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Table of Content
    Volume 06 Issue 3
    20 August 1998
      
    论文
    Evaluating the impact of insect community on pine caterpillar density in different stand conditions
    LI Tian-Sheng, ZHOU Guo-Fa, WANG Guo-Hua, GAN Zhong-Nan, HUA Zheng-Yuan,
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (3):  161-166.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998024
    Abstract ( 2331 )   PDF (146KB) ( 2046 )   Save
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    This paper attempts to use some forest stand factors to substitute the effect of natural enemies. Through the studies from more than 200 stand plots with different stand conditions in Qu County , Changshan County and Longyou County of Zhejiang Province , 16 predominant species groups from insect community were selected , and the canonical correlation coefficient between the diversity index , species number , individual number of predominant species and the stand factors was analyzed. The results indicated that the canopy density and ground vegetation were the key stand factors for characterizing the function of insect community. The forest area was divided into four types according to the variation of canopy and vegetation conditions by using cluster analysis , there were significant differences in diversity index , species number , individual number of insect community and population density of pine caterpillar among four types of forests. The regression models between the rate of variation of pine caterpillar density and the forest factors including canopy density , vegetation coverages were developed in each type of forests , the results indicated that the classification of the forest stands is reasonable , and the stand factors can characterize the effect of natural enemies inpractice.
    Life history traits and mechanisms of endangerment in Ranalisma rostratum
    WANG Jian-Bo, CHEN Jia-Kuan, LI Rong-Qian, HE Guo-Qing
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (3):  167-171.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998025
    Abstract ( 2540 )   PDF (147KB) ( 1422 )   Save
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    Ranalisma rostratum (Alismataceae) is an endangered aquatic plant , and now there exists only one population in China. In its natural habitat , Huli marsh in Chaling , Hunan Province , the best growing plants were observed at microsites where the water depth is five to 10 cm , and the plants grow in emergent form. R. rostratum reproduces asexually or sexually , and recruitment of asexual propagules into population is a very importment way to maintain the natural population size. Although seed production does not appear to limit R. rostratum , restricted dispersal of propagules and seeds , low seed viability , low germinability , slow growth of seedlings under all conditions , and habitat loss due to agriculture appear to be more important reasons for the endangerment of this plant .
    Studies on the biological characteristics, ex situ breeding and genetic diversity of Wuzhishan Pig
    FENG Shu-Tang, CHEN You-Chun
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (3):  172-179.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998026
    Abstract ( 2632 )   PDF (510KB) ( 2569 )   Save
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    Wuzhishan Pig is one of the rare and endangered breeds in China. To protect and utilize the genetic resource of this domestic breed , its breeding , biological characteristics and genetic diversity were studied. The experiments on growth regulation , reproductive performance , blood biochemical index , DNA fingerprinting and genetic markers showed that the Wuzhishan Pig is a breed with small size , early maturity , tolerance to inbreeding and good meat quality. Its blood biochemical value is similar to human , but the concentration of lymphocyte white cell is higher than others (77 %for Wuzhishan Pig , 52 %for standard Pig , 25 %~35 %for human) , and also there is difference between Wuzhishan Pig and other breeds on the haplotypes of swine lymphocyte antigen. Using the human ministatellite 3316 and chicken minisatellite probe cMS18 to test Wuzhishan Pig , Large2white Pig and Fengjing Pig , the Wuzhishan Pig similarity coefficient of DNA fingerprinting is higher than standard Pig. This suggests that the Wuzhishan Pig might under go intensive inbreeding and have high tolerance to inbreeding. Through RFL P analysis with porcine GH cDNA probe , it was found that whatever EcoRI , EcoRV or Pst I was used , Wuzhishan Pig had a strong hybridization band , whereas it was absent in the tasted Large white and Fengjing Pig. It also showed that there was differences between Wuzhishan , Large-white and Fengjing breeds on GH locus.
