼓励研究开发和要求发达国家提供更多技术支持的谈判对策, 以及明确合成生物学安全风险管理的政府主管部门、通过技术开发以推动风险评估、构建国家合成生物学数据库和建立专业风险评估团队等履约建议。

关键词: 生态安全, 新的与正在出现的议题, 履约对策, 公约谈判, 风险评估与管理

Abstract:

Much attention has been paid to synthetic biology in recent years for its potential applications and unpredictable eco-risks. The 12th Conference of the Parties (COP12) of Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), held in Korea in October 2014, formally addressed the topic of synthetic biology for the first time. Based on literature retrieved from CBD documents and technical reports, this paper reviews the process by which synthetic biology entered the agenda of CBD negotiations and provides the latest updates on this issue. Given the latest demands made and China’s current status in the development and risk assessment of synthetic biology, we analyze the challenges that China is facing in relation to negotiation and implementation. Research in synthetic biology in China is still in its early stages. Despite the surging investments in scientific research this field, wide application and commercialization is not to be expected in the near future. China's capacity to assess risks of associated technologies is rather limited and no government agency is explicitly in charge of bio-security in this respect yet. We propose that the Chinese delegation should argue for positions including strictly controlling risks, encouraging responsible development, and calling for more technical and technological support from developed countries during the negotiations of risk assessment. Further, we suggest that establishing accountability of the governing administrative department, promoting the development of risk assessment techniques, compiling a synthetic biology national database, and organizing professional risk-assessment teams are the key implementation strategies for CBD.

Key words: synthetic biology, eco-security, new and emerging issues, implementation strategy, international negotiations, risk assessment and management