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Table of Content
    Volume 05 Issue 3
    20 August 1997
    A hypothesis for the origin and maintenance of within-community species diversity
    Zhang Dayong, Jiang Xinhua
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  161-167.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997026
    Abstract ( 2754 )   PDF (145KB) ( 3379 )   Save
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    This paper formulates a novel hypothesis of community diversity on the basis of rejecting the competitive exclusion principle. Since we accept the view that many species could occupy the same niche, local species diversity is considered to be controlled by four fundamental factors,which are, respectively,(Ⅰ)the number of niches in the community,(Ⅱ)the size of regional species-pool, (Ⅲ) species immigration rate, and(Ⅳ) species extinction rate. The hypothesis suggests that both regional biogeographic processes and local ecological processes will play an important role in determining the magnitude and pattern of community diversity.
    Study on sampling intensity of species diversity of grassland community in the Songnen Plain of China
    Yang Limin, Han Mei, Li Jiandong
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  168-172.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997027
    Abstract ( 3264 )   PDF (107KB) ( 3276 )   Save
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    With Leymus chinensis-herbage and Stipa baicalensis-Filifolium sibiricum communities as deputies, the sampling intensity of species diversity of grassland communities was studied in the Songnen Plain of northeast China. The results of nested quadrat showed: the minimal area of these two communities was 1/4~1/2 m2. The results of Pielou's pooled quadrats showed: the minimal number of 1, 1/4 and 1/6 m2 of square quadrats was or so 12, 22 and 28 respectively in L. chinensis-herbage community, and 10, 18 and 25 in S. baicalensis-F. sibiricum community. The above three types of area got unanimus results in the indices of diversity at 95% of probability level. A large number of small quadrats was preferable to a small number of large quadrats.
    Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism between Siberian tiger and South China tiger revealed by mtDNA RFLP and PCR-RFLP
    Wu Ping, Zhou Kaiya, Wang Yaming, Huang Gongqing, Xu linmu
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  173-178.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997028
    Abstract ( 2984 )   PDF (221KB) ( 2107 )   Save
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    MtDNA RFLP and PCR-RFLP techniques were used to reveal polymorphism between Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and  South  China  tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis).  In mtDNA RFLP study,  mitochondrial DNA was extracted from liver, kidney and heart tissues  of Siberian tiger  and South China tiger  and  purified. Restriction  endonuclease  fragment patterns of mtDNA were digested with 20 enzymes recognized 6-bp. Only 1 (XbaⅠ) out  of  20  restriction  enzymes  revealed  polymorphic fragments.  The restriction pattern generated by 19 of the enzymes in  Siberian  tiger were identical with that  in  South  China  tiger. In PCR-RFLP study, D-loop was amplified and 8 endonucleases recognized 4-bp were used to digest PCR product, 1 out of 8 endonucleases (RsaⅠ)  revealed polymorphic fragments.  Genetic  distance between Siberian tiger and South China tiger  calculated based on the two results was very small.  This  is  probably  due  to  the  following  factors: there was no natural barrier between the two  subspecies; they have strong dispersal ability and were separated only  within  several  hundred years.
    Molecular foundation and clinical significance of Hepatitis C virus genomic variability
    Yue Lili, Qi Yipeng
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  179-184.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997029
    Abstract ( 2331 )   PDF (208KB) ( 2268 )   Save
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    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped virus with a plus-stranded RNA genome.It contains a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein which can be proteolytically cleaved to structural and nonstructural proteins with different functions.The isolates of HCV show substantial nucleotide sequence variability distributed throughout the viral genome.HCV isolates can be classified into many genotypes and subtypes.Studies on HCV heterogeneity has an important guiding significance for the pathogenesis,epidemiology,diagnose and therapy of HCV.
