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Table of Content
    Volume 10 Issue 2
    20 May 2002
    Productivity, reliability and species diversity in aquatic microcosms
    ZHANG Quan-Guo, ZHANG Da-Yong
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  135-142.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002016
    Abstract ( 2745 )   PDF (326KB) ( 2730 )   Save
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    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has emerged as a major issue in ecology. Several experiments have provided evidence for the notion that decreasing species diversity may impair ecosystem processes. The interpretation of these experiments, however, has been controversial because two types of mechanisms, “niche complementarity” and “sampling effect”, may operate. By means of microcosm experiments, we investigated the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Aquatic microcosms in laboratory conditions are designed to contain different numbers of unicellular algal species, with no overlap in species composition between microcosms with the same number of species. Algal dry mass, an index of community productivity, was measured once a week after four weeks from the start of the experiment. The experiment lasted for a period of eight weeks, and in total, five measurements were obtained. Algal species richness had progressively stronger effects on community productivity. A number of higher-diversity mixtures outperformed the most productive monoculture as the experiment proceeded. Certain species dominated some mixtures in initial stages, but this effect disappeared in later stages. There was no significant correlation between reliability of community productivity and species richness. The experimental results reported here support the recent suggestion that both niche complementarity and sampling effect may be involved in the diversity effect, and show that the relative importance of the two mechanisms may undergo substantial changes through the course of community maturation.
    Special Issue
    Studies on species diversity of histerid beetles (Coleoptera: Histeridae) in Dongling Mountain
    LUO Tian-Hong, YU Xiao-Dong, ZHOU Hong-Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  143-148.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002017
    Abstract ( 2527 )   PDF (262KB) ( 2608 )   Save
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    Species diversity of histerid beetles (Coleoptera: Histeridae) was investigated in Dongling Mountain, about 114 km west of Beijing, China. Using four kinds of collecting methods, we collected 2224 specimens of Histeridae belonging to 6 genera and 17 species. Of the collected species, Saprinus niponicus, Onthophilus foveipennis, Margarinotus niponicus and M.reichardti accounted for 88.22% of total collected specimens. These four species each over 10% of total specimens, could be categorized to commonly occurring species. Twelve histerid species, namely 70.19% of total specimens were captured by meat bait, 8 species (23.61%) by pitfall traps, 8 species (4.81%) by grass bait, and 2 species (1.39%) by sifter. Onthophilus foveipennis, a dominant species captured by pitfall traps, occurred usually only in mixed broad leaved forests in Xiaolongmen. Populations were high in May and September, and peaked in September. For histerid beetles from meat bait, we analyzed species diversity and similarity in eight plots representing three types of habitats in Xiaolongmen. Diversity index ( H ′) and evenness index ( J ) were higher in broad-leaved woods than in coniferous and mixed woods. Mixed woods were the highest in number of species and of individuals and lowest in evenness. Coniferous woods showed a low value of diversity and number of individuals. Analyzing the similarity coefficient ( q ) of histerid beetle communities, we found that similarity between pairs of the eight plots decreased as distance between the plots increased, independent of habitat types. We also compared species diversity between Xiaolongmen, a well-protected forest area, and Liyuanling, an area of farmlands abandoned five years ago and interspersed with small hills. We found higher values of diversity and evenness and lower values of individual number in Liyuanling. These results suggest that compositions and distributions of histerid beetles are influenced by habitat protection, disturbance and geographic distances, and that species diversity could be conserved through increasing forest coverage and decreasing human disturbance in the Dongling Mountain.
    Studies on species diversities and functional groups of invertebrate communitiesin an artificial turf
    TONG Chun-Fu, LU Jian-Jian
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  149-155.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002018
    Abstract ( 2611 )   PDF (265KB) ( 2416 )   Save
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    Based on surveys of invertebrate communities on an artificial turf by the sweep net and quadrat sampling methods, we divided the species in the invertebrate community into three functional groups according to their trophic level. The species diversities of the community and functional groups were measured by species richness index, Shannon-Wiener index, Hulbert probability of interspecific encounter and Pielou evenness index. Species compositions of the functional groups were also analyzed. The functional groups differed in their vertical distributions. Species diversity and composition of the functional groups were different among plots with different vegetations. The predatory-parasitic group had the highest species diversity in the community, while the phytophagous group had more species and individuals than others, but its species diversity was not high as a result of some species with numerous individuals. There were dynamic relationships in species diversity, species number and individual number between the predatory parasitic group and the phytophagous group.
