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Table of Content
    Volume 05 Issue 4
    20 November 1997
      
    论文
    Preliminary studies on the soil microorganisms of degraded ecosystem in the Changjiang River Sanxia region
    Wang Qibing, He Jinsheng, Chen Weilie
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  241-245.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997041
    Abstract ( 2790 )   PDF (162KB) ( 2051 )   Save
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    Five soil samples were collected from main types of degraded ecosystem in the Sanxia region of Changjiang River for determining the amount and identifying the species of soil microorganisms. The results show that the amount of the fungi and the bacteria are 8.62×104~1.31×105 cfu/g and 1.547×107~6.957×107 cfu/g (based on the dry soil) respectively. But the amount of the two kinds of soil microorganisms are different among the degraded ecosystems, the amount of fungi is in the order of Quercus variabilis forest >Pinus massoniana forest >Pinus massoniana-Quercus variabilis  forest  >Cunninghamia lanceolata forest  and the amount of bacteria is in another order of Pinus massoniana-Quercus variabilis forest > Quercus variabilis forest >Pinus massoniana forest >Cunninghamia lanceolata  forest. According to fungi species identifying, the main fungi populations are Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., Trihoderma spp. and Botrytis spp. etc. in soils of the studied areas.
    RAPD molecular markers and genetic diversity among 40 cultivars of Brassica napus in China
    Wu Ningfeng, Li Rugang, Wu Xiaoming, Zhu Li, Fan Yunliu, Qian Xiuzhen,
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  246-250.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997042
    Abstract ( 2723 )   PDF (747KB) ( 3015 )   Save
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    The genetic diversity and the relationship among 40 cultivars of  Brassica napus  from seven Provinces of China and other countries  Brassica napus  was analyzed by RAPD technique and statistical methods. Cluster analysis showed that the extensive genetic variation existed among 40 cultivars of B. napus. The 40 cultivars were divided into three groups at DNA level. This result has significance for the genetic breeding of Brassica napus.
    Flowering and pollination biology of Eleutherococcus brachypus
    Wang Zhongli, Liu Linde, Tian Guowei, Shen Jiaheng,
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  251-256.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997043
    Abstract ( 2748 )   PDF (147KB) ( 2438 )   Save
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    The authors not only observed flowering phenology, flowering pattern, species of visiting insects, visitation rate of pollinators and their foraging behavior, but also studied pollen viability, stigma receptivity, pollen-ovule ratio, effect of insect pollination and breeding system. The results indicated that Eleutherococcus brachypus was in the progress of vegetative propagation and a population was a clone. A given flower kept open for about two days, but successive bloom of the flowers in a population lengthened its florescence for about 20 days. The pollen-ovule ratio (P/O) was about 2500~3200. On the first day when Eleutherococcus brachypus was in bloom, the pollen grains shed. The viability of polen was over 90% and it lasted for over five days. The stigma has a receptivity of 10 days or so. Nectar secretion started on the first day and continued for about 10 days. Although it was physiologically self-compatible, pollinator visitation could highly enhance fruit set. The  invectors chiefly visited between 1200 and 1400 hours. Insects pollinated mainly among different flowers of the same clone, which, in a broad sense, belonged to self-pollination. Pollinators were diverse small insects such as smallbees, wasps, flies and beetles. Artificial pollination experiments showed that under  natural condition, the number of pollen on the stigma was inadequate. [WTBX]Eleutherococcus brachypus adapted to the habitat by such characteristics as its flowering season, high pollen viability, long time stigma receptivity and nectar secretion duration, thus its higher fruit set produced. The average fruit set ratio of Eleutherococcus brachypus  was 65% while plump seed ratio was 45.5%. No seedling was found in the field. It seems that the poor quality of seeds caused by inbreeding depression accounted for this. The poor quality of seeds also limited the distribution of  Eleutherococcus brachypus.
    Diversities of species and ecological groups of planktonic Ostracoda
    Chen Ruixiang, Lin Jinghong
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  257-262.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997044
    Abstract ( 2623 )   PDF (177KB) ( 2212 )   Save
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    This paper illustrates the diversity of planktonic Ostracoda species and ecological groups and their distribution features in China's seas and adjacent waters, including the Huanghai Sea, the Donghai Sea, the weatern Taiwan Strait, waters around Taiwan, Bashi Strait, the Nanhai Sea and the Beibu Bay. Based on the above description, a large scale ecological study is made. This paper records 183 species of Ostracoda, belonging to 52 genera, 8 subfamilies, 4 families and 2 suborders. The number of species varies greatly in different sea areas, with the largest number in the Nanhai Sea (122 species) and the least number in the south Huanghai Sea and the northeast Beibu Bay (7 species). This paper illustrates the diversity of ecological groups of planktonic Ostracoda in these waters and classifies them into 4 groups as follows: 1) Hyperthermal and hysaline group. As the most important group and largest number of species (accounting for 46.8% of the total number), this group is mainly distributed in the waters under the control or impact of the Kuroshio and is concentrated in the waters near the 200 m isopleth and its offshore oceanic waters. 2) Huposaline and warm-water group. The number of species in this group accounts for 31.2% of the total number though the number of individual in most species is very low and the individuals are mostly distributed in the nearshore warm water. 3) Eurythermal and eurysaline group. Although this group has very low number of species as it accounts for only 1.7% of the total number, the number of individual in some individual species is always very high. Some species have become the most dominant ones in many sea areas and are concentrated and migrate in the ecologically mixing zones. 4) Hypothermal and hypersaline group. This group is composed of deepwater and relatively deepwater species and accounts for 20.2% of the total number. The group has very low number of individual and is generally distributed in the waters lower than 500 m layer, with some of species only occur in the 1000~4000 m layers.
