Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 630-637.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019122

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

Impact of livestock terrain utilization patterns on wildlife: A case study of Wanglang National Nature Reserve

Chen Xing1, Zhao Lianjun2, Hu Xixi1, Luo Chunping2, Liang Chunping2, Jiang Shiwei2, Liang Lei1, Zheng Weichao3, *(), Guan Tianpei1, *()   

  1. 1 Ecological Security and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Mianyang Teachers’ College, Mianyang, Sichuan 621000
    2 Wanglang National Nature Reserve, Pingwu, Sichuan 622550
    3 Tangjiahe National Nature Reserve, Qingchuan, Sichuan 628100
  • Received:2019-04-09 Accepted:2019-06-14 Online:2019-06-20
  • Zheng Weichao,Guan Tianpei E-mail:379265906@qq.com;tp-guan@hotmail.com

Terrain use is a fundamental factor of wildlife habitat and is closely related to other environmental factors. To assess the impact of cattle and horse on wildlife, we conducted field surveys in Wanglang National Nature Reserve and analyzed terrain preferences. We also deployed infrared cameras and historical biodiversity data to evaluate the risk of disturbance to key protected species based on altitudinal distribution of livestock. Results showed: (1) Both horse and cattle preferred low altitude habitats with low slopes, close to water with half to full sun aspects. However, there was also significant differences in terrain use between these two domestic animals. (2) The areas with the most frequent disturbance by livestock in the Wanglang Nature Reserve were Youyizhigou and Zhenggou in Zhugencha, and Yangdonggou in Dawodang. (3) Based on historical data, takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana) is likely the most influenced wildlife species, as the degree of overlap with livestock along altitudinal gradients is very high. Infrared camera data showed that areas frequented by livestock had fewer takin individuals recorded, indicating a negative relationship due to co-existence. Based on our findings, we suggest, (1) nature reserve should focus livestock in two core areas of Zhugencha (Youyizhigou, Zhenggou and Baishagou) and Dawodang (Yangdonggou and Waicepo) by monitoring the population and distribution of livestock in these areas; (2) they should prohibit the dispersal and distribution of livestock towards higher elevations; (3) the frequency with which local herdsman feed livestock salt needs to be controlled; (4) the strength of law enforcement towards illegal herds should be elevated.

Key words: elevation, habitat, grazing, Southwest of China, giant panda, national park

Fig. 1

The location of camera and linear transects in Wanglang National Nature Reserve. 1, Youyizhigou of Dawodang; 2, Youyizhigou of Zhugencha; 3, Tiebanfanggou; 4, Youerzhigou of Zhugencha; 5, The left of Dacaoping; 6, Yangdonggou of Dawodang; 7, Waicepo of Dawodang; 8, Baishagou; 9, The ridge between Baozigou and Jiefanggou; 10, Zhenggou of Zhugencha; 11, Qikeshugou; 12, Tianranmiaopugou; 13, Erdaoping; 14, Laotingchechangduipo of Zhugencha; 15, Nangou of Zhugencha; 16, The first supplementary survey trail; 17, The second supplementary survey trail."

Table 1

Terrain preference of cattle and horse"

地形因子 Terrain factor 牛 Cattle 马 Horse 可选择性 Availability
海拔 Elevation (m) 2,987.33 ± 7.04 3,092.97 ± 6.42 3,496.97 ± 3.44
坡度 Slope (°) 16.28 ± 0.36 16.28 ± 0.28 30.57 ± 0.09
地形起伏度 Terrain roughness index 28.08 ± 0.56 28.23 ± 0.49 47.51 ± 0.16
距水源距离 Distance to water (m) 187.12 ± 7.21 153.48 ± 5.52 465.2 ± 2.25
太阳辐射值 Solar radiation value (WH/m2) 985,160.94 ± 3,125.05 978,059.35 ± 2,252.7 947,815.03 ± 880.76
阴坡 Shady slope (%) 5.52 7.11 11.58
阳坡 Sunny slope (%) 18.14 12.24 10.31
半阴坡 Semi-shady slope (%) 26.71 36.62 39.67
半阳坡 Semi-sunny slope (%) 49.64 44.03 38.44

Table 2

Test of terrain utilization of livestock"