    The distribution and habitat selection of the Hume's pheasant in Yunnan
    Han Lianxian
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  185-189.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997030
    Abstract ( 2650 )   PDF (216KB) ( 2784 )   Save
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    The Hume's Pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae) is an endangered species of Galliformes, distributed restrictedly in northeastern India, northern Myarmar, northwestern Thailand and southwestern China. In China, the bird has only been recorded from western Guangxi and west, south and central Yunnan. A survey on the distribution and habitat selection of the bird had been undertaken during the period from June 1992 to May 1995, resulting 18 localities in 13 counties as the present occurrence of that bird in Yunnan together with a few more localities to be further confirmed. In the field work, the Hume's Pheasants were more frequently observed in the following five types of habitats, i.e. 1) the tropic season rain forest; 2) the subtropic evergreen broad-leaf forest; 3) the Simao pine-tree forest; 4) the Yunnan pine-tree forest; 5) the deciduous broad-leaf forest. And, the field work also reveals that the pressure of both the habitat losing and overhunting as the two main reasons seriously causing the Hume's Pheasant being endangered in the wild.
    The status of animal resources and the strategies for sustainable development in western China
    Liu Naifa, Chen Qiang
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  190-196.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997031
    Abstract ( 2609 )   PDF (238KB) ( 2160 )   Save
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    The western China includes Shaanxi,  Ningxia,  Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjing, Xizang and western part of Nei Monggol Autonomous Region. It makes up 46.5% of Chinese territory. The population in this region amounts to 8.33% of all the nation. There are rich animal resources in western China with great spatial heterogeneity in environment. There are 1273 species of terrestrial vertebrates, occupying 52.73% of 2414 species in China. Among them 81 species are amphibian, accounting for 28.52% of that in China, 119 species are reptiles, making up 34.69% of reptiles in China, 781 species are birds, amounting to 62.38% of birds in China and 292 species are mammal, accounting for 53.66% of mammal in China. 259 species, 20.55% of 1273 species , are only distributed in western China. Almost all large ungulates in China are encountered in western China. In western China 174 terrestrial vertebrate species, amounting to 52.25% of 333 species in whole China, are protected by law and 54 species of birds and beasts are endemic species. The animal resources in western China possess high values in economy, scientific researches and have significant ecological benefits. Because of environment destroying and excessive hunting, it has been known that  Equus przewalskii, Saiga tatarica, Panthera tigris and Paradoxornis przewalskii were extinguished in western China. Nipponia nippon has become an extremely endangered species,  Ailuropoda melanoleuca  and Procapra przewalskii  have been on the edge of extreme endangerment. The population density of some economic animals  decreased in western China, for example, Moschus sifanicus and M. berezovskii dropped by 8.97% and 8.44% on average respectively every year (n=12) in Gansu. Cervus elaphus, C.albiostris, Bos grunniens, Asinus spp. Procapra picticaudata, Pseudois nayaur and Gazellia subgutturosa are being hunted by gold diggers in Gansu and Qinhai. On the other hand, population density of some rare animals increased steadily in recent years as a result of protection. For example,Ovis ammon  and Camelus ferus increased by 10.06% and 10.89% respectively on average every year in Gansu.Six strategies for sustainable development of animal resource were suggested  in this paper: (1) strengthen organization and management of reserves; (2) establish protecting fund in each province and autonomous region; (3) protect the habitats of animals; (4) encourage to raise economic animals. (5) conserve rare species through in-situ and ex-situ conservation; (6) artificially enlarge distribution range of rare and economic animals.
    The distribution of freshwater fish and the relationship between species diversity and basin characteristics of main rivers in China
    Wang Shoukun
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  197-201.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997032
    Abstract ( 3006 )   PDF (86KB) ( 3336 )   Save
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    The cluster analysis  of  distribution  of  the    freshwater  fish  of 13 rivers in China was dealt with. The  results showed that the geographical variations of freshwater fish of Minjiang River and Jiulong River were the lowest. The  Oujiang River and Qiantang River,  Huaihe River and Huanghe River, and the rivers in Northeast China  were  clustered together  early respectively.  When coeficients of dissimilarity  were   0.60~0.69, 13 rivers were divided into 3 clusters: the rivers of Northeast China, rivers between Huanghe River and Zhujiang River,  Yuanjiang River of  Yunnan Province. The effects of  the  characteristics  of  the river basin on species numbers of freshwater fish had been studied  by using correlationships and regression  analysis. There  were  positive significant correlationship among the diversity  of  freshwater  fish species and the drainage area of the rivers (P<0.05), the discharge  of the rivers per year averagely (P<0.01) respectively. The  diversity  of fish species of the river per  unit  area  and    per  unit  length  of mainstream related positively  with    the  runfall  and  the  falling gradient of the rivers (P<0.01)  respectively  and  related  negatively with the average latitudes of the rivers (P<0.05). The  result  of  PCA showed that 1st and 2nd principal components revealed  correlations  among absolute and relative numbers of fish species and the  characteristics of the river basin respectively.
