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Table of Content
    Volume 10 Issue 3
    20 August 2002
    Spatial autocorrelation study of population genetic structure of two orchid species
    LI Ang, LUO YiBuo, GE Song
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  249-257.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002034
    Abstract ( 2949 )   PDF (343KB) ( 3927 )   Save
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    The spatial pattern or structure of genetic variation within populations is an important part of evolutionary and ecological genetic processes in natural populations of plants, and may provide deep insight into the conservation of endangered species. In this paper, we investigated the spatial distribution patterns of population genetic variation of two orchid species, Paphiopedilum micranthum and Changnienia amoena , using RAPD markers. A total of 89 and 42 individuals in two populations of each of the species, respectively, were involved in our study. Based on the polymorphic bands generated by 12 ( P. micranthum ) and 16 ( C. amoena ) RAPD primers, Moran′s I spatial autocorrelation coefficient was calculated, which revealed significant spatial structure of genetic variation within populations of P. micranthum (with significant positive autocorrelation over short distance class: 3~4 m). In contrast, the genetic variation in C. amoena populations was found to be randomly distributed. The different spatial distribution patterns may be attributed to the different reproductive systems of these two species. P. micranthum undergoes significant clonal growth while no significant clonal reproduction was found in C. amoena . These results have important implications for the conservation and management of these species, especially for the sampling strategies for ex situ conservation.
    Phytoplankton diversity in waters around Nansha Islands in spring and summer
    SONG Xing-Yu, HUANG Liang-Min, QIAN Shu-Ben, YIN Jian-Qiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  258-268.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002035
    Abstract ( 2968 )   PDF (458KB) ( 3066 )   Save
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    The distribution and biodiversity of the phytoplankton in Nansha Islands waters were investigated in spring and summer,1999. The oplankton abunda nce at Zhubi Reef (2.49×104 cells/m3) is higher than that in the open sea (0.73×104 cells/m3 in spring and 1.03×104 cells/m3 in summer, respectively). The order of the biodiversity is spring(4.01)>summer(4.35)>coral reef (2.92). The distribution of phytoplankton in waters around Nansha Islands appears to relate to hydrological conditions, nutrients and grazing impact of zooplankton. In spring, grazing pressure of zooplankton is higher and has an obvious effect on algal distribution; while in summer, phytoplankton biomass is mainly affected by the distribution of local nutrients and hydrological conditions. Although the phytoplankton abundance in 1999 is very low compared with historic record, the characteristics of biodiversity and distribution of phytoplankt on in Nansha Islands waters have been similar in the past 15 years.
    Seed dispersal and seed bank dynamics of the endangered Changium smyrnioides
    SHENG Hai-Yan, CHANG Jie, YIN Xian-Wei, FAN Mei-Ying, GE Ying
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  269-273.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002036
    Abstract ( 2759 )   PDF (194KB) ( 2258 )   Save
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    Changium smyrnioides is an endangered species of Umbelliferae. Its cytology,pollen morphology, geological distribution, and genetic diversity have been studied, but the ecological characteristics of its seeds still remain unknown. To understand the mechanism of endangerment of C. smyrnioides, seed production and dispersal and the dynamics of its seed bank were investigated by random sampling methods. Seed production of C. smyrnioides is 132 eds/individual, 86.4% of which are from the top inflorescence. The kilo-grain weight of seeds is different between habitats. The scape (averaged 1.06 m in height) of C. smyrnioides often falls to the ground, so seeds fall far from their mother plant. The seed dispersal pattern is contagious. Compared with Anthriscus sylvestris, another species of Umbelliferae, seed production and seed bank density of C. yrnioides in different periods is much less. Both seed banks are non ersistent.C. smyrnioides maintain the seed bank by multi-procreation, while A. sylvestris is maintained by clonal reproduction. C. smyrnioides has adopted a K-strategy, with low seed number, large seed size and dispersion far from the mother plant so as to avoid density competition among the seedlings. Therefore, when it is disturbed by humans, by digging for medicinal use and deforestation, the population cannot recover quickly. A. sylvestris has adopted a r-strategy, with high seed number, small seed size, dispersion near the mother plant, and production of ramets. Its population can recover quickly when it is disturbed by humans.
