Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 585-594.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019001

• Original Papers •     Next Article

Variation in basic morphological and functional traits of Chinese bamboo

Gu Hanjiao1, 2, Zhang Cancan1, 2, Wang Jinsong3, Shi Xuewen1, 2, Xia Ruixue1, 2, Liu Bin1, 2, Chen Fusheng1, 2, 4, Bu Wensheng1, 2, 4, *()   

  1. 1 College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Jiangxi Typical Trees Cultivation and Utilization, Nanchang 330045
    2 Jiulianshan National Observation and Research Station of Chinese Forest Ecosystem, Nanchang 330045
    3 Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    4 Key Laboratory of State Forestry Administration on Forest Ecosystem Protection and Restoration of Poyang Lake Watershed, Nanchang 330045
  • Received:2019-01-03 Accepted:2019-05-16 Online:2019-07-08
  • Bu Wensheng

Bamboo is a clonal plant that lacks a secondary growth process and has unique growth and reproduction characteristics. However, little is known about the variation in functional traits of bamboo among different functional group. In this study, all 534 known bamboo species (34 genera) in China were used as research subjects. Data of biological characteristics of these bamboo species was collected and organized from Flora of China, including various types of functional group and different functional traits. Types of functional group included rhizome type (sympodial, monopodial or mixed), shooting season (spring, summer, autumn or winter) and endemism (371 species endemic to China). Functional traits included height, diameter, internode length, wall thickness, leaf length and leaf width. Analysis of variance and multiple contrasts were performed to explore the variation in the basic morphological traits of bamboo among the different functional groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to explore the intrinsic correlations among functional traits and analyze functional trait variation in different functional groups of bamboo plants. The results show that: (1) Sympodial, monopodial and mixed bamboos differed significantly in their functional traits. Sympodial bamboo plants had the largest height, diameter, internode length and wall thickness, and the smallest leaf length and leaf width, followed by mixed bamboo plants. Meanwhile, monopodial bamboo plants had the smallest pole traits and the largest leaf traits. Species endemic to China had significantly smaller values for height, diameter, wall thickness and leaf length than non-endemic species. (2) There were significant positive correlations among bamboo plant height, diameter, internode length and wall thickness. Also, there was a positive correlation between leaf length and leaf width. (3) The “size traits” (diameter, culm height and wall thickness of bamboo) in vertical direction contributed more to the first principal component axis, while the “leaf traits” (leaf length and leaf width) in horizontal direction contributed more to the second principal component axis. These results show that for bamboo plants, the variation in capturing light resources in both horizontal and vertical directions may be the key factors driving the systematic evolution, the endemic distribution and the seasonal difference in bamboo shooting.

Key words: Chinese bamboo, rhizome type, endemism distribution, shooting season, functional traits

Table 1

Descriptive statistics on six functional traits of bamboo plants"

平均Mean 最小值Minimum 最大值Maximum CV
秆高 Culm height (m) 6.36 0.3 40 75
直径 Diameter (cm) 3.16 0.15 25 104
节间长 Internode length (cm) 29.04 0.75 90 45
竹壁厚 Wall thickness (mm) 5.22 0.16 32.5 95
叶长 Leaf length (cm) 14.35 0.95 45 48
叶宽 Leaf width (cm) 2.19 0.2 20.5 94

Fig. 1

Variations in morphological traits of bamboo plants with different rhizome types. Boxes with different letters differ significantly at P < 0.05."

Fig. 2

Variations in morphological traits of bamboo plants with different endemism. Boxes with different letters differ significantly at P < 0.05."

Fig. 3

Variations in morphological traits of bamboo plants with different shooting season. ns means no significant difference."

Fig. 4

Correlations among functional traits of bamboo plants. The horizontal and vertical coordinates represent the values of traits. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001, ns means no significant difference."

Table 2

Principal components analysis (PCA) table of functional traits of different types of bamboo plants"

地下茎类型 Rhizome type 特有种 Endemic species 出笋季节 Shooting season 综合 Overall






PCA1 Cumulative variance
60.75% 46.59% 40.19% 52.01% 55.25% 42.26% 45.58% 49.37% 73.69% 52.56%
Top 3 traits and factor loadings
Wall thickness
-1.93 1.26 -1.87 -2.03 1.73 -1.85 -1.64 -1.21 -0.76 -2.21
Leaf length
Leaf length
Culm height
Culm height
Culm height
Culm height
-1.87 1.24 -1.79 -2.02 1.65 -1.78 -1.62 -1.18 -0.74 -2.11
Wall thickness
Wall thickness
Wall thickness
-1.77 1.22 -1.45 -1.87 1.53 -1.21 -1.48 -1.16 -0.73 -1.95

Fig. 5

PCA of functional traits of Chinese bamboo plants. H, Culm height; D, Diameter; IL, Internode length; WT, Wall thickness; LL, Leaf length; LW, Leaf width."