地形因子 Terrain factor 牛-马 Cattle-horse 牛-背景值 Cattle-background 马-背景值 Horse-background
海拔 Elevation 0.000 0.000 0.000
坡度 Slope 0.663 0.000 0.000
地形起伏度 Terrain roughness index 1.000 0.000 0.000
距水源距离 Distance to water 0.000 0.000 0.000
太阳辐射值 Solar radiation value 0.005 0.000 0.000

Fig. 2

Distribution patterns of free range livestock in different valleys of Wanglang National Nature Reserve along altitudinal gradients. 1, Baishagou; 2, Laotingchechangduipo of Zhugencha; 3, Zhenggou of Zhugencha; 4, Waicepo of Dawodang; 5, Yangdonggou of Dawodang; 6, Youyizhigou of Dawodang; 7, Erdaoping; 8, Youyizhigou of Zhugencha; 9, The ridge between Baozigou and Jiefanggou; 10, Qikeshugou."

Table 3

Test of difference on altitudinal distribution between livestock and sympatric wildlife"

物种 Species 牛 Cattle 马 Horse
大熊猫 Ailuropoda melanoleuca 0.001 0.000
中华斑羚 Naemorhedus griseus 0.091 0.000
中华鬣羚 Capricornis milneedwardsii 0.661 0.001
羚牛 Budorcas taxicolor tibetana 0.314 1.000

Fig. 3

Patterns of altitude distribution of wildlife and livestock"