    The economic value of biodiversity
    GUO Zhong-Wei, LI Dian-Muo
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (3):  180-185.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998027
    Abstract ( 4707 )   PDF (96KB) ( 4016 )   Save
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    Conceptually , the total economic value of resource consists of its use value and non2use value. Use value may be broken down further into the direct use value , the indirect use value and the option value (or potential use value) . The realization ways of the use values of biodiversity are different because of the differences of useable ways. Some use values provided by biodiveristy cannot realize on the spot usually. These use values may transfer spatially by a certain of“passages”to attain to a spot where some suitable external condition are provided to realize them. That phenomenon is call as the“transfer of value of biological resource spatially”.
    Genetic variation of the Chinese mitten-handed crab (Eriocheir sinensis) populations detected by RAPD analysis
    GAO Zhi-Qian, ZHOU Kai-Ya
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (3):  186-190.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998028
    Abstract ( 2583 )   PDF (217KB) ( 2572 )   Save
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    RAPD was employed to assess the genetic variation among Eriochei r sinensis populations of the Yangtze , Liaohe and Oujiang river systems. 31 random reproducible primers revealed 121 amplified fragments in which 27 were polymorphic. Intraspecific genetic variation was low ( D = 01004~01063) . Intrapopulation genetic variation of Liaohe population and Oujiang population were higher than that of Yangtze population while the interpopulation variation between Liaohe and Oujiang populations was lower than that between either of them and Yangtze population. The results suggest that the human economic activities have probably caused gene exchanges between the two populations.
    Species diversity of Daqinggou forest plant community
    ZHENG Yuan-Run
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (3):  191-196.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998029
    Abstract ( 2702 )   PDF (144KB) ( 2543 )   Save
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    The plant species and diversity are very abundant in Daqinggou forest plant community , it’s about one third of total species in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Ecological dominance , species diversity and evenness of community are calculated by Simpson index , Shannon2Wienner index and Evenness index individually. The results are as follows : owing to the Daqingou forest plant community is a intrazonal community type , from bottom of ditch to top , difference of microclimate and environment gradient are significant . Because comprehensive effects of trees , shrubs and grasses , difference of species diversity in various communities and in environment gradient is not very significant , that may be results of special forest community adapts azonal environment in long time , that give us some interesting inspiration to improve environment around Daqinggou district .
    Species diversity of bees in different habitats in Xishuangbanna tropical forest region
    YANG Long-Long, WU Yan-Ru
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (3):  197-204.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998030
    Abstract ( 2910 )   PDF (231KB) ( 3054 )   Save
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    The species composition and diversity of bees in eight different habitats of the tropical forest region in Xishuangbanna were studied. 77 species , belonging to five families and 20 genera , were recognized. The diversity measurements of bees in different habitats showed that values of species richness indexes DMA range from 11914 to 71877 , species diversity indexes H′range from 01608 to 11398 , and evenness indexes Jsw range from 01716 to 019561 Based on similarity coefficients C in table 3 , eight habitats can be clustered at the level of 01169 with the systematic clustering. Holy Hills of Dai nationality play a limited role in the conservation of bee species in rain forest , which is affected by the decreasing areas of Holy Hills and human disturbance. If the tropical rain forest is exploited for cultivation , many species of bees in the rain forest will disappear and will be substituted by some species of relatively extensive distribution. Number of species will be significantly decreased.