[1] Anderson S ( 1994) Area and endemism. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 69, 451-471.
doi: 10.1086/418743
[2] Bu WS, Schmid B, Liu XJ, Li Y, Härdtle W, von Oheimb G, Liang Y, Sun ZK, Huang YY, Bruelheide H, Ma KP ( 2017) Interspecific and intraspecific variation in specific root length drives aboveground biodiversity effects in young experimental forest stands. Journal of Plant Ecology, 10, 158-169.
doi: 10.1093/jpe/rtw096
[3] Chen BK, Yang YM, Zhang GX, Sun MS, Shi M ( 2007) A study on cultivation and integrated utilization of large-size cluster bamboo. Journal of West China Forestry Science, 36(2), 1-9. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 陈宝昆, 杨宇明, 张国学, 孙茂盛, 石明 ( 2007) 大型丛生竹的培育技术及其综合利用研究. 西部林业科学, 36(2), 1-9.]
[4] Chen QB ( 2007) Landscaping with Ornamental Bamboos. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[ 陈其兵 ( 2007) 观赏竹配置与造景. 中国林业出版社, 北京.]
[5] Chen SH ( 2009) Landscaping Applications of Ornamental Bamboos. China Architecture and Building Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[ 陈松河 ( 2009) 观赏竹园林景观应用. 中国建筑工业出版社, 北京.]
[6] Dai FG ( 2014) A study on development and utilization of bamboo shoots forests in four seasons. Forestry Prospect and Design, ( 1), 100-104. (in Chinese)
[ 代凤贵 ( 2014) 四季笋用竹林开发利用研究. 林业勘察设计, ( 1), 100-104.]
[7] Díaz S, Cabido M, Casanoves F ( 1998) Plant functional traits and environmental filters at a regional scale. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, 113-122.
doi: 10.2307/3237229
[8] Díaz S, Cabido M, Zak M, Carretero EM, Araníbar J ( 2010) Plant functional traits, ecosystem structure and land-use history along a climatic gradient in central-western Argentina. Journal of Vegetation Science, 10, 651-660.
[9] Feng JM, Zhu YY ( 2010) On the genera of seed plants endemic to China in Yunnan. Ecology and Environmental Sciences 19, 621-625. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 冯建孟, 朱有勇 ( 2010) 云南地区中国种子植物特有属的研究. 生态环境学报, 19, 621-625.]
[10] Gao GB, Wu ZZ, Pan YH, Ding XC, Zhong H, Tian XL ( 2016) Morphological plasticity of Indocalamus decorus Q.H.Dai in the heterogeneous environment. Journal of Anhui Agricultural University, 43, 220-226. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 高贵宾, 吴志庄, 潘雁红, 丁兴萃, 钟浩, 田新立 ( 2016) 异质环境条件下美丽箬竹的形态可塑性. 安徽农业大学学报, 43, 220-226.]
[11] Gao SP, Chen QB, Liu L ( 2002) The selection of paper-pulp bamboo species and the development of bamboo paper sector in Sichuan. Journal of Bamboo Research, 21(4), 47-51. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 高素萍, 陈其兵, 刘丽 ( 2002) 四川省优良纸浆竹种选择与竹纸产业化发展. 竹子学报, 21(4), 47-51.]
[12] Garnier E, Cortez J, Billès G, Navas ML, Roumet C, Debussche M, Laurent G, Blanchard A, Aubry D, Bellmann A ( 2004) Plant functional markers capture ecosystem properties during secondary succession. Ecology, 85, 2630-2637.
doi: 10.1890/03-0799
[13] Gu DX, Chen SL, Zheng WM, Mao XQ ( 2010) Review of the ecologicol adaptability of bamboo. Journal of Bamboo Research, 29(1), 17-23. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 顾大形, 陈双林, 郑炜曼, 毛仙琴 ( 2010) 竹子生态适应性研究综述. 竹子学报, 29(1), 17-23.]
[14] Guo W, Xu RJ, Qi LH, Hu X, Ding X, Cheng CJ, Zhang J, Lei G ( 2018) Research progress of photosynthetic characteristics and leaf functional traits of bamboo plants. World Forestry Research, 31(4), 29-35. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 郭雯, 徐瑞晶, 漆良华, 胡璇, 丁霞, 程昌锦, 张建, 雷刚 ( 2018) 竹类植物光合特性与叶片功能性状研究. 世界林业研究, 31(4), 29-35.]