    Growth and decline of animal resource in Shapotou National Nature Reserve, Ningxia
    LIU Nai-Fa, HUANG Zu-Hao, WU Hong-Bin, LIU Rong-Guo, HAO Yao-Ming
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  156-162.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002019
    Abstract ( 3297 )   PDF (267KB) ( 2261 )   Save
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    The Shapotou National Nature Reserve, situated on the southeastern edge of the Tenggeli Desert, is a nature reserve for desert and semi-desert eco systems. Animal species and their abundances in the reserve were investigated during 1986~1987. In order to know the growth and decline of animal resource in the reserve since 1986, we investigated animal species, their amount and environmentalconditions during 1998~1999.Nineteen protected animal were recorded in 1998~1999, among which three species are class I protected species and the others belong to class II protected species. In comparison with 1986~1987, the species protected by law in China increased by seven species. Thirty-five additional species of birds wererecorded, among which eleven species were new records for Ningxia. Three additional species of mammals were recorded, but three species of rodent were not re-encountered in the second survey. Two species of amphibian and reptiles also were not re-encountered. Comparing animal abundances between 1986~1987 and 1998~1999, bird numbers in wetland habitat increased significantly, but those in village farmland, desert and sand-stabilization forest decreased. Specifically, the amount of bird as environmental indicator, such as Athene noctua, Passer ammodendri, Passer montanus, Galerida cristata, Cuculus canorus, and Streptopelia orientalis, were significantly reduced. Not only did rodent species richness decrease, but numbers also declined markedly.The main factors which led to the growth and decline of animal species and their amount in Shapotou National Nature Reserve were: (1) the destruction of sand-stabilization forest ruined through economic action of human beings and plant diseases; (2) falling groundwater level, serious wetland pollution and the addition of abundant nutrients to water; (3) degradation of meadow and grassland; (4) enlargement of the area of farms and ponds.
    Preliminary studies on the relationships between communities of small mammals and habitat types in Dujiangyan Region, Sichuan
    XIAO Zhi-Shu, WANG Yu-Shan, ZHANG Zhi-Bin, MA Yong
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  163-169.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002020
    Abstract ( 3189 )   PDF (250KB) ( 2510 )   Save
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    Variation in diversity of communities of small mammals in seven different habitats from the median subtropical evergreen broad leaved forest belt in the Dujiangyan Region was studied from the end of October to the beginning of November 2000. Twelve species, comprising ten Muridae (Rodentia) and two Soricidae (Insectivora), were captured. The total rate of small mammals captured was 10.7%.Analyses of diversity of small mammals in different habitats show that species diversity index (1.84) and evenness index (0.95) are highest in secondary forest, where human disturbance has been moderate in recent years. Those in shrubland, secondary forest/primary forest and abandoned farmland are also high, while species are rare and the species dominance index is high (0.57) in farmland, where human disturbance is most serious. Species diversity index (1.34) and evenness index (0.83) are also lower in plantation of Cryptomeria fortunei. Species diversity index in primary forest (1.43) is slightly lower than that in secondary forests (1.85 and 1.46), shrubland (1.64) or abandoned farmland (1.66), which results from habitat degradation. Based on similarity indices, seven habitats can be clustered at the level of 0.095 with systematic clustering. Small mammals of forest type are mainly distributed in shrubland, secondary forests and primary forest, which are clustered into one group. Farmland and plantation of C. fortunei are dominated by Rattus nitidus and belong to the farmland type. Abandoned farmland is an ecotone of farmland and forest, because of its higher diversity index (1.66) and higher rate of small mammals of farmland type (46.7%). The results show that diversity is the lowest in habitats where disturbances are most serious (e.g. farmland and plantation of C. fortunei) and highest in moderately disturbed habitats (e.g. secondary forest, shrub and abandoned farmlands) and slightly lower in disturbed habitats (e.g. primary forest).