    Species diversity in the progression of ecological restoration of artificial mixed forest after wind damage in Jinyun Mountain, Sichuan
    SHI Sheng-You, YANG Ji-Dong, WANG Zhou-Ping, LI Xu-Guang
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  274-279.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002037
    Abstract ( 2970 )   PDF (234KB) ( 2577 )   Save
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    In June 1989, a catastrophic storm hit Jinyun Mountain, and destroyed much of forest. After this storm, the Jinyun Mountain Natural Protection Bureau planted Pinus massoniana, Gordonia acuminata, Castanopsis carlessii var. spinulosia, and Symplocos setchuanenesis,etc. on the wind-damaged slash. At the same time we established fixed sample plots at the site of wind-damaged slash and investigated the species, quantity and growth state of the plants at the wind damaged slash in 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1999 and 2001. On the basis of the investigation into ecological restoration of artificial mixed forest of wind damaged slash in Jinyun Mountain, we computed the Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou index, Sorenson index, Morisita Horn index, and Bray-Curtis index. The result indicates that a diversity of woody-plants increases with artificial mixed forest succession while that of grassy-plants decreases. On different time-scales, b diversity is obviously different. This indicates that artificial mixed forest of wind-damaged slash has high species turnover rates, and evergreen broad-leaved species have replaced some coniferous species. It is concluded that artificial mixed forest of wind-damaged slash tends to become evergreen broad-leaved forest.
    The analysis of waterbird diversity in Tianjin
    ZHANG Shu-Ping, ZHANG Zheng-Wang, XU Ji-Liang, SUN Quan-Hui, LIU Dong-Ping
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  280-285.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002038
    Abstract ( 2692 )   PDF (227KB) ( 2950 )   Save
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    Surveys in Tianjin from 1997 to 2000 recorded 107 species of waterbirds. These birds belonged to 7 orders, 14 families and 39 genera, of which migrants accounted for 96.2%. The birds of Anseriformes and Charadriifomes were the dominant species and they comprised 41.1% and 31.1% of the species of the community respectively. Six of the species recorded in Tianjin were national first-grade protected wildlife, including oriental white stork(Ciconia boyciana), black stork(Ciconia nigra), red crowned crane (Grus japonensis), white crane (Grus leucogeranus), great bustard (Otis tarda) and relic gull(Larus relictus). Eight of the recorded species were national second grade protected wildlife, including white naped crane (Grus vipio) , demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo), common crane (Grus grus), sea cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), whistling swan (C. columbianus), mute swan (C. olor), and white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons). The community diversities of the four main study areas were analyzed by using the G-F index and Shannon-Wiener index. Both Shannon-Wiener index and the G-F index of Beidagang are higher than the other areas, and Beidagang is also a migration stop-over site for many endangered species, so this wetland is a very important resource and should be protected. As the G-F index reflects the diversity of higher classification units of the community, it is a very useful diversity index for the analysis of bird community. The combination of the G-F index and Shannon-Weiner index provides a comprehensive measure of community diversity.
    Migratory dynamics of Siberian crane and environmental conditions at its stop over site
    HE Chun-Guang, SONG Yu-Jun, LANG Hui-Qing, LI Hong-Kai, SUN Xiao-Wei
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  286-290.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002039
    Abstract ( 2455 )   PDF (197KB) ( 2206 )   Save
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    From April to May 2000, we investigated the number of Siberian crane and environment condition at their stop-over site in Momoge Nature Reserve. The Siberian cranes arrive at Momoge Nature Reserve on about April 3 and leave on May 8. The period of stop-over is 36 days. Most of the cranes arrive here during the end of April, and the largest number reaches 577 individuals on April 27. The activity of cranes is affected by weather condition, such as wind velocity, temperature, and rainfall. Most cranes are distributed in wet meadow, shallow water and at Hanqian in the middle of ponds. They mainly feed on plants, and also on fish in this area. We offer some recommendations for measures for research and conservation of Siberian crane.