[15] Huang JH, Chen JH, Ying JS, Ma KP ( 2011) Features and distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species. Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 49, 81-94.
doi: 10.1111/j.1759-6831.2011.00119.x
[16] Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences( 1977) Flora of Jiangsu. Jiangsu People’s Publishing House, Nanjing. (in Chinese)
[ 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所( 1977) 江苏植物志. 江苏人民出版社, 南京.]
[17] Ji LK, Xie JZ, Zhang W, Lu P, Zhang L ( 2016) Organic carbon allocation pattern and changes regulation in various organs of Phyllostachys violascens clone system in shooting period. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 36, 7624-7634. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 冀琳珂, 谢锦忠, 张玮, 卢鹏, 张磊 ( 2016) 雷竹克隆系统出笋期有机碳分布变化规律. 生态学报, 36, 7624-7634.]
[18] Jiang ZH ( 2002) Bamboo and Rattan in the World. Liaoning Science and Techonology Publishing House, Shenyang. (in Chinese)
[ 江泽慧 ( 2002) 世界竹藤. 辽宁科学技术出版社, 沈阳.]
[19] Li L, Feng SD, Wang JB, Ni HW, Fu XL, Yang LY, Xu MH ( 2010) Relationship between photosynthetic characteristics and leaf functional traits of 12 plant species of marshes in Sanjiang Plain. Wetland Science, 8, 225-232. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 黎莉, 冯树丹, 王建波, 倪红伟, 付晓玲, 杨丽影, 徐明华 ( 2010) 三江平原12种湿地植物光合特性与叶功能性状的关系研究. 湿地科学, 8, 225-232.]
[20] Li R, Zhang J, Zhang ZE ( 2003) Values of bamboo biodiversity and its protection in China. Journal of Bamboo Research, 22(4), 7-12. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 李睿, 章笕, 章珠娥 ( 2003) 中国竹类植物生物多样性的价值及保护进展. 竹子学报, 22(4), 7-12.]
[21] Lin Q ( 1993) Flora of Zhejiang, Vol. 7. Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishing House, Hangzhou. (in Chinese)
[ 林泉 ( 1993) 浙江植物志: 第7卷. 浙江科学技术出版社, 杭州.]
[22] Liu XJ, Ma KP ( 2015) Plant functional traits—Concepts, applications and future directions. Sientia Sinica Vitae, 45, 325-339. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 刘晓娟, 马克平 ( 2015) 植物功能性状研究进展. 中国科学: 生命科学, 45, 325-339.]
[23] Lu ZJ, Wang W, Zhang WH, Li H, Cao Q, Dang GD, He D ( 2009) Spatial-temporal patterns of Bashania fargesii bamboo shoot emergence and giant panda herbivory. Biodiversity Science, 17, 1-9. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 卢志军, 王巍, 张文辉, 李红, 曹庆, 党高弟, 何东 ( 2009) 巴山木竹发笋和大熊猫取食的时空格局及相关性分析. 生物多样性, 17, 1-9.]
[24] Mao D, Chen JH ( 2005) The present situation and development trend of research on bamboo sprout. Hunan Forestry Science and Technology, 32(6), 59-60. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 毛丹, 陈建华 ( 2005) 笋用竹研究现状及发展趋势. 湖南林业科技, 32(6), 59-60.]
[25] Mcintyre S, Lavorel S, Landsberg J, Forbes T ( 1999) Disturbance response in vegetation: Towards a global perspective on functional traits. Journal of Vegetation Science, 10, 621-630.
doi: 10.2307/3237077
[26] Meinzer FC, Lachenbruch B, Dawson TE ( 2011) Size- and Age-Related Changes in Tree Structure and Function. Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin.
[27] Milla R, Reich PB ( 2007) The scaling of leaf area and mass: The cost of light interception increases with leaf size. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274, 2109-2114.
doi: 10.1098/rspb.2007.0417
[28] Osnas JL, Katabuchi M, Kitajima K, Wright SJ, Reich PB, Van Bael SA, Kraft NJ, Samaniego MJ, Pacala SW, Lichstein JW ( 2018) Divergent drivers of leaf trait variation within species, among species, and among functional groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 115, 5480-5485.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1803989115
