Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (6): 764-772.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14176

Special Issue: On Species Catalogue of China

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Camera traps and the minimum trapping effort for ground-dwelling mammals in fragmented habitats in the Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province

Aichun Xu1, 2, Xingfeng Si1, Yanping Wang1, Ping Ding1, *()   

  1. 1. College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
    2. College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018
  • Received:2014-08-25 Accepted:2014-11-24 Online:2014-12-11
  • Ding Ping E-mail:dingping@zju.edu.cn

Sixty camera traps were set on 32 islands and one terrestrial plot in the Thousand Island Lake region from May 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. In total, we recorded 23,639 photos that included nine species of large ground-dwelling mammals with a rate of independent photographs of 2.62%. The species-area relationship showed that species richness increased with island area (ha) with a slope, z value, of 0.27. On large islands (> 10 ha), the minimum trapping effort increased with island area. On small islands (< 10 ha), however, there was no clear pattern. The minimum trapping effort was not correlated with island isolation (d.f. = 20, F = 3.067, P = 0.095). Our results suggested that large ground-dwelling mammal populations have disappeared on smaller islands since the lake was formed. Based on these findings, we suggest that large MTE’s are required in islands with large areas when using camera traps in a fragmented landscape. On small islands, researchers should vary trapping efforts according to the island’s attributes, including species resources.

Key words: fragmented habitat, island biogeography, land-bridge islands, ground-dwelling mammals, monitoring

Fig. 1

Thousand Island Lake in Zhejiang Province, China with 33 study sites numbered in order of decreasing area. Site 8 is on the mainland."

Table 1

Characteristics of the 33 study sites in Thousand Island Lake region, Zhejiang Province, China. Site 8 is located on the nearby mainland. Other sites are all on islands. Each site is numbered in order of decreasing area as in Fig. 1"

样点
Site
相机数*
No. of cameras
(n)
调查强度
Trapping efforts
(Camera day/month)
大型兽类物种数
No. of mammals
面积
Area
(ha)
隔离度
Isolation
(m)
最小监测时长
Minimum trapping effort
(Camera day)
Observed (n) Estimated±se(n)
1 20 4,880/160 9 9.5±1.32 1,153.88 861.00 81
2 10 2,450/80 8 8±0 128.32 1,417.81 28
3 10 1,220/40 6 6±0 47.98 1,066.10 21
4 10 1,210/40 3 3±0 27.49 1,158.87 13
5 5 765/25 2 2±0 3.70 2,225.45 27
9 5 608/20 1 1±0 1.44 1,106.53 77
10 3 636/21 3 3±0 1.33 730.95 15
12 3 636/21 2 2±0 1.31 868.22 108
13 3 610/20 1 1±0 0.86 3,609.61 3
15 3 728/24 2 2±0 0.84 690.03 15
16 3 608/20 1 1±0 0.84 1,026.58 21
17 5 615/20 2 2±0 0.79 2,657.77 29
18 5 605/20 2 2±0 0.69 200.31 44
19 3 608/20 3 3±0 0.62 1378.00 175
20 5 605/20 2 2±0 0.62 2,333.60 61
21 5 615/20 2 2±0 0.53 1,939.94 17
22 5 605/20 2 2±0 0.46 1,982.69 5
23 3 642/21 3 3±0 0.42 1,056.16 56
25 5 615/20 1 1±0 0.36 2,227.08 62
28 3 608/20 1 1±0 0.25 3,650.55 5
31 3 547/18 1 1±0 0.14 387.10 275
33 3 636/21 1 1±0 0.08 947.67 11
8 5 615/20 6 7±0 1.50 0 27
6 5 615/20 0 2.56 2,199.38 -
11 5 615/20 0 1.32 2,121.37 -
14 5 615/20 0 0.85 2,184.55 -
26 5 615/20 0 0.29 3,073.21 -
27 5 615/20 0 0.25 2,658.07 -
30 5 615/20 0 0.19 2,137.68 -
32 5 615/20 0 0.12 2,073.07 -
7 3 608/20 - 2.17 998.41 -
24 3 610/20 - 0.39 4,075.04 -
29 3 608/20 - 0.19 398.18 -

Fig. 2

The species-area relationship of large mammal communities on 32 study islands in Thousand Island Lake. Black circle indicates the site on the mainland (for comparison). Abbreviations: S, Species number; A, Island area."

Fig. 3

Rarefaction curves of large mammal communities on sites 1, 2, 3 and 8 in Thousand Island Lake region. Monitoring day represents all cameras on a site monitoring one day."

Fig. 4

Relationships between minimum trapping efforts and island areas and isolations, respectively, on islands and mainland of larger mammal communities in Thousand Island Lake region. The size of each circle indicates the number of species on each site. Site numbers follow Fig. 1."

Table 2

Summary of ground-dwelling mammal species detected by camera traps in Thousand Island Lake region, China"

目/科
Order/Family
种名
Species
总照片数
No. of photos
独立照片数
Independent photograph
所占比例*
%
鳞甲目 Pholidota
鲮鲤科 Manidae 1 穿山甲 Manis pentadactyla 5 3 60.0
兔形目 Lagomorpha
兔科 Leporidae 2 华南兔 Lepus sinensis 366 157 42.9
啮齿目 Rodentia
豪猪科 Hystricidae 3 马来豪猪 Hystrix brachyuran 1 1 100
食肉目 Carnivora
鼬科 Mustelidae 4 猪獾 Arctonyx collaris 268 132 49.3
5 鼬獾 Melogale moschata 922 365 39.6
灵猫科 Viverridae 6 花面狸 Paguma larvata 55 34 61.8
猫科 Felidae 7 豹猫 Prionailurus bengalensis 20 10 50
偶蹄目 Artiodactyla
猪科 Suidae 8 野猪 Sus scrofa 331 112 33.8
鹿科 Cervidae 9 黄麂 Muntiacus reevesi 446 174 39.0
合计 2,414 988 40.9
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