[1] Arlettaz R, Nusslé S, Baltic M, Vogel P, Palme R, Jenni- Eiermann S, Patthey P, Genoud M ( 2015) Disturbance of wildlife by outdoor winter recreation: Allostatic stress response and altered activity-energy budgets. Ecological Applications, 25, 1197-1212.
doi: 10.1890/14-1141.1
[2] Atickem A, Loe LE ( 2014) Livestock-wildlife conflicts in the Ethiopian highlands: Assessing the dietary and spatial overlap between mountain nyala and cattle. African Journal of Ecology, 52, 343-351.
[3] Carmel Y, Kadmon R ( 1999) Effects of grazing and topography on long-term vegetation changes in a Mediterranean ecosystem in Israel. Plant Ecology, 145, 243-254.
doi: 10.1023/A:1009872306093
[4] Cheng CL, Li JQ ( 2006) Economic status and development strategy in local communities surrounding Wanglang Nature Reserve. Journal of Beijing Forestry University (Social Sciences), 5(1), 69-72. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 程春龙, 李俊清 ( 2006) 王朗自然保护区周边社区经济现状和发展对策研究. 北京林业大学学报(社会科学版), 5(1), 69-72.]
[5] Craigie ID, Baillie JEM, Balmford A, Carbone C, Collen B, Green RE, Hutton JM ( 2010) Large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas. Biological Conservation, 143, 2221-2228.
doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.06.007
[6] Guan TP, Ge BM, Mcshea WJ, Li S, Song YL, Stewart CM ( 2013) Seasonal migration by a large forest ungulate: A study on takin (Budorcas taxicolor) in Sichuan Province, China. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 59, 81-91.
doi: 10.1007/s10344-012-0650-2
[7] Guan TP, Wang F, Li S, Mcshea WJ ( 2015) Nature reserve requirements for landscape-dependent ungulates: The case of endangered takin (Budorcas taxicolor) in southwestern China. Biological Conservation, 182, 63-71.
doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.11.041
[8] Hüseyin KF, Seefeldt SS, Sahin B ( 2007) The effects of long-term grazing exclosures on range plants in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. Environmental Management, 39, 326-337.
doi: 10.1007/s00267-005-0392-y
[9] Khadka KK, James DA ( 2016) Habitat selection by endangered Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) and impacts of livestock grazing in Nepal Himalaya: Implications for conservation. Journal for Nature Conservation, 31, 38-42.
doi: 10.1016/j.jnc.2016.03.002
[10] Kittur S, Sathyakumar S, Rawat GS ( 2010) Assessment of spatial and habitat use overlap between Himalayan tahr and livestock in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, India. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 56, 195-204.
doi: 10.1007/s10344-009-0302-3
[11] Li BB, Pimm SL, Li S, Zhao LJ, Luo CP ( 2017) Free-ranging livestock threaten the long-term survival of giant pandas. Biological Conservation, 216, 18-25.
doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2017.09.019
[12] Li JS, Song YL, Wang XZ, Zeng ZG ( 2003) Spatial pattern of small mammals community diversity in different grazing pressure in montane desert-steppe. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 25, 51-58. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 李俊生, 宋延龄, 王学志, 曾治高 ( 2003) 放牧压力条件下荒漠草原小型哺乳动物群落多样性的空间格局. 生态学报, 25, 51-58.]
[13] Ma XD, Zhang SJ, Su ZY, Ou YD, Liu G ( 2010) Community structure in relation to microtopography in a montane evergreen broadleaved forest in Chebaling National Nature Reserve. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 30, 5151-5160. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 马旭东, 张苏峻, 苏志尧, 区余端, 刘刚 ( 2010) 车八岭山地常绿阔叶林群落结构特征与微地形条件的关系. 生态学报, 30, 5151-5160.]
[14] Madhusudan MD ( 2004) Recovery of wild large herbivores following livestock decline in a tropical Indian wildlife reserve. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 858-869.
doi: 10.1111/jpe.2004.41.issue-5
[15] Maxwell SL, Fuller RA, Brooks TM, Watson JEM ( 2016) Biodiversity: The ravages of guns, nets and bulldozers. Nature, 536, 143-145.
doi: 10.1038/536143a
[16] Mishra C, Wieren SEV, Ketner P, Heitkönig IMA, Prins HHT ( 2004) Competition between domestic livestock and wild bharal Pseudois nayaur in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 344-354.
doi: 10.1111/j.0021-8901.2004.00885.x
[17] Qi D, Zhang SN, Zhang ZJ, Hu YB, Yang XY, Wang HJ, Wei FW ( 2012) Measures of giant panda habitat selection across multiple spatial scales for species conservation. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 76, 1092-1100.
doi: 10.1002/jwmg.v76.5
[18] Ran JH, Liu SY, Wang HJ, Sun ZY, Zeng ZY, Liu SC ( 2003) Habitat selection by giant pandas and grazing livestock in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains of Sichuan Province. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 23, 2253-2259. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 冉江洪, 刘少英, 王鸿加, 孙治宇, 曾宗永, 刘世昌 ( 2003) 小相岭大熊猫与放牧家畜的生境选择. 生态学报, 23, 2253-2259.]
