Biodiversity Science ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (1): 71-79.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09138

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Genetic diversity of natural and planted populations of Tsoongiodendron odorum from the Nanling Mountains

Xueqin Wu, Gangbiao Xu*(), Yan Liang, Xiangbao Shen   

  1. The Laboratory of Forestry Genetics, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004
  • Received:2012-07-03 Accepted:2012-12-18 Online:2013-02-04
  • Xu Gangbiao

Ex situ conservation, complementary to in situ conservation, plays an important role in preservation and recovery of endangered species. Tsoongiodendron odorum is a relic species that was listed in the Second Grade of the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (First Batch) in China. For protection of its genetic diversity, ex situ conservation populations have been established and managed outside of natural habitats in several nature reserves since 1980. However, only dozens of individuals are currently saved from each planted population. To assess the actual protective effectiveness of these planted populations, we detected and compared the genetic diversity of three planted populations from Nanling Mountains with four natural populations using ISSR markers. Overall, we detected 362 total ISSR discernible bands with 16 ISSR primers, of which 301 were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands (P) was 83.2%. At the population level, the percent of polymorphic bands ranged from 37.9% to 62.2%, with an average value of 53.1%. This result showed that T. odorum had high genetic diversity both at population and species levels. However, the percentage of polymorphic bands and Shannon information index (I) of ex situ conservation populations (66.6% and 0.2990) were much lower than those of natural populations (80.9% and 0.3629). We deduced that there was a narrow genetic base for plantations of T. odorum. Population structure analysis revealed that three planted populations could be collected from the same wild population (i.e., YK population). The genetic variation of four natural populations (GST=0.2495) showed that there was significant isolation among populations, which would limit gene flow and population differentiation among populations. We present suggestions on regulating seed collection from different natural habitats to establish planted populations and strengthening research on the reproductive biology of T. odorum.

Key words: Tsoongiodendron odorum, ISSR, genetic diversity, natural population, ex situ conservation

Table 1

Collection location and number of individuals tested of Tsoongiodendron odorum"

Population codes
Altitude (m)
Sample size
自然种群 Natural populations
弄相山 NXS 贵州弄相山省级自然保护区
Nongxiangshan Provincial Nature Reserve, Guizhou
109°12′ E 25°46′ N 230 21
源口 YK 湖南源口省级自然保护区
Yuankou Provincial Nature Reserve, Hunan
110°59′ E 24°58′ N 610 26
连山 LS 广东连山省级自然保护区
Lianshan Provincial Nature Reserve, Guangdong
112°01′ E 24°25′ N 580 28
南昆山 NKS 广东南昆山省级自然保护区
Nankunshan Provincial Nature Reserve, Guangdong
113°52′ E 23°38′ N 457 32
人工种群 Planted populations
车八岭 CBL 广东车八岭国家级自然保护区
Chebaling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong
114°15′ E 24°43′ N 350 18
鼎湖山 DHS 广东鼎湖山国家级自然保护区
Dinghushan National Nature Reserve, Guangdong
112°32′ E 23°10′ N 245 10
大顶山 DDS 广东南岭国家级自然保护区大顶山管理处
Dadingshan Management Office, Nanling Nature Reserve, Guangdong
113°03′ E 24°43′ N 516 28

Table 2

ISSR primers and their amplification results with 163 Tsoongiodendron odorum individuals"

序列(5′ to 3′)
Sequence(5′ to 3′)
Optimum temperature (℃)
No. of bands
No. of polymorphic bands
% of polymorphic bands
UBC814 (CT)8A 51 28 25 89.3
UBC815 (CT)8G 53 21 20 95.2
UBC818 (CA)8G 54 22 19 86.4
UBC822 (TC)8A 53 25 19 76.0
UBC824 (TC)8G 51 25 20 80.0
UBC835 (AG)8YC 55 23 17 73.9
UBC840 (GA)8YT 57 25 20 80.0
UBC841 (GA)8YC 57 26 20 76.9
UBC844 (CT)8RC 57 21 16 76.2
UBC845 (CT)8RG 54 18 14 77.8
UBC853 (TC)8RT 54 18 16 88.9
UBC854 (TC)8RG 54 23 21 91.3
UBC866 (CTC)6 60 23 18 78.3
UBC874 (CCCT)4 55 23 21 91.3
UBC879 (CTTCA)3 41 22 20 90.9
UBC881 (GGGTG)3 54 19 15 79.0
平均 Mean 22.63 18.82 83.2

Table 3

Genetic diversity among the seven populations of Tsoongiodendron odorum based on ISSR markers"

% of polymorphic bands
Shannon information index
自然种群 Natural populations
弄相山 NXS 59.4 0.2848
源口 YK 55.0 0.2618
连山 LS 61.9 0.2995
南昆山 NKS 62.2 0.2926
总体 Total 80.9 0.3629
人工种群 Planted populations
车八岭 CBL 47.2 0.2388
鼎湖山 DHS 37.9 0.2137
大顶山 DDS 48.3 0.2473
总体 Total 66.6 0.2990
平均 Mean level 53.1 0.2626
物种 Species level 83.2 0.3621

Fig. 1

Plot of the ΔΚ on the number of population genetic clusters"

Fig. 2

The genetic structure of 163 Tsoongiodendron odorum individuals. The vertical axis shows the proportion of individuals in different clusters. Population codes see Table 1."

Table 4

Pairwise estimated ΦST values among Tsoongiodendron odorum populations"

种群 Population 弄相山 NXS 源口 YK 连山 LS 南昆山 NKS 车八岭 CBL 鼎湖山 DHS 大顶山 DDS
弄相山 NXS ****
源口 YK 0.2895* ****
连山 LS 0.2739* 0.1858* ****
南昆山 NKS 0.3332* 0.2699* 0.1581* ****
车八岭 CBL 0.2657* 0.2231* 0.2461* 0.2982* ****
鼎湖山 DHS 0.2951* 0.2041* 0.2338* 0.3067* 0.1544* ****
大顶山 DDS 0.3174* 0.1784* 0.2266* 0.2788* 0.1867* 0.2212* ****

Fig. 3

Dendrogram of UPGMA based on ΦST of different Tsoongiodendron odorum populations. Population codes see Table 1. * indicates planted populations."

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