    Landscape approaches in biodiversity conservation
    YU Kong-Jian, LI Di-Hua, DUAN Tie-Wu,
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (3):  205-212.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998031
    Abstract ( 3327 )   PDF (206KB) ( 4567 )   Save
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    Landscape planning and design play an important role in biodiversity conservation. Depending on their differences in emphasis , two kinds of landscape planning approaches to biodiversity conservation exist : the species2oriented and the landscape-element2oriented approaches. In the former , a landscape is designed based on detailed information about specific target species , whereas in the later , a landscape is designed based on the existing landscape elements and patterns. Regardless of the differences in planning approaches , five spatial tactics are widely considered to be effective in biodiversity conservation : protecting core habitats , buffering , building corridors , increasing heterogeneity , and restoring habitats. Questions , however , still remain as to what and where. It is argued that the current landscape planning approaches to biodiversity conservation have limitations in that they treat species as passive organisms to be encircled in a specific area or network , and in that only the solid landscape elements were targeted , not the contextual landscape , namely the matrix in which the solid landscape elements exist . Approaches in landscape planning might be greatly different if species are treated as initiative and competing controllers of the landscape. Three new concepts are highly appreciated for their potential application in landscape planning : the concept of spatial configuration , the concept of evolutionary dynamic lineage and the concept of landscape resistance. The approach of landscape ecological security patterns was a new attempt toward an alternative model of landscape planing in biodiversity conservation.
    Preliminary study on the endemic seed plants in Emei Mountain
    ZHUANG Ping
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (3):  213-219.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998032
    Abstract ( 2092 )   PDF (188KB) ( 2338 )   Save
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    Study on the endemic phenomenon of species and variants under species is provided with a significance of theory and practice to recognize the flora and biodiversity in the mountainous region. The ancient history of biology and geology and the combination of complex and various environments is a common back ground of forming the local endemic plants in Emei Mountain. There are 67 species or variants as the local endemic plants which occupy 218 % of the seed plants there. The major speices belong to warm flora when a few come from tropical flora. And the species rate in the Chinese endemic genera gets quite high. In the same time , the differentiation of these endemic species is very intensive and no less species show the relic2defferential complex features. These endemic plants distribute mainly at the lower2middle position , elevation 1000~1700 m(~ 2000 m) , of the mountainous and the vertical ranges about 7116 % of them do not exceed 400 m. Most of them , especially almost all of the herbaceous species are shade of tolerant2shade. The formation and evolution of these endemic plants is relation to the history and environment in some degree and necessarily to the capabilities in their competition , propagation and dissemination.
    Editorial
    The present status and in-situ conservation of the rare and endangered plants in Hubei Province
    GE Ji-Wen, WU Jin-Qing, ZHU Zhao-Quan, YANG Jing-Yuan, LEI Yun
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (3):  220-228.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998033
    Abstract ( 3247 )   PDF (259KB) ( 2532 )   Save
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    This paper discussed the present status and in-situ conservation of the rare and endangered plants in Hubei Province ,as well as some protective suggestions. There are 62 species of endangered plants in Hubei , which account for 15197 % of total in China. Of them , 55 species have been protected in 22 nature reserves , accounting for 8817 % of 62 endangered species. Seven species have not yet been preserved , such as Pinus dabeshanensis , Torreya jackii and Heptacodicum miconioides . Some species haven’t been effectively conservated , e. g. A mentotaxus argotaenia and Manglietia patungensis. Some plants should be ex-situ conserved , e. g. Taiwanin cryptomeriodes , Magnolia sieboldii , M. amoena , Torreya jackii and Sinojackia xylocarpa. Setting up more nature reserves ,enlarging some nature reserves ,developing much more small nature reserves and nature protected spots ,as well as taking ex-situ conservation ,are urgent at present .
    论文
    Measurement of biotic community diversity VI: the statistical aspects of diversity measures
    LIU Can-Ran, MA Ke-Ping, Lü Yan-Hua, KANG Yong-Liang,
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (3):  229-239.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998034
    Abstract ( 3085 )   PDF (337KB) ( 3646 )   Save
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    Species diversity is a community parameter. It’s usually unknown , and must be estimated with a sample or samples from the community. Therefore the sampling properties of the estimators must be examined in order to accurately estimate species diversity of a community. The estimation of means and variances , hypothesis testing , and large or small sample distributions for some diversity measures are reviewed in this paper. However , the sampling properties of many diversity measures remain unclear , and some of them have not been studied at all. It is concluded that Pielou′s pooled quadrat method and jackknife method are two better methods to solve some of the problems , and jackknife method is more practical in application than the other.

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