[19] Shen ZH, Jin YX, Zhang XS ( 2000) Gradient analysis of the influence of mountain topography on vegetation pattern. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 24, 430-435. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 沈泽昊, 金义兴, 张新时 ( 2000) 地形对亚热带山地景观尺度植被格局影响的梯度分析. 植物生态学报, 24, 430-435.]
[20] Shi D, Yang W, Jiang SW, Yuan ZW, Lei XH ( 2009) Preliminary research on insects biodiversity in Wanglang National Nature Reserve. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 28, 691-695. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 师丹, 杨伟, 蒋仕伟, 袁志伟, 雷喜红 ( 2009) 四川王朗国家级自然保护区昆虫生物多样性初步研究. 四川动物, 28, 691-695.]
[21] Sichuan Forestry Department ( 2015) The Pandas of Sichuan— The 4th Survey Report on Giant Panda in Sichuan Province. Sichuan Science and Technology Press, Chengdu. (in Chinese)
[ 四川省林业厅( 2015) 四川的大熊猫——四川省第四次大熊猫调查报告. 四川科技出版社, 成都.]
[22] Takala T, Tahvanainen T, Kouki J ( 2014) Grazing promotes bryophyte species richness in semi-natural grasslands. Annales Botanici Fennici, 51, 148-160.
doi: 10.5735/085.053.0102
[23] Wang F, McShea WJ, Wang DJ, Li S ( 2015) Shared resources between giant panda and sympatric wild and domestic mammals. Biological Conservation, 186, 319-325.
doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.03.032
[24] Wang X, Hou J, Zhang JD, Bai WK, Huang JY, Zhou SQ, Ouyang ZY ( 2018) Divergent behavioral responses of sympatric species to grazing disturbance. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 38, 129-137. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 王晓, 侯金, 张晋东, 白文科, 黄金燕, 周世强, 欧阳志云 ( 2018) 同域分布的珍稀野生动物对放牧的行为响应策略. 生态学报, 38, 129-137.]
[25] Watson JE, Dudley N, Segan DB, Hockings M ( 2014) The performance and potential of protected areas. Nature, 515, 67-73.
doi: 10.1038/nature13947
[26] Webb EL, Stanfield BJ, Jensen ML ( 1999) Effects of topography on rainforest tree community structure and diversity in American Samoa, and implications for frugivore and nectarivore populations. Journal of Biogeography, 26, 887-897.
doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.1999.00326.x
[27] Wei FW, Zhang ZJ, Hu JC ( 2011) Research advances and perspectives on the ecology of wild giant pandas. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 31, 412-421. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 魏辅文, 张泽钧, 胡锦矗 ( 2011) 野生大熊猫生态学研究进展与前瞻. 兽类学报, 31, 412-421.]
[28] Wei LY, Wei QZ, Mo ZP, Tong DW ( 2016) Effects of different disturbances on species diversity and productivity of the shrub-grass vegetation on the degraded land in Northwest Guangxi, China. Research of Soil and Water Conservation, 23, 288-293. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 韦兰英, 韦启忠, 莫祝平, 童德文 ( 2016) 不同干扰方式对桂西北灌草植被物种多样性和生产力的影响. 水土保持研究, 23, 288-293.]
[29] Wu Y, Zhang WX, Zhang LQ, Wu J ( 2012) Analysis of correlation between terrain and forest spatial distribution based on DEM. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 40(11), 96-98. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 吴英, 张万幸, 张丽琼, 伍静 ( 2012) 基于DEM的地形与植被分布关联分析. 东北林业大学学报, 40(11), 96-98.]
[30] Yu GQ, Kang ZJ, Liu MS, Chen ZF, Deng ZC ( 2018) Preliminary survey using infrared camera reveals fauna and avifauna diversity at Hupingshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan, China. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 38, 104-112. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 于桂清, 康祖杰, 刘美斯, 陈振法, 邓忠次 ( 2018) 利用红外相机对湖南壶瓶山国家级自然保护区兽类和鸟类多样性的初步调查. 兽类学报, 38, 104-112.]
[31] Zhang RZ ( 2011) Zoogeography of China. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[ 张荣祖 ( 2011) 中国动物地理. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[32] Zhao BB, Niu KC, Du GZ ( 2009) The effect of grazing on above-ground biomass allocation of 27 plant species in an alpine meadow plant community in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29, 1596-1606. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 赵彬彬, 牛克昌, 杜国祯 ( 2009) 放牧对青藏高原东缘高寒草甸群落27种植物地上生物量分配的影响. 生态学报, 29, 1596-1606.]
[33] Zhao P, Qu JJ, Xu XY, Tang JN, Han QJ, Xie SB, Wang T, Lai JH ( 2019) Study on the characteristics of sandy alpine grasslands and its relationship between plant distribution and microtopography in the source regions of Yangtze River. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 39, 1030-1040. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 赵鹏, 屈建军, 徐先英, 唐进年, 韩庆杰, 谢胜波, 王涛, 赖俊华 ( 2019) 长江源区沙化高寒草地植被群落特征及其与地形因子的关系. 生态学报, 39, 1030-1040.]
[1] YAN Peng-Fei, ZHAN Peng-Fei, XIAO De-Rong, WANG Yi, YU Rui, LIU Zhen-Ya, WANG Hang. Effects of simulated warming and decomposition interface on the litter decomposition rate of Zizania latifolia and its phyllospheric microbial community structure and function [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2019, 43(2): 107-118.
[2] Yan Wenbo,Ji Shengnan,Shuai Lingying,Zhao Leigang,Zhu Dapeng,Zeng Zhigao. Spatial distribution patterns of mammal diversity in Yangxian County of Shaanxi Province on the southern slope of the Qinling Mountains [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 177-185.
