Biodiversity Science ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 155-165.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019287

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Diversity assessment and protection strategies for the mollusk community in the southern Dongting Lake

Zhenyuan Liu1, 3, Xingliang Meng1, Zhengfei Li1, Junqian Zhang1, Jing Xu2, Senlu Yin2, Zhicai Xie1, *()   

  1. 1 Center for Aquatic Biodiversity and Resource Conservation, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    2 State Environment Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2019-09-14 Accepted:2019-12-17 Online:2020-01-14
  • Zhicai Xie E-mail:zhcxie@ihb.ac.cn

Being the second largest freshwater lake in China, the Dongting Lake supports high biodiversity of endemic mollusks. Although surveys concerning mollusk diversity in this region are plentiful, there is no comprehensive resource for cataloging their diversity. Here, we carried out a comprehensive mollusk diversity assessment in the southern Dongting Lake and identified potential factors driving the observed community patterns, based on combined historical datasets and a five-year field survey (2013-2018). We identified a total of 87 species (Gastropoda: 41 species and Bivalvia: 46 species) belonging to 5 orders, 14 families, 33 genera. Fifty-four species (Gastropoda: 22 species and Bivalvia: 32 species) of mollusks were found, belonging to 5 orders, 12 families, 31 genera. Twenty-one species were in vulnerable condition (Gastropoda: 4 species and Bivalvia: 17 species). Dominant species were Corbicula fluminea, Parafossarulus eximius, Bellamya aeruginosa, Rivularia ovum. Distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) shows that some local physical (substrate and water depth) and chemical (pH, total dissolved solid and total phosphate) factors seemed to regulate mollusk community. Additionally, human activities in the region (such as commercial sand-mining industry, dam construction and coastal land use, overfishing and illegal electric fishing) also have a profound impact on the survival of mollusk. More importantly, anthropogenic pressures have caused a dramatic decline in mollusk diversity in recent decades, possibly leading to local extinction of some previously recorded endemic species. To protect the lake’s mollusk diversity, a series of strategies and practices should be taken by local authorities and the public. These practices could include control and regulation of the illegal sand-mining industry, a ban on overfishing and illegal electric fishing, maintaining the naturally hydrology, recovery of natural riparian zones, and control the discharge of point source and non-point source pollutants. We argued that a mollusk-based reserve should be established to protect mollusk diversity and endemism of the benthos, and possibly the lake as a whole.

Key words: mollusk, southern Dongting Lake, species diversity assessment, protection strategies

Fig. 1

Sample sites of mollusk in the southern Dongting Lake"

Table 1

Environmental parameters of each station in the southern Dongting Lake"

