生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (6): 611-617.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004076

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

云南省榕小蜂和榕树的物种组成及多样性

杨大荣1*, 徐磊1,2, 彭艳琼1,2, 魏作东1,2, 段柱标1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园,昆明650223)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院,北京100039)
  • 收稿日期:2004-02-08 修回日期:2004-09-11 出版日期:2004-11-20 发布日期:2004-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨大荣

Species composition and diversity of fig wasps and figs in Yunnan

YANG Da-Rong1, XU Lei1,2, PENG Yan-Qiong1,2, WEI Zuo-Dong1,2, DUAN Zhu-Biao1   

  1. 1 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    2 Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100039
  • Received:2004-02-08 Revised:2004-09-11 Online:2004-11-20 Published:2004-11-20
  • Contact: YANG Da-Rong

摘要: 榕小蜂是榕树(Ficus spp.)唯一的传粉昆虫,榕树隐头果又是榕小蜂唯一的寄主。榕树必须依靠榕小蜂传粉才能获得有性繁殖;而榕小蜂又必须依靠榕树隐头果内的瘿花作为食物和栖息场所才能正常生长、发育和繁衍后代,因此两者间有着不可互缺的互惠共生关系,二者缺一就面临着两类物种同时消亡和群落的灭绝。云南是中国榕树和榕小蜂种类最丰富的省份。本文报道了在云南采集到的榕小蜂类群,隶属12属50种。云南的榕树和榕小蜂主要分布在热带和南亚热带地区的河谷和海拔1600 m以下区域。随着海拔的升高,两类物种数量随之减少,到了海拔3700 m以上地区,除了人工种植外,已无自然分布的榕树种群。榕小蜂的个体数量、物种丰富度、多样性指数都是在滇南地区热带雨林内最高,滇西北的高山峡谷区最低。

AbstractHymenoptera of the family Agaonidae (fig wasps) are the obligate pollinating insects of fig trees (Ficus spp.), and fig syconium is the only host of fig wasp. For the pollination of their flowers, fig trees are dependent upon fig wasps. For their reproduction and growth, fig wasps are dependent upon the gall (ovaries) of the figs, in which their larvae develop. Thus, the two groups share a symbiotic relationship. Species diversity and richness of fig and fig wasp are highest in Yunnan among all the provinces of China. Our study shows that the fig wasps collected from Yunnan include 50 species of 12 genera, which are mainly distributed in the tropics and south sub-tropics below an altitude of 1600 m. Both figs and fig wasps decrease in species number with increasing altitude. Above an altitude of 3700 m, no natural fig tress were found, except for cultivated species. Species diversity increased in the following order: northwestern Yunnan (H′= 0.6902), northeastern Yunnan (H′= 0.6976), central Yunnan (H′= 0.9211), southeastern Yunnan (H′=1.2164), western Yunnan (H′=1.5017), and southern Yunnan (H′=1.6441).

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