    Breeding microhabitat selection of Saunders′ Gull ( Larus saundersi ) in Yancheng of Jiangsu Province, China
    JIANG Hong-Xing, CHU Guo-Zhong, QIAN Fa-Wen, LU Jun
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  170-174.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002021
    Abstract ( 3012 )   PDF (186KB) ( 2609 )   Save
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    We investigated the characteristics of breeding microhabitat of Saunders′ Gull ( Larus saundersi ) in the spring and summer of 1999, 2000 and 2001. Three types of breeding habitats of Saunders′ Gull were recorded: Spartina anglica community, Suaeda glauca community and Aeluropus littoralis community. We compared the nesting habitat availability with nesting habitat utilization in these three habitats. The results showed that Suaeda glauca habitat was positively selected by Saunders′ Gull, and Spartina anglica habitat and Aeluropus littoralis habitat were avoided. Indicated by the studies on microhabitat selection, the characteristics of breeding microhabitats where Saunders′ Gull prefer to nest included that plant height is more than 5 cm and less than 25 cm, vegetation coverage is 20% to 60%, biomass of zoobenthos is above 300g/m2, distance to water source is 500m to 1000m, and distance to artificial disturbance is more than 500m. Beach exploitation and human activities along the coast of Yancheng were the major factors influencing breeding microhabitat selection of Saunders′ Gull. Some suggestions are put forward for protection and management of breeding habitat for Saunders′ Gull.
    A study on seasonal dynamics of species diversity of fishes in tidal waters of creeks within the mangroves of Yingluo Bay, Guangxi
    HE Bin-Yuan, FAN Hang-Qing
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  175-180.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002022
    Abstract ( 3250 )   PDF (252KB) ( 2638 )   Save
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    Based on seasonal investigations by block net in 1999, the dynamics of species diversity of fishes in creek tidal waters within mangrove swamps of Yingluo Bay, Guangxi, were studied. Fifty four species of fishes, belonging to 44 genera and 29 families, were recorded. The numbers of species occurring in one to four seasons were 27, 8, 11 and 8, respectively. The dominant species in each season were very obvious, but the most dominant species differed in different seasons. The most dominant species were Clupanodon punctatus in spring, Osteomugil ophuyseni in summer, Ambassis gymnocephalus in autumn and Leiognathus ruconius in winter. As to theirtemperature tolerances, the warm-water species absolutely occupied the largest percentage. Numbers of demersal species were greater than other ecological types. Thirty species in spring, 30 in summer, 26 in autumn, and 22 in winter were captured in the creek waters. Twenty species were shared between summer and autumn, which was higher than that between any other pairs of seasons. This was also reflected in the similarity index between the two seasons, which reached 55.6% for the summer autumn comparison. The indices of richness D , diversity H ′, and evenness J , were all higher in autumn than in other seasons. Numbers of fish species and the three biodiversity indices in creek tidal waters were all higher than that in mangrove fringed tidal waters. The species diversity of the fish community in these waters was low in comparison with that in tropical mangrove areas.
    A study on phenotypic diversity of seeds and cones characteristics in Pinus bungeana
    LI Bin, GU Wan-Chun
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  181-188.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002023
    Abstract ( 3292 )   PDF (324KB) ( 2551 )   Save
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    Totally 13 natural populations of Pinus bungeana were collected. Five characteristics, including seed length (SL), seed width (SW), cone length (FL), cone width (FW) and weight (WT) of 1000 seeds, were measured. The variance analysis of the five characteristics showed that there were significant differences among populations with the F value from 2.44 to 14.68, and there were also significant differences among families within a population with the F value from 7.48 to 44.53. The variance factors analysis indicated that the variation within a population was the main part of the phenotypic variation in Pinus bungeana, which stood four out of totally five, but the phenotypic differentiation among populations were very obvious ( VST =22.8%), which meant that there was a strong adaptability to environment pressure in Pinus bungeana . The variation coefficients ( CV ) and relative extreme value ( Ri) within each population show similar tendency. Based on Duncan's Multi comparison analysis, all the 13 populations were divided into four groups. The populations in groups A and B have higher phenotypic diversity while the populations in group C and group D have lower phenotypic diversity. Seed characteristics display a significant ecological gradient variation. There is close relationship between phenotypic diversity of seeds and economic characteristics of progeny.