[29] Perez-Harguindeguy N, Díaz S, Garnier E, Lavorel S, Poorter H, Jaureguiberry P, Bret-Harte M, Cornwell WK, Craine JM, Gurvich DE ( 2016) Corrigendum to: New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany, 64, 715-716.
doi: 10.1071/BT12225_CO
[30] Song MH, Dong M ( 2002) Importance of clonal plants in community. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 22, 1960-1967. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 宋明华, 董鸣 ( 2002) 群落中克隆植物的重要性. 生态学报, 22, 1960-1967.]
[31] Tang QQ, Huang YT, Ding Y, Zang RG ( 2016) Interspecific and intraspecific variation in functional traits of subtropical evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests. Biodiversity Science, 24, 262-270. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 唐青青, 黄永涛, 丁易, 臧润国 ( 2016) 亚热带常绿落叶阔叶混交林植物功能性状的种间和种内变异. 生物多样性, 24, 262-270.]
[32] Violle C, Navas ML, Vile D, Kazakou E, Fortunel C, Hummel I, Garnier E ( 2007) Let the concept of trait be functional! Oikos, 116, 882-892.
doi: 10.1111/oik.2007.116.issue-5
[33] Wang CS, Wang SP ( 2015) A review of research on responses of leaf traits to climate change. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 39, 206-216. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 王常顺, 汪诗平 ( 2015) 植物叶片性状对气候变化的响应研究进展. 植物生态学报, 39, 206-216.]
[34] Wang YD ( 2001) Current research on bamboo culm form. Journal of Bamboo Research, 20(4), 28-32. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 汪阳东 ( 2001) 竹子秆形生长和变异的研究进展. 竹子学报, 20(4), 28-32.]
[35] Wright IJ, Ackerly DD, Bongers F, Harms KE, Ibarra- Manriquez G, Martinez-Ramos M, Mazer SJ, Muller- Landau HC, Paz H, Pitman NC ( 2007) Relationships among ecologically important dimensions of plant trait variation in seven Neotropical forests. Annals of Botany, 99, 1003-1015.
doi: 10.1093/aob/mcl066
[36] Wu ZY ( 2003) The areal-types of Chinese genera of seed plants. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 25, 245-257. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 吴征镒 ( 2003) 世界种子植物科的分布区类型系统. 云南植物研究, 25, 245-257.]
[37] Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY ( 2006) Flora of China: Poaceae Bambusoideae. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
[38] Yang F, Hui ZM ( 2014) Studies on bamboo diversity and its evaluation in Yunnan, China. World Bamboo and Rattan, 12(1), 32-35. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 阳斐, 辉朝茂 ( 2014) 云南竹类多样性及其评价研究现状. 世界竹藤通讯, 12(1), 32-35.]
[39] Yi TP ( 2008) Atlas of Chinese Bamboo. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[ 易同培 ( 2008) 中国竹类图志. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[40] Zhang HD ( 1997) Plant endemism and biodiversity. Ecologic Science, 16(2), 9-17. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 张宏达 ( 1997) 植物的特有现象与生物多样性. 生态科学, 16(2), 9-17.]
[41] Zhang L, Yang GY, Li ZY, Zhang YH, Sun YD, Li Y ( 2017) Form and structure of bamboo culm of Phyllostachys edulis ‘Pachyloen’ growing in different habitats. Journal of Bamboo Research, 36(1), 19-24. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 张雷, 杨光耀, 黎祖尧, 张艳华, 孙娅东, 李苑 ( 2017) 不同产地厚竹秆形结构比较. 竹子学报, 36(1), 19-24.]
[42] Zheng WP, Zheng R, Lin HQ, Lin LN, Wu FJ ( 2002) The relationship between leaf area index and growth factor of Dendrocamopsis oldhami. Journal of Fujian Forestry Science and Technology, 29(4), 1-4. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 郑维鹏, 郑蓉, 林海青, 林丽娜, 吴福坚 ( 2002) 绿竹叶面积指数与生长因子的关系. 福建林业科技, 29(4), 1-4.]
