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Table of Content
    Volume 06 Issue 4
    20 November 1998
    Species diversity of primary tropical rain forest of south Yunnan of China with special reference to sampling area
    ZHU Hua, WANG Hong, LI Bao-Gui, XU Zai-Fu
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  241-247.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998035
    Abstract ( 2809 )   PDF (163KB) ( 2541 )   Save
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    An investigation aiming to demonstrate plant species / area of the primary tropical rain forest of south Yunnan has been done. Species diversity , species/ individual relationship and frequency of tree species were discussed. From the analysis of species/ area , the optimal plot size for phytocoenological survey on the forest is suggested to be 0. 25 hm2 , which is close to the phytocoenological minimum area of the forest , and the total sampling area for a forest type in which the intrinsic floristic composition can be embodied is also suggested to be at least one hm2 (four such plots of 0. 25 hm2 with cumulative area one hm2) . It is also concluded that the rain forest formations on non-limestone have higher species diversity than limestone rain forest formations , and the formations on ravine habitats have higher species diversity than the ones on lower hill slopes. The comparison between the rain forest of Yunnan and the ones of the world revealed that the rain forest of Yunnan has a slightly lower species richness than typical lowland rain forests of southeast Asia , but higher than rain forests of tropical Africa.
    A preliminary study on the diversity and control evaluation of natural enemies of coffee stem borers, Xy-lotrechus quardripes and Acalolepta cervinus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Simao region, Yunnan Province
    WEI Jia-Ning, YU Xin-Wen,
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  248-252.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998036
    Abstract ( 3001 )   PDF (142KB) ( 2178 )   Save
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    The investigation during 1994 ~ 1997 on natural enemies of coffee stem borer , Xylot rechus quardripes and Acalolepta cervinus , indicated that there exists high diversity of natural enemies in coffee ecosystem in Simao region , Yunnan Province. There are at least four hymenopterous predatory species (ants) belonging to Crematogaster ferrarii , C. rogenhof eri , Monomorium chinense and M. pharaonis , two hymenopterous parasitoid species belonging to Pristaulacus intermedius (Aulacidae) , Iphiaulax rufus , and two dermaptera predatory species belonging to Labidura riparia and Nesogaster sp. . Among them , C. ferrarii and C. rogenhoferi showed the highest predatism with nearly 50 % , Pristaulacus intermedius showed higher parasitism with 8 % and occured almost in all seasons , and L abidura riparia showed higher predatism with 10 % and could be found almost all the year round. Therefore , these four natural enemies species seemed to be the most important agent for biological control of coffee stem borers population. Furthermore , we suggested that chemical pesticide should be reduced and the ecosystem of coffee plant should be protected and improved , so that natural enemy could exert their function of biological control effectively.
    Will Eleutherococeus senticosus become an endangered species?
    ZHU Ning, ZHUO Li-Huan, ZANG Run-Guo
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  253-259.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998037
    Abstract ( 2773 )   PDF (162KB) ( 2631 )   Save
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    Eleutherococcus senticosus , an important shrub under broad2leaved Korean pine and its seconday forests , has been declining since 1970’s , due to its effective therapeutic function in traditional Chinese medicine. So E. senticosus has been listed as vulnerable species in Plant Red Data Book of Chinese Rare and Endangered Plants (1992) . In this paper , the external and innate factors restricting the sustenace and expansion of E. senticosus populations were studied by field investigation , long-term observation and experimental ecology. Results showed that excessive excavation was the main external factor. The innate factors included high proportion of fruitless plants , few seed production , poor seed quality , weak disperse power , the phonomena of innate dormant seed and autotoxicity. Therefore , the vegetative reproduction has become the main approach for the sustenane of existing populations. But vegetative reproduction may result in decline of genetic diversity , thus cause the decrease in its resistance to variable environments. Under the co-action of the above factors , Eleutherococcus senticosus populations may reduce further , and their endangerment degree may increase.