    The effects of tourism on species diversity of subalpine meadows in Dong
    GAO Xian-Ming, MA Ke-Ping, CHEN Ling-Zhi, LI Di-Qiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  189-195.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002024
    Abstract ( 3513 )   PDF (262KB) ( 1877 )   Save
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    Data were collected in 1965, 1983, 1994 and 2000 to monitor changes in species diversity and life form spectrum of the subalpine meadow in Dongling mountainous area in the western part of Beijing municipality. The results show that diversity has been declining from 1965 to the present, and the rate of decline has become much higher since the 1980s. Use of importance values ( IV ) to describe life form spectra demonstrates that the life form spectra of the meadow communities has changed greatly since 1983, showing the side effects of the tourism on the appearances of the meadow. Specifically, height of the meadow communities became shorter, species composition changed, and coverage decreased, all in step with a continual increase in horse population that accompanied tourism development during the period from the early 1980s to the present. The results suggest that over-browsing by horses was the main cause of diversity loss and meadow ecosystem degradation. According to the problems existing in the tourist spot of Dongling mountainous area, we suggest that the local departments concerned should determine rational limits for tourism. In particular, we recommend rigidly restricting horse browsing around the meadow, shutting down the sites for horse racing and the tent for browsing horses in the spot as soon as possible, and reinforcing awareness-building programs. In general, the area should be managed for the conservation of biodiversity as well as for development, and the service functions of the ecosystem should be emphasized so as to realize the sustainable use of meadow resources in the mountainous area based on protection of the ecological environment.
    Diversity of culture characteristics of Beauveria bassiana and the analysis
    WANG Cheng-Shu, HUANG Bo, WANG Si-Bao, FAN Mei-Zhen, LI Zeng-Zhi
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  196-201.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002025
    Abstract ( 3020 )   PDF (237KB) ( 2614 )   Save
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    High diversities of micro-germination traits and macro colony growth characteristics proved to exist between different strains of Beauveria bassiana. After principal component analysis of these two index groups, the main micro-factors were determined to be the ratio of single germ tube germination spores, the average length of germ tubes and their length variance coefficient. The main macro-factors included colony color, colony base color, colony growth rate and the final pH value after growth in SDY liquid medium for 72 hours. No significant correlation was observed between the micro- and macro-main factor groups after canonical analysis ( p =0.1378). However among them, the colony growth rate was found to be significantly correlated with average germination tube length and the ratio of single germ tube germination spores. Based on the main factors of each strain, cluster analysis was performed to differentiate each of them into sub-groups. Each sub-group's diversity index was then calculated according to strain geographic origin and original parasitic insect host respectively. The results of comparing Shannon-Wiener diversity indices indicated that strains from the same geographic location had higher similarity than those with the same insect host order.
    Phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of crude oil degrading bacteria
    HAN Ru-Yang, MIN Hang, CHENG Zhi-Qiang, LIU Liang-Hao
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  202-207.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002026
    Abstract ( 2981 )   PDF (283KB) ( 3478 )   Save
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    Ten strains of crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three soil samples. The isolates were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming rods. All of the ten isolates were able to grow on nalkanes with medium length, diesel fuel and crude oil, but not polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Based on phenotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, ten isolates were identified as Pseudomona spp. (strain EVA5,EVA6,EVA7,EVA8,EVA9) and Acinetobacter spp. (strain EVA10, EVA11,EVA12,EVA13, EVA14), respectively.
