Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (6): 752-757.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14179

Special Issue: On Species Catalogue of China

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Monitoring activity rhythms of Equus hemionus at watering holes by camera traps in Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang

Hongpan Wu1, 2, Hongjun Chu1, 2, 3, *(), Yuan Wang3, Jianwei Ma3, Yan Ge2, Lan Bu2   

  1. 1 College of Animal Science, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052
    2 Altay Management Station, Mt. Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Altay, Xinjiang 836500
    3 College of Resources and Environment Sciences, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046
  • Received:2014-08-27 Accepted:2014-12-04 Online:2014-12-11
  • Chu Hongjun E-mail:hongjunchu@vip.163.com

Khulan (Equus hemionus) are a first class, nationally protected animal in China. From April to November 2013, 28 infrared cameras were set up at 13 watering holes to study the activity rhythms of this species in the Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. The results showed that activity frequency was greatest in autumn (2,679 identification photos), then summer (1,990), and lowest in spring (294). Average aggregation of E. hemionus to watering holes was greater in daylight hours than at nights. Daily activity at watering holes peaked between 0:00-1:00, declined rapidly between 7:00-9:00, was lowest between 12:00-13:00 and 16:00-17:00 and rose rapidly between 21:00-22:00. Studying the activity of Equus hemionus around watering holes will provide a basis for effective protection and management of desert ungulates in northern Xinjiang. Additionally, it provides a baseline for the sympatric reintroduction of Equus przewalskii.

Key words: Kuhlan (Equus hemionus), camera trapping, watering holes, activity rhythms

Fig. 1

Watering holes (locations of setting infrared cameras) of Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China."

Fig. 2

Average number of Equus hemionus in single picture at different times"

Fig. 3

Identification pictures of Equus hemionus at different times by camera trapping"

Fig. S1

Pictures of Equus hemionus captured by camera traps at watering holes in Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang http://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/PDF/w2014-179-1.pdf"

Table 1

Identification photos of Equus hemionus from April to November in 2013 at different time http://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/PDF/w2014-179-2.pdf"

1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 24:00
4月
April
41 28 25 27 25 17 13 6 8 6 5 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 8 11 13 22 21
5月
May
1 1 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6月
June
73 49 41 47 35 45 39 22 19 19 17 10 9 12 16 12 18 20 9 15 26 38 60 67
7月
July
29 35 33 30 37 41 22 21 24 24 15 15 8 9 14 6 16 14 19 8 20 27 38 40
8月
August
71 67 63 61 38 60 42 25 15 16 12 9 6 4 6 11 9 15 12 17 21 36 51 60
9月
September
117 86 92 106 87 83 73 58 36 21 19 26 10 13 13 12 8 20 11 19 18 30 80 74
10月
October
103 120 99 77 97 85 72 79 50 27 21 14 10 13 13 18 10 7 22 30 47 63 70 90
11月
November
25 32 21 31 17 19 10 6 11 6 5 1 4 4 6 1 0 8 15 18 18 24 21 27
总计
Account
460 418 374 380 338 351 271 217 164 119 94 76 49 56 69 60 62 86 91 115 161 231 342 379
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