[43] Zhong YB, Jiang X, Lou C ( 2014) Research progress in growth rhythm of bamboos. World Bamboo and Rattan, 12(3), 35-44. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 钟远标, 江雪, 楼崇 ( 2014) 竹类植物生长规律研究进展. 世界竹藤通讯, 12(3), 35-44.]
[44] Zhou FC ( 1981) Studies on the structure of culm form of Phyllostachys pubescens. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University (Natural Sciences Edition), ( 1), 16-69. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 周芳纯 ( 1981) 毛竹秆形结构的研究. 南京林业大学学报 (自然科学版), ( 1), 16-69.]
[45] Zhou FC ( 1993) Bamboo forest cultivation. Bamboo Studies, ( 1), 1-95. (in Chinese)
[ 周芳纯 ( 1993) 竹林培育学. 竹类研究, ( 1), 1-95.]
[46] Zhou FC ( 1998) Cultivation and Utilization on Bamboos. Nanjing Forestry University Printing House, Nanjing. (in Chinese)
[ 周芳纯 ( 1998) 竹林培育和利用. 南京林业大学印刷厂, 南京.]
[47] Zhou YQ, Gu XP, Li BX, Guo YH, Su WH ( 2010) Culm characteristics of three sympodial bamboo species in south Sichuan. Journal of Fujian College of Forestry, 30, 45-50. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 周益权, 顾小平, 李本祥, 郭岩辉, 苏文会 ( 2010) 川南地区3种丛生竹竹秆特性研究. 福建林学院学报, 30, 45-50.]
[1] Shitong Wang,Yaozhan Xu,Teng Yang,Xinzeng Wei,Mingxi Jiang. (2020) Impacts of microhabitats on leaf functional traits of the wild population of Sinojackia huangmeiensis . Biodiv Sci, 28(3): 277-288.
[2] FU Yi-Wen, TIAN Da-Shuan, WANG Jin-Song, NIU Shu-Li, ZHAO Ken-Tian. (2019) Patterns and affecting factors of nitrogen use efficiency of plant leaves and roots in Nei Mongol and Qinghai-Xizang Plateau grasslands . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(7): 566-575.
[3] ZHAO Dan-Dan, MA Hong-Yuan, LI Yang, WEI Ji-Ping, WANG Zhi-Chun. (2019) Effects of water and nutrient additions on functional traits and aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(6): 501-511.
[4] Xie Lihong,Huang Qingyang,Cao Hongjie,Yang Fan,Wang Jifeng,Ni Hongwei. (2019) Leaf functional traits of Acer mono in Wudalianchi Volcano, China . Biodiv Sci, 27(3): 286-296.
[5] Ruyun Zhang,Yanpeng Li,Yunlong Ni,Xujun Gui,Juyu Lian,Wanhui Ye. (2019) Intraspecific variation of leaf functional traits along the vertical layer in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of Dinghushan . Biodiv Sci, 27(12): 1279-1290.
[6] HE Yun-Yu, GUO Shui-Liang, WANG Zhe. (2019) Research progress of trade-off relationships of plant functional traits . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(12): 1021-1035.
[7] LIANG Shi-Chu, LIU Run-Hong, RONG Chun-Yan, CHANG Bin, JIANG Yong. (2019) Variation and correlation of plant functional traits in the riparian zone of the Lijiang River, Guilin, Southwest China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(1): 16-26.
[8] GAO Si-Han, GE Yu-Xi, ZHOU Li-Yi, ZHU Bao-Lin, GE Xing-Yu, LI Kai, NI Jian. (2018) What is the optimal number of leaves when measuring leaf area of tree species in a forest community? . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 42(9): 917-925.
[9] PENG Xi, YAN Wen-De, WANG Feng-Qi, WANG Guang-Jun, YU Fang-Yong, ZHAO Mei-Fang. (2018) Specific leaf area estimation model building based on leaf dry matter content of Cunninghamia lanceolata . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 42(2): 209-219.
[10] ZHAOLe-Wen, CHEN Zi-Yi, ZOU Ying, FU Zi-Zhao, WU Gui-Lin, LIU Xiao-Rong, LUO Qi, LIN Yi-Xue, LI Xiong-Ju, LIU