    Advances in conservation biology of Chinese giant salamander
    ZHANG Ke-Jia, WANG Xiao-Ming, WU Wei, WANG Zheng-Huan, HUANG Song
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  291-297.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002040
    Abstract ( 3807 )   PDF (248KB) ( 3945 )   Save
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    Chinese giant salamander ( Andrias davidianus ) is an endangered amphibian in China. The species is currently listed in annex I of CITES and in class II of the national list of protected animals in China, even though its status is not clear. Chinese giant salamander has declined steeply in both distribution range and population number since the 1950s because of excessive hunting for commercial trade and loss of habitat. The quantity of purchase of Chinese giant salamander in Hunan and Anhui Province declined over 80% from 1950s to 1970s. The salamander survives now in 17 provinces of China, mainly in the mountainous areas of the middle Yangtze River. Illegal hunting in the wild and loss of habitats are still major threats to Chinese giant salamander survival in some established reserves. The problems of these reserves are lack of funds and personnel, as well as ineffective management. We make some recommendations for conservation management of the Chinese giant salamander.
    Community structure and species diversity of ant in Qufu, Shandong Province
    LIU Hong, YUAN Xing-Zhong, ZHANG Cheng-De
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  298-304.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002041
    Abstract ( 2744 )   PDF (254KB) ( 2629 )   Save
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    Ant specimens of 4 subfamilies, 15 genera and 19 species were collected by trap and sample plot methods in Qufu area, Shandong. The dominant species are Pheidole rhombinoda, Messor aciculatus and Lasius alienus, of which the first two species are widely distributed over the study area. Based on these samples, species composition, species diversity, and similarity of ant communities in five habitats were analyzed, and the extent of influence by human activity and habitat heterogeneity were examined. We find that species composition and diversity indices of ant communities are different in each of the five habitats. The number of species, Shannon-Wiener′s diversity index ( H ′) and Pielou′s evenness index (J) in deciduous broad-leaved forest are the highest, while the diversity index in artificial poplar plantations is the lowest. The number of nests, number of individuals and McNaughton′s dominant index ( D) is the highest in grasslands of river floodplains. The more the habitats are disturbed, the lower the diversity index of ant community is. The highest diversity indices were observed in the habitats with high quality and high heterogeneity. Clustering analysis for five ant communities and ordination analysis for community structure by multidimensional scaling (MDS) were carried out and basiccally identical results were obtained. The results show that similarity of ant communities between artificial poplar plantation and residential districts is the highest, and similarities between other habitats are much lower. Nest size and individual number of colonys of the same ant species are different in different habitats.
    Community structure of Copepoda in Qiandao Lake, Zhejiang
    LI Gong-Guo, YU Zuo-Ming
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  305-310.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002042
    Abstract ( 2866 )   PDF (298KB) ( 2119 )   Save
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    The community structure of copepods, including species composition, standing crops dynamics and diversities, was studied in a oligo-mesotrophic, large, deep-water lake — Qiandao Lake, Zhejiang. During one year of study, 16 species of copepods (5 Calanoida, 1 Harpacticoida and 10 Cyclopoida) were found. In terms of mean annual density of various species of copepods (copepodids+adults), the dominant species of Calanoida are Neodiaptomus schmackeri and Schmackeria forbesi, and the dominant species of Cyclopoida are Mesocyclops notius and Cyclops vicinus. The average density of copepods in the community is 46.81 ind./L, with biomass of 0.126 mg/L, and Margelef's diversity index of 1.54. The seasonal changes of standing crop of copepods is ranked summer>autumn>winter>spring, with the highest peak of copepod density (98.50 ind./L) and biomass (0.333 mg/L) in July to August, and the lowest copepod density (10.70 ind./L) and biomass (0.017 mg/L) in May. Station Ⅱ has the highest copepod density (80.10 ind./L) and biomass (0.289mg/L), station Ⅴ has the lowest copepods density (29.80 ind./L ), and station Ⅳ has the lowest copepods biomass (0.066 mg/L). Copepods diversity presents a maximum value of 3.21 in station Ⅰ,and a minimum value of 0.85 in station Ⅸ. The higher the transparency of the lake water, the lower the community diversities of Copepoda.