    The effects of human caused disturbance on species diversity of forest community in northern Fujian Province
    Zhu Jinmao, Jiang Zhilin, Jiang Wei, Zheng Qunrui, Jiang Xunqiang,
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  263-270.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997045
    Abstract ( 2976 )   PDF (245KB) ( 2076 )   Save
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    This paper analyzes the species diversity of the long closed conserved forest(CF) and the degraded forest(DF) caused by human disturbance in northern Fujian Province. The result indicates that the plant species richness and Shannon-Wiener indices in DF communities are similar to that in CF communities. But the species diversity of composition and layer structure had significantly changed. The basis of species-population in community had consequently degraded. There is less rare and extincting species in DF communities than that in CF communities, and the species diversity in CF community is practically different than that in DF community.
    A study on the resources and distribution of rare wild animals in Tibet
    Wang Jianlin
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  271-275.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997046
    Abstract ( 2739 )   PDF (151KB) ( 3178 )   Save
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    125 species of rare wild animals were found in Tibet, belonging to 16 orders, 29 families and 86 genera. Of them, there were 52 species of mammals, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families and 34 genera; 69 species of birds, belonging to 8 orders, 13 families and 49 genera, and 4 species of other animals. This paper introduced some important species of the rare wild animals in Tibet.
    Microorganism diversity and its conservation
    Jiang Chenglin, Xu Lihua
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  276-280.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997047
    Abstract ( 2475 )   PDF (127KB) ( 2167 )   Save
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    It was demonstrated from numerous experiments that the diversity of Actinomycetes decreased rapidly along with the change of primeval environments. Particularity and necessity of conservation of the microbial resources and diversity were discussed in this paper.
    Species diversity of Pinus tabulaeformis forest sown by plane in Zigui County
    Chen Fangqing, Lu Bin
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  281-286.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997048
    Abstract ( 2752 )   PDF (202KB) ( 1977 )   Save
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    According to the investigation on Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Zigui County, species diversity of the forest was studied. Result showed that the number of species in Pinus tabulaeformis forest increased 67.5% contrast to grassland, the primordial vegetation, and that species diversity became richer than grassland. The Shannon diversity index of the forest reached 3.0379. But because species in arborous layer was monotonous, its Shannon diversity index was less than nearby broad-leaf forest. Species diversity on various quadrats was related to the number of Pinus tabulaeformis and its growth, which depended on sowed density of seeds, slope direction, slope degree and so on. The relationship between species diversity and habitat was also discussed in this paper.
    Investigation of plant mycorrhizae in secondary forests of Hong Kong
    Zhuang Xueying, Chan Wingkuen,
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  287-292.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997049
    Abstract ( 2426 )   PDF (192KB) ( 2429 )   Save
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    The root infections of 64 native species by mycorrhizal fungi in secondary forests were examined. The results showed that 98.4% of  the tested species were more or less infected by mycorrhizal fungi. Infection by VAM fungi were found in 98.1% of the root samples. Of these, Quercus myrsinaefolia was found being infected by both ECM and VAM fungi.The result revealed universality of mycorrhizae in secondary forest of Hong Kong.It provided an important background information for further study on the ecological function of mycorrhizae in rehabilitation of secondary forest in degraded areas of South China.
    Chinese Endangered Species Information System (CESIS)
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  293-295.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997050
    Abstract ( 2636 )   PDF (136KB) ( 3294 )   Save
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    Chinese classics and biodiversity conservation
    Lu Ankui, Liu Wen, Li Yicong, Qiu Shi,
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  296-300.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997051
    Abstract ( 2649 )   PDF (99KB) ( 1758 )   Save
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    The technological process to reconstruct ecosystem with the ancient books was introduced in this paper. Chinese classics will play an essential role in this aspect. To confirm what is the suitable ecosystem as the natural one is crucial for biodiversity conservation. Under the guidance of the Chinese classics, including medical literature, books of treatise on agriculture and district history, the artificial complex ecosystem in present can be gradually returned into the natural ecosystem similar to one in the ancient time. Thus we can reach the goal of the biodiversity conservation.
    Influences of herbicide application on weed microevolution and diversity
    Guo Shuiliang, Zhao Tieqiao
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  301-306.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997052
    Abstract ( 2666 )   PDF (176KB) ( 2147 )   Save
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    The mechanisms of herbicides on weed genetic differentiation and the factors relevant to the process were analysed. The characteristics of field weed diversity  and the theoretical values of the study on weed genetics and diversity under the influences of herbicides were discussed in this paper.
    The living fossil plants—rescue, conservation and studies in urgent demand
    Tang Yancheng, Lu Anming, Chen Zhiduan
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  307-308.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997053
    Abstract ( 2483 )   PDF (72KB) ( 1982 )   Save
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    In the present paper the concept of the living fossil plants is discussed,and the four criteria to judge them are also proposed.Authors have a suggestion that the rescue, conservation and studies for the living fossil plants demand immediate attention in work of biodiversity.
    Origin of biodiversity
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (4):  313-316. 
    Abstract ( 2100 )   PDF (66KB) ( 1745 )   Save
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