    Diversity of phenotypic features and numerical analysis of Rhizobia isolated from Shandong Province
    WEI Ge-Hong, HAO Xian-Jun, SUN Ke-Ji, LIU Hu-Qi, CHEN Wen-Xin
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  208-212.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002027
    Abstract ( 2819 )   PDF (230KB) ( 1786 )   Save
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    Based on investigation of rhizobial resources of Shandong Province, 102 phenotypic features of 31 fast growing rhizobia strains and 34 reference strains were analyzed and numerically classified. The results revealed huge diversity among strains isolated from different places. Strains with the same geographic resources and the same hosts differed in carbon and nitrogen nutrient utilization, resistance to antibiotics, and tolerance to salt, alkali and chemical dye. Thirty two percent of strains could resist 300 μg/mL Neomycin and 39 percent of strains could resist 300 μg/mL Penicillin and Jiemycin. Two strains could grow in medium with 4 % NaCl and 13 strains grew in pH 11 medium. Unknown strains were clustered into two new subgroups different from known species at the similarity level of 87%. Cluster 1 had three strains, of which SD109 was the central strain. Cluster 2 had four strains, and SD083 was the central strain.
    Frugivores and their food plants: have they coevolved?
    LIU Yong, CHEN Jin
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  213-218.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002028
    Abstract ( 2803 )   PDF (230KB) ( 2663 )   Save
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    Whether a coevolutionary relationship exists between frugivores and their food plants has been argued for 30 years. Plant seeds dispersed by frugivores provide many advantages to plants, which may include escaping from the parents where seed or seedling predators are disproportionately abundant, colonizing new habitat patches and increasing gene flow. Simultaneously, frugivores obtain nutritional   
    and energetic rewards as a consequence of digesting fruit pulp. The unique attributes of these two partners may give rise to a coevolutionary relationship. This concept stimulated studies on this field in early years. Some studies suggested that "diffuse coevolution" between plants and their dispersers might exist, whi   
    ch may occur at the level of genus or family. Alternatively, the relationship may be one of just functional equivalence with no relationship to traditional taxonomy. It is also suggested that the evolution of seed dispersal systems is mainly determined by a few key dispersers and plants, which may control the evolution of related traits of other species. The defense scenario hypothesis, however,   
    suggests that fleshy pulp of fruits was produced originally as a kind of defensive structure to protect seeds, only later becoming traits to promote seed dispersal. In recent years, many studies have suggested that the selective pressure between dispersers and plants is rather weak. Suitable sites for seed germination and seedling establishment are temporally and spatially unpredictable. Evolutio   
    nary rates of herbivores and their food plants are unequal. High unpredictability and asymmetry of interaction, coupled with an important influence of abiotic factors, means that the influences of mutual selection pressures between plants and seed dispersers are greatly constrained. The evolutionary interaction between frugivores and plants in seed dispersal should be re evaluated. Attention shou   
    ld be paid to the complexity and the diversity of the relationship between frugivores and plants. Comparative studies on the systematics of related species to evaluate the possible influence from the interaction of plants and their frugivores upon the specification of species may provide powerful evidence for coevolution. Furthermore, the influences of frugivore plant interactions on ecological dynamics and conservation will continue to be a hot topic.
    On synthetic research on fig trees (Moraceae) and related fauna in China
    LI Hong-Qing, CHEN Yong, MA Wei-Liang
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  219-224.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002029
    Abstract ( 3043 )   PDF (210KB) ( 2944 )   Save
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    The 750 species of Ficus (Moraceae) constitute the most distinctive and widespread genus of tropical plants. There are species-specific mutualisms between fig trees and their pollinating insects ( Agaonidae ) and perplexing relationships within the ecosystem. Valuable research results in the areas of the systematics of Ficus and fig wasps, the origin and maintenance of dioecy, biodiversity, co-evolution and ethology are provided by the approaches of systematics, biogeography, ecology, and conservation biology. China′s ancient biogeographic realm, its unique geographic traits and the diversity of its fig flora (71 dioecious species) make it an ideal location to study these questions. Up to now, we have determined less than 20 species of pollinators ( Agaonidae ) of the 98 fig/pollinator mutualisms in China, and our knowledge of these fig trees and related animals is still very limited. In utilizing the resourceful advantages of Chinese biota and geography, well-organized programs will advance smoothly and stimulate further research into fig trees and associated animals.