杨阁老
YGL
东南湖2#
DNH-2#
白沙渡
BSD
东南湖1#
DNH-1#
资江口
ZJK
万子湖
WZH
P
水温 Water temperature (℃) 17.84 ± 9.26 18.03 ± 8.40 20.90 ± 7.35 22.20 ± 8.14 21.17 ± 7.35 17.76 ± 9.15 0.794
电导率 Conductivity (μs/cm) 213.24 ± 58.93 204.64 ± 46.96 209.41 ± 37.87 222.70 ± 53.13 218.25 ± 37.98 207.74 ± 47.34 0.981
溶解氧 Dissolved oxygen (mg/L) 8.20 ± 3.13 8.22 ± 2.58 7.64 ± 2.16 6.62 ± 2.11 7.56 ± 2.66 8.39 ± 2.97 0.929
pH 8.27 ± 0.37 8.25 ± 0.32 8.25 ± 0.34 8.25 ± 0.32 8.32 ± 0.24 8.26 ± 0.37 0.999
水深 Water depth (m) 2.68 ± 1.06 5.06 ± 3.13 6.03 ± 1.87 6.38 ± 3.22 4.33 ± 0.98 2.78 ± 1.61 < 0.01
透明度 Transparency (m) 0.55 ± 0.17 0.44 ± 0.14 0.60 ± 0.12 0.45 ± 0.09 0.44 ± 0.17 0.49 ± 0.21 0.294
总溶解固体 Total dissolved solid (TDS, mg/L) 0.16 ± 0.02 0.15 ± 0.01 0.15 ± 0.02 0.15 ± 0.02 0.14 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.02 0.606
总氮 Total nitrogen (mg/L) 1.88 ± 0.47 1.99 ± 0.42 1.59 ± 0.58 1.51 ± 0.13 1.96 ± 0.57 1.90 ± 0.69 0.463
硝态氮 Nitrate nitrogen (mg/L) 1.25 ± 0.44 1.49 ± 0.30 1.50 ± 0.20 1.30 ± 0.21 1.38 ± 0.28 1.35 ± 0.43 0.634
氨氮 Ammonia nitrogen (mg/L) 0.48 ± 0.42 0.40 ± 0.34 0.31 ± 0.30 0.21 ± 0.16 0.48 ± 0.47 0.46 ± 0.39 0.516
总磷 Total phosphate (mg/L) 0.18 ± 0.10 0.17 ± 0.08 0.26 ± 0.33 0.10 ± 0.03 0.19 ± 0.28 0.17 ± 0.09 0.822
正磷酸盐 Phosphate (mg/L) 0.10 ± 0.07 0.08 ± 0.05 0.12 ± 0.09 0.06 ± 0.07 0.11 ± 0.09 0.10 ± 0.07 0.774
砾石 Gravel (%) 0.06 0.02 0.08 0.94 0.13 0.30 < 0.01
粗砂 Coarse sand (%) 1.28 1.75 0.43 4.23 0.45 8.34 < 0.01
中砂 Medium sand (%) 0.23 0.83 0.16 37.50 32.10 0.90 < 0.01
细砂 Fine sand (%) 10.69 3.87 9.79 17.21 58.65 18.85 < 0.01
淤泥 Silt (%) 30.69 40.83 25.70 16.20 0.00 21.49 < 0.01
粘土 Clay (%) 57.06 52.69 63.84 23.91 8.67 50.12 < 0.01

Table 2

Specie richness of mollusk of each station in the southern Dongting Lake"

杨阁老
YGL
东南湖2#
DNH-2#
白沙渡
BSD
东南湖1#
DNH-1#
资江口
ZJK
万子湖
WZH
其他区域
Other region
田螺科 Viviparidae 6 7 5 2 2 6 5
豆螺科 Bithyniidae 3 1 3 3 3 5 2
肋蜷科 Pleuroseridae 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
椎实螺科 Lymnaeidae 2 1 0 0 0 1 2
膀胱螺科 Physidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
扁蜷螺科 Planorbidae 2 3 0 0 1 1 3
瓶螺科 Pilaidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
蚌科 Unionidae 14 16 12 5 6 10 18
截蛏科 Solecurtidae 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
蚬科 Corbiculidae 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
球蚬科 Sphaeriidae 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
贻贝科 Mytilidae 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
总计 Total 32 32 22 13 15 27 38

Table 3

The density of dominant species of mollusk in each station and the southern Dongting Lake (ind./m2)"

全湖区
Whole lake
杨阁老
YGL
东南湖2#
DNH-2#
白沙渡
BSD
东南湖1#
DNH-1#
资江口
ZJK
万子湖
WZH
铜锈环棱螺 Bellamya aeruginosa 42.3 41.5 33.5 92.4
长河螺 Rivularia elongate 58.0 131.0 122.5
卵河螺 Rivularia ovum 31.4 28.41 158.9
双龙骨河螺 Rivularia bicarinata 90.3
大沼螺 Parafossarulus eximius 76.9 75.9 187.4 79.0
河蚬 Corbicula fluminea 72.4 324.1 365.4 174.8 109.71 213.4 106.9

Fig. 2

The density and biomass of mollusk of each station in the southern Dongting Lake"

Table 4

Environmental factors that restrict the structure of mollusk community in the southern Dongting Lake"

环境参数
Environmental parameters
校正R2 Adj R2 F P
pH 0.033 2.395 0.013
水深 Water depth (m) 0.064 2.344 0.015
淤泥 Silt (%) 0.089 2.088 0.042
总磷 Total phosphate (TP, mg/L) 0.108 1.796 0.074
总溶解固体 Total dissolved solid
(TDS, mg/L)
0.129 1.905 0.055
粗砂 Coarse sand (%) 0.151 1.896 0.065
溶解氧 Dissolved oxygen (DO, mg/L) 0.217 1.735 0.080

Fig. 3

Distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) of mollusk and environmental factors in the southern Dongting Lake"

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