    A survey on the habitats of Oryza rufipogon and Isoetes sinensis in Jiangxi Province
    CHEN Jia-Kuan, WANG Hai-Yang, HE Guo-Qing,
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  260-266.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998038
    Abstract ( 2559 )   PDF (211KB) ( 2105 )   Save
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    The Anjiashan wetland lies at N 28°14′, E 116°36′, its area is about 1.2 hm 2. There are 33 families, 60 genera, 79 species, one variety and one subspecies vascular plants. Of which, Isoetes sinensis and Oryza rufipogon are key-protected plants in China, and Sagittaria wuyiensis is endemic rare species. As for life forms, most plants (59 species) are emerging plants and hygrophytes. The Anjiashan wetland is located in subtropic zone. The tropics floristic elements occupy adominant position at the level of species, although there are 24 cosmopolitan genera in this wetland vegetation. Because of environmental heterogeneity, there are few edificatoes, but many co-dominant species in the vegetation. There are many rare plant species in Anjiashan wetland, so it is necessary to take measures to protect this wetland.
    Polymorphism of male cones in populations of Pinus yunnanensis Franch.
    YU Hong, ZHENG Shu-Song, HUANG Rui-Fu,
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  267-271.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998039
    Abstract ( 2694 )   PDF (163KB) ( 1755 )   Save
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    This paper deals with the polymorphism of male cones in the   populations of  Pinus yunnanensis Franch. from the central region of   Yunnan. The morphological characters of male cones were statistically     analyzed in the sampled populations.Male cone characters were observed   and their polymorphism was described in the populations. As a result,     male cones were shown highly polymorphic in the populations and the   polytypism between the populations was obvious in P.yunnanensis.In    the populations, the fertility, colour, number and size of male cone are   controlled by multigene,and the variation of these characters appear    continuous.The polymorphism and polytypism of male cones are based upon   the rich genetic diversity and high heterozygosity among individuals and populations of  P. yunnanensis. The heterozygous advantage and environmental heterogeneity are both important factors which cause and maintain  the balanced polymorphism and herozygosity within population. The reproducibility of male cones is correlated with the habitat and wood age,and    closely correlated to the genetic structure of individual and population of  P. yunnanensis. It is important to utilize the hybrid vigor and   heterozygous advantage in forest breeding and platation.
    The diversity and present status of fishes in Yunnan Province
    CHEN Yin-Rui, YANG Jun-Xing, LI Zai-Yun
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  272-277.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998040
    Abstract ( 3284 )   PDF (154KB) ( 2952 )   Save
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    Yunnan is among the provinces with the highest  species diversity, genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity of freshwater fishes. This paper reported the present situation and endangered status of fishes in Yunnan  with comments on the causes. The present policies and measures taken for biodiversity conservation of fishes were also introduced.
    In vitro conservation of Actinidia
    CHEN Wei-Lun, GUO Dong-Hong, AN He-Xiang, ZHU Zhi-Qing
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  278-281.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998041
    Abstract ( 2705 )   PDF (124KB) ( 1807 )   Save
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    This paper deals with the methods for in vitro conservation of  Actinidia. Early summer was the best time to obtain the plant materials.The contamination rate was greatly decreased by using a improved technology to excise the shoot tips and the shoot tips grew well and had no adventitious shoot formation in MS medium supplemented with BA 0.5, Z 0.1, GA 0.1~0.5 mg/L.Up to date, about 12 species and more than 40 clones of Actinidia plants have been conserved in vitro.
    A research on genetic variation of Castanea mollissima at six isozyme loci
    Zhang Hui, Liu Liu, Villani F,
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  282-286.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998042
    Abstract ( 2806 )   PDF (138KB) ( 2846 )   Save
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    Allozyme genetic variation at six loci (Per-2, Got-2, Est-2, Gpi-2, Idh-1, Idh-2 ) in eight populations of C. mollissima was invested using starch gel electrophoresis. The result showed very high genetic variation in the populations with the proportion of polymorphic loci of 97.9% in the average expected heterozygosity of 0.452. In general, about 89.2% of the genetic variation was attributed within populations, while the remaining 10.8% among populations. The genetic distance ranged from 0.036~0.394. There existed obvious difference, especially in a few locus .The primary result indicted the high level of genetic variation and difference could be closely related to the long gene migration flow which attributed to the diversity of its habitat, the outcrossing-winded character and so on.
    The resources conservation of lac insects in Kerria and its utilization
    CHEN Xiao-Ming
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  287-291.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998043
    Abstract ( 2464 )   PDF (138KB) ( 2040 )   Save
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    Lac insects are of great economic value. Various  climate types and ecological environment in China have led to high  species diversity and genetic diversity of lac insects, which provide good condition for lac  production. In this paper,  the species resources and genetic diversity of lac insects were briefly introduced, and the lac productive model was also put forward.