    Investigation on the resources of rare and endangered plants in Kuanba forest region
    Xiang Chenghua, Mou Kehua
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  202-205.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997033
    Abstract ( 3109 )   PDF (99KB) ( 1827 )   Save
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    Based on the floristic analysis of the rare and endangered plants,the paper reveals that the floristic composition in Kuanba forest region has the three major characteristic features:richness in species diversity,ancient origin and floristic complexity.The endangered causes are also discussed.The effective protected countermeasure for these species is approached.
    Study on the biological character and conservation of endemic species Torreya jackii
    Gao Zhaowei
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  206-209.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997034
    Abstract ( 2798 )   PDF (135KB) ( 2776 )   Save
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    On the basis of more than 10 years studies on the distribution, habitats and biological characteristics of Chinese endemic plant—Torreya jackii, this paper presents some suggestions on the protection and exploitation of this plant.
    Research progress on population genetic heterogeneity
    Zheng Xiangzhong, Xu Hongfa, Lu Houji
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  210-216.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997035
    Abstract ( 2873 )   PDF (203KB) ( 2427 )   Save
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    Habitat fragmentation and population isolation are of increasing concern in the management of wildlife resources. With the information of population genetic heterozygosity, incorporating population demorgraphic data and status of the habitat in which the population lived, we can analyse the genetic effect of demorgraphic stochasity on local populations, the effect of habitat heterogeneity   on population genetic structure, and estimate gene flow among geographic populations, the level of population differentiation. It is of great value in the management practice of endangered species, planning for population  restoration and designing of nature reserve.
    Evolutionary principle and conservation strategies of biodiversity
    Cao Jiashu, Miao Ying
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  220-223.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997037
    Abstract ( 2775 )   PDF (105KB) ( 2429 )   Save
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    The present paper deals with evolutionary principle and conservation strategies of biodiversity. Some unsatisfactory explanation of biodiversity in traditional evolutionary theroy was pointed. A new explanation according to the organic adaptive evolutionary theroy was discussed. The expression of biodiversity,
    (Bd—biodiversity; Gc—genetic material combinations; m—reduced value of genetic material conbinations for mutation; M—increased value of genetic material combinations; Ec—environmental element conbinations; Nt—natural thinning; Ap—artificial prune; Hf—hunted for food) was advanced first in this paper. Some principles of conservation strategies of biodiversity were given using its expression.
    The importance of classical biological control to biodiversity protection
    Lu Qingguang
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  224-230.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997038
    Abstract ( 2568 )   PDF (147KB) ( 3764 )   Save
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    Exotic pests under certain conditions are able to threaten a native biodiversity, breaking down the ecological balance and bringing great economic losses. The science of classical biological control (or the Classical Biocontrology) has been demonstrated that the sustainable pest control can be obtained by the introduction of natural enemies from the pest home region into  its invaded region. This is one of the strategy and tactics on biodiversity protection, it is: from biodiversity to biodiversity.
    A general situation on classical biocontrol in China, including summary of the research history, current studies and discussions are presented in this paper.
    The establishment of fish resources information management system and its application
    He Yuanhui, Zhu Jianguo
    Biodiv Sci. 1997, 05 (3):  231-236.  doi:10.17520/biods.1997039
    Abstract ( 2332 )   PDF (169KB) ( 2310 )   Save
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    The report introduced the “The fish resources information management system”built by the Kunming Institute of Zoology. We discribed the purpose of the system, the system structure, data models, code system and functions of the system. Then we introduced the specimen databases established by using the system.

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