    Diversity of nonpathogenic bacteria associated with seeds of single rice crop in Zhejiang Province
    XIE Guan-Lin, Mew Twng Wah
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  311-317.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002043
    Abstract ( 2645 )   PDF (303KB) ( 2334 )   Save
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    Nonpathogenic bacteria associated with rice seed are important natural resources as potential biocontrol agents (BCA). It is necessary to understand the diversity of nonpathogenic bacteria of rice seed in different rice ecosystems so as to utilize BCA for effective management of major diseases of rice. A survey on diversity of nonpathogenic bacteria was conducted in Zhejiang Province, China during 1996~2001. Six hundred and six rice seed samples were collected from plains, hills and mountainous areas. Over 9600 bacterial isolates were isolated and tested for colony morphology, pathogenicity, and some characteristics of bacteriology including Gram staining, fluorescent pigment and diffusible non-fluorescent pigment on Kings medium B, production of yellow colony on YDC,aerobic character, and microscopic observation for endospore and flagellum. Together with 80 standard reference strains, 622 representative nopathogenic bacterial isolates were confirmed by Biolog and gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and screened for BCA against the pathogens of sheath blight and bakanae disease of rice. Eleven bacterial species of Pseudomonas and 14 other genera of 23 species were identified, of which 55% of Pseudomonas species and 49% of other species were detected with antagonistic strains that varied with species. Bacillus spp.,Acinetobacter spp., and P. putida are the major groups in the three rice growing areas where other similar bacterial species also exist. However, great variation was noted in isolation frequency of the seven common species in the areas.
    Resources investigation and studies on the wild commercial fungi in Yunnan
    WANG Xiang-Hua, LIU Pei-Gui
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  318-325.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002044
    Abstract ( 2785 )   PDF (294KB) ( 3245 )   Save
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    Yunnan is an area rich in wild commercial fungi resources, namely, fungi sold in markets. Much attention has been paid to fungal resources in the past. However, comprehensive investigation and studies on the resources were wanting. Through investigation, collection and identification of species, the geographical distribution patterns, seasonal changes and ranking based on the trade volume and the economic value of the resources were documented continuously from 1997 to 2001. In total, 207 species (including varieties and forms) belonging to 64 genera are recognized, showing high diversity and high endemicity. Among the species, those of the genera Boletus, Tricholoma, Termitomyces, Thelephora, Russula, Lactarius, and Ramaria are main commercial fungi. Despite artificial selection, commercial fungi show obvious geographical distribution patterns: southern Yunnan is rich in tropical species and northwestern Yunnan is rich in temperate alpine and subalpine species. Central and southwestern Yunnan fungal communities display subtropical and temperate characters. Each area possesses its own typical species and they are related by some transitional ones. We ranked the commercial fungi species in the order of trade volume. Those of grade I and II are the dominant species. Almost 90% of the commercial fungi are edible and about 5% are medicinal, while 7% are poisonous. The economic value of each species is also provided.
    Impacts of grassland fencing on plant communities and conservation of a rare gazelle, the Przewalski's gazelle
    LIU Bing-Wa, JIANG Zhi-Gang
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  326-331.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002045
    Abstract ( 3153 )   PDF (226KB) ( 2786 )   Save
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    The impacts of grassland fencing on rangeland plant communities during the plant-growing season were studied in the Ketu area, Haiyan County, Qinghai Province, China in 2001. The Ketu area is one of the main distribution ranges of a rare and critically endangered gazelle, the Przewalski gazelle ( Procapra przewalskii ). Grassland fences were built for the purpose of vegetation restoration in the desert in 1999. Domestic animals at high density grazed outside the fenced range, while the Przewalski's gazelle at low density grazed inside the fenced ranges. Above ground biomass, plant height, plant cover, and plant species diversity of the plant communities outside and inside the fenced ranges were randomly sampled and analyzed in the laboratory to determine the impact of different grazing rates outside and inside fenced ranges. (1) The above-ground biomass outside the fences in June was significantly lower than that inside the fences (p <0.05), however, the above ground biomass outside the fences in both July and August were significantly higher than those inside the fences ( p <0.05). (2) The range of plant heights outside the fences (mean: 11.2~37.0 cm) was broader than that inside the fences (mean: 20.6 ~28.0 cm). Plant height outside the fences in June was significantly lower than that inside the fences ( df= 39, p <0.05). There was no significant difference between plant heights outside and inside the fences ( df =39, p >0.05). (3) The plant coverage during both June and July were significantly lower outside the fences than inside the fences (June: df = 19, p<0.05; July: df = 19, p < 0.05), but during August plant coverage outside the fences was similar to that inside the fences ( df =19,p > 0.05). (4) The animal edible herbage outside the fences was significantly lower than that inside the fences ( df = 6, p<0.05). The percentage of Chinese Stellera among total plants outside the fences was significantly higher than that inside the fences ( df =6, p<0.05). (5) The biodiversity index of the plant community outside the fences was significantly higher than that inside the fences ( df=6, p <0.05). Based on the above results, we discuss the impacts of fencing on the range community and test the hypothesis that grazing affects the productivity of the plant community. We suggest solutions for range, endangered species and integrated biodiversity management.