[3] Chen Qiangqiang, Li Meiling, Wang Xu, Mueen Qamer Faisal, Wang Peng, Yang Jianwei, Wang Muyang, Yang Weikang. Identification of potential ecological corridors for Marco Polo sheep in Taxkorgan Wildlife Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 186-199.
[4] Tang Fanglin, Yan Yan, Liu Wenguo. Construction progress of national park system in China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 123-127.
[5] Lü Zhongmei. Systematic legislation for nature conservation with national parks as the main body [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 128-136.
[6] Wang Yi, Huang Baorong. Institutional reform for building China’s national park system: Review and prospects [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 117-122.
[7] Zhang Chen,Guo Xin,Weng Sutong,Gao Jun,Fu Jing. Cross-border governance system construction of Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot by referring to the experience of French regional parks [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 97-103.
[8] Dai Yunchuan,Xue Yadong,Zhang Yunyi,Li Diqiang. Summary comments on assessment methods of ecosystem integrity for national parks [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 104-113.
[9] Wang Yufei,Su Hongqiao,Zhao Xinrui,Su Yang,Luo Min. Conservation easement-inspired adaptive management methods for natural protected areas: A case study on Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 88-96.
[10] Weng Changlu,Zhang Tiantian,Wu Donghao,Chen Shengwen,Jin Yi,Ren Haibao,Yu Mingjian,Luo Yuanyuan. Drivers and patterns of α- and β-diversity in ten main forest community types in Gutianshan, eastern China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 33-41.
[11] Li Shuang,Sun Xiaoping,Fang Yanjun,Zhang Yinlong,Cao Mingchang. Evaluation of the spatial characteristics of farmer livelihood assets in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 64-75.
[12] Li Jie,Li Weiyue,Fu Jing,Gao Jun,Yang Lei,He Weihang. Using low-altitude UAV remote sensing to identify national park functional zoning boundary: A case study in Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 42-50.
[13] Yu Jianping,Shen Yunyi,Song Xiaoyou,Chen Xiaonan,Li Sheng,Shen Xiaoli. Evaluating the effectiveness of functional zones for black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) protection in Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot site [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 5-12.
[14] Qian Haiyuan,Yu Jianping,Shen Xiaoli,Ding Ping,Li Sheng. Diversity and composition of birds in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(1): 76-80.
[15] Chenchen Ding,Yiming Hu,Chunwang Li,Zhigang Jiang. Distribution and habitat suitability assessment of the gaur Bos gaurus in China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(9): 951-961.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Junhua Liu;Weikai Bao. Major Bryophyte Patch Biomass and Relation with Environmental Factors in a Coniferous Forest of the Eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2006, 23(6): 684 -690 .
[2] Pu Jin-long;Ji Xiao-duo;He Zhen-xing;Gui Xiao-ming and Chen Xiao-liang. GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oils from some Species of Amomun[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1984, 2(04): 23 -25 .
[3] . Dissection of Quantitative Trait Loci for Cooking and Eating Quality Traits in Oryza sativa subsp. japonica[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2016, 51(6): 757 -763 .
[4] Weiqing Wang Hongyan Cheng. Progress in Seed Dormancy and Germination of Arabidopsis Mutants[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2006, 23(6): 625 -633 .
[5] Jinyan Zhu, Chaoqiu Ji, Yong Zhou, Jun Wang, Zhongde Wang, Jie Yang, Fangjun Fan, Guohua Liang, Weigong Zhong. Identification of Plant Height Quantitative Trait Loci with Single Segment Substituted Lines in Rice[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2011, 46(6): 632 -641 .
[6] Huang Yin-xiao. [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1983, 1(01): 47 -49 .
[7] Li xu-hang;Yin Wei-yi and Shao Li-mei. Preliminary Investigation of Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms on Drought-Resistance of Wheat Enhanced by Leaf-Spraying Fulvic Acid[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1992, 9(02): 44 -46 .
[8] Hong Jiang, Yingying Bai, Yingfu Rao, Chong Chen, Yongli Cai. Fine Root Biomass and Morphological Characteristics in Three Different Artificial Forest Communities in Newly Reclaimed Saline Soil[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2016, 51(3): 343 -352 .
[9] Cai Ji-jiong. Tissue Conductance Technique of Plant Specimens[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1988, 5(02): 117 -118 .
[10] HAO Jian-Hua. The Construction of Multimedia Integrable Ware Library for Teaching and Studying of Plant Biology[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2004, 21(01): 121 -127 .