    Interactions of insects and oak trees and their impacts on the regeneration of oakwoods
    YU Xiao-Dong, ZHOU Hong-Zhang, LUO Tian-Hong
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  225-231.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002030
    Abstract ( 2834 )   PDF (280KB) ( 2745 )   Save
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    This paper reviews the evidence for interactions between insects and oak trees, and shows how these interactions influence oakwood regeneration. First, there are abundant insect species and individuals feeding on leaves and acorns, and insect infestations are nearly always lethal to acorns. Second, quantitative defense effects may be the main strategy that oak trees use to reduce herbivory. And early fall of infested acorns and periodic synchronous mast seeding may be a result of long term evolution in oak trees for defense against insect infestation. Third, defoliation by insect herbivores reduces energy and nutrients required for oakwood regeneration. Insect infestation decreases acorn number and seedlings in woods. Moreover, preference of sound or infested acorns by vertebrates may decrease or increase the number of potential seedlings, resulting in unexpected effects on oakwood regeneration.
    Influence of released transgenic pest and disease resistant crops on plant associated microorganisms in soil
    WANG Hong-Xing, CHEN Xin, TANG Jian-Jun, SHIMIZU Katsuyoshi
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  232-237.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002031
    Abstract ( 3031 )   PDF (224KB) ( 2012 )   Save
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    The maintenance of biodiversity of organisms, especially microbes in the soil, plays a key role for a healthy and sustainable agroecosystem. Agricultural activities including farming systemsaffect significantly the structure and ecological functions of soil-borne plant-associated microorganisms. As a new biotic component of the ecosystem, released genetically engineered crops initiate a change in the biotic community, the health and the stability of an agricultural ecosystem. This paper focuses on the behavior of gene products released from the roots of transgenic pest and disease-resistant crops (TPDRC) and the decomposition of TPDRC residue, and their effects on various organisms in the rhizosphere and surrounding crop residues in the soil. It is concluded that gene expression products have a long-term effect and lead to complex changes. It is suggested that a long-term study on ecological impacts of various released TPDRC is necessary. The emphasis should be focused on the following three aspects: (1) behavior of various products from different transgenic plants and their biotic activity in agroecosystems; (2) influence of transgenic plants on community composition of soil borne microorganisms and (3) influence of various isolated and purified gene expression products on microorganism functional groups in container culture conditions.
    Advances in biocomplexity studies
    WANG Li, NAN Peng, ZHANG Xiao-Yan, ZHONG Yang
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  238-242.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002032
    Abstract ( 2983 )   PDF (195KB) ( 2804 )   Save
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    Biocomplexity, or biological complexity, is a new domain proposed by Rita Colwell and her colleagues for better understanding of the interactions among components of complex life systems and dynamic characteristics and evolutionary mechanism of the systems' complexity. Although the concept and definition of biocomplexity remain controversial, various research projects relevant to this field have been undertaken with funding from US National Science Foundation (NSF), and a new trend in international collaborative efforts to study life on Earth has been formed. In this paper, different opinions on the concept of biocomplexity and the relati   
    onship between biodiversity and biocomplexity studies are introduced briefly. Several projects regarding ecosystems and genomes are also presented to illustrate the main characteristics of biocomplexity studies.
    Access to and benefit sharing from genetic resources and protection of intellectual property rights
    WU Xiao-Min, XU Hai-Gen, ZHU Cheng-Song
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (2):  243-246.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002033
    Abstract ( 2797 )   PDF (117KB) ( 2990 )   Save
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    With excessive utilization of genetic resources, decline of biological species resources and the increase of international exchange and cooperation, issues of access to intellectual property and sharing of benefits from genetic resources have received greater attention from the international community. Based on clause 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the general practice for access to and benefit sharing from genetic resources in the international community, the present situation of protecting and utilizing genetic resources in China and the relationship with intellectual property rights were analyzed. Establishment and improvement of the patent system for intellectual property, the management system and the market mechanism for the conservation and utilization of genetic resources are proposed for the purposes of protecting and sustainably utilizing genetic resources. Finally a case study on the access to and benefit sharing of soybean genetic resources between a Chinese company and the Argentinian NIDERA company is analyzed.

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