    Wild vetiver grass distributed in China and its protection and taxonomic problems
    XIA Han-Ping, AO Hui-Xiu
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  292-297.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998044
    Abstract ( 3171 )   PDF (177KB) ( 2366 )   Save
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    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), a  multi purpose grass mainly for soil and moisture conservation and used as hedgerow, has been widely disseminated and applied in the tropics and sub-tropics. China's domesticated vetiver was introduced from abroad in the 1950's, while the distribution of the wild variety has existed all long in Guangdong and Hainan of China. An area of up to 6670 hectares of natural vetiver community was found in Wuchuan County, Guangdong of China. This tropical grassland, however, has been severely destroyed due to the effects of human activities and excessive utilization, which has been rapidly dwindled over the past 40 years. A proposal was put forward in this paper for protecting vetiver, as well as the wetland and biodiversity. Currently, since the taxonomic problem of the Vetiveria species is still far from clarification, it is difficult to confirm which species the wild form of vetiver in China belongs to. Anyway, the specimen study in this paper indicates that it is V. zizanioides, not V. nigritana or other species.
    Plant mating system in relation to strategies for the conservation and breeding of endangered species
    WANG Chong-Yun
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  298-303.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998045
    Abstract ( 2550 )   PDF (182KB) ( 3180 )   Save
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    Plant mating system is theoretically considered as a significant factor which has the most apparent effects on population genetic structure.Therefore,it is practically useful in plant breeding and the conservation of endangered species.In this paper,the meaning and definition of mating system was discussed and the past research on mating system was reviewed, including traditional and model methods. The relationship between  mating  system  and genetic structure of population was then discussed in detail. Mating  system plays an important role in  endangered  species  evolution  and  adaptation.Detailed  knowledge  about  mating  system  is  greatly   helpful   in   the conservation and breeding of such species in situ and ex situ.
    Biodiversity data management capability building in China
    WANG Chang-Yong, Xue Da-Yuan
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  304-308.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998046
    Abstract ( 2599 )   PDF (118KB) ( 1715 )   Save
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    The results of the first survey showed as follows: 160 biodiversity datasets distributed in 103 state level institutions were found and recorded, of which species datasets are the richest. Professionals with above college level make up about 1/4 of total staff and the ratio of PhD, MS and BS is 1∶3∶7. Personal computers account for 86% of total and XBASE softwares were widely used, but  networks are weak. Investment in biodiversity data management (BDM) can only meet 20%~30% requirement. Based on the analysis of current BDM capability building, authors think that institutions with reasonable structure and effective mechanism for BDM will play a unique role in BDM and information communication.
    The introduction and domestication of Saiga (Saiga tatarica) in it's original distribution area of China
    WANG De-Zhong, Luo Ning, Gu Jing-He, ZHANG Guo-Qi,
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  309-311.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998047
    Abstract ( 2866 )   PDF (97KB) ( 2293 )   Save
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    By analyzing the experiences in introducing and rearing saiga from abroad and the saiga keeping in foreign zoo, the cause leading to the death of saiga mainly results from the reaction symptomatology. If the problems in capture, transportation and raising are solved, the survival rate of saiga will be gradually enhanced.
    Some of the main problems of the Qingling Nature Reserves and managing strategies
    ZHANG Jing-Liang, LI Huan-Fang, ZHANG Ming-Xia, HOU Ling-Yu
    Biodiv Sci. 1998, 06 (4):  312-315.  doi:10.17520/biods.1998048
    Abstract ( 2740 )   PDF (138KB) ( 2432 )   Save
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    Some of the main problems existed in the Qingling Nature Reserves are analyzed, and strategies are proposed. The main problem are the following;(1)the shape, size and boundary demarcation of the Niubeiliang Nature Reserve are not appropriate;(2)the development of the nature reserves in the Qinling Mountains is not balanced ;(3)severe commercial timber harvesting still exist around the nature reserves;(4)agricultural encroachment and illegal abuse of the natural resources have not yet been stopped;(5)the national highways across the nature reserves has influenced the gene exchange of wildlife;(6)the development of tourism need systematic administration. In order to solve the problems above,the following strategies are proposed.(1)the co management areas and biological corridor should be established;(2)the administration and investment of the Laoxiancheng Reserve should be enhanced;(3)the management of the nature reserve along the highways should be strengthened;(4)the co-management with local community should be extended;(5)the standardized management of tourism should be taken;(6)the multi-business activities could be undertaken.

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