    Identifying populations for priority conservation of important species
    CHEN Xiao-Yong, LU Hui-Ping, SHEN Lang, LI Yuan-Yuan
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  332-338.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002046
    Abstract ( 3162 )   PDF (241KB) ( 3082 )   Save
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    Due to differences in the significance of populations, limits in funds for species conservation and conflict between conservation and economic development, deciding what and where to conserve is an essential step in managing important species, especially endangered species and wild relatives of crops and domesticated animals. There are three approaches to identifying populations for priority conservation of important species, including genetic variation-based, genetic distinctiveness-based and genetic contribution based. The genetic variation based approach chooses populations with high genetic variation, especially allelic diversity, for priority conservation. This approach does not consider genetic distinctiveness. Some distinctive alleles in populations with low genetic variation may not receive effective conservation based on this approach. In contrast, the distinctiveness-based approach, such as those based on evolutionarily significant units, chooses distinct populations for priority conservation. The genetic contribution based approach, a synthesis considering genetic variation and distinctiveness, is the most appropriate approach in determining which populations need priority conservation. We propose that this work should be considered urgent in China for some endangered or rare species.
    The concept of the Rainy Zone of West China and its significance to the biodiversity conservation in China
    ZHUANG Ping, GAO Xian-Ming
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  339-344.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002047
    Abstract ( 2889 )   PDF (226KB) ( 2710 )   Save
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    The Rainy Zone of West China, which is located along the brim of the Sichuan Basin, ranges 50~70 km east to west and 400~450 km from north to south, with an area of 25 000 km 2 or 0.26% of the territory of China. This zone is well known for its beautiful landscapes, plentiful vegetation types, abundant resources and diversity of plants and animals. Unfortunately, the zone has not been recognized as a relatively isolated geographic unit and the biodiversity in the zone has not been studied. Through analyzing the extremely varying topography and landforms, special climate, unique vegetation types and species of plants and animals, and the populated areas in the zone, this paper briefly discusses the diversity of ecosystems and habitats of the zone. The rainy zone is a large scale and complicated ecotone that is a natural geographic unit, with a cloudy, wet climate as its main feature. It is a green barrier for ecological protection and development in western China, and a key region for biodiversity conservation and research in China. The results of this paper offer support for the suggestion that Rainy Zone of West China should be listed as a key ecological region of China and the world.
    Functional Link Artificial Neural Networks and agri-biodiversity analysis
    ZHANG Wen-Jun, QI Yan-Hong, Schoenly K G
    Biodiv Sci. 2002, 10 (3):  345-350.  doi:10.17520/biods.2002048
    Abstract ( 2850 )   PDF (223KB) ( 2220 )   Save
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    A computational software using Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (FLANN) was developed. This software includes seven Java classes and one HTML file. It is an Internet online computational software which can be run on various operational systems and web browsers, and can read various databases. Two data sets of rice insect biodiversity were lumped and clustered employing the biodiversity software LUMP and hierarchical clustering, which resulted in two sets of training samples each with 60 samples and, 21 and 20 functional groups, respectively. Ten samples to be predicted were prepared for each set of data. FLANN was used to make pattern classifications. The simulated and predicted results with FLANN software gave good fitness to the investigated results. The development of FLANN software also provides a new tool for the development of Internet intelligent analytical system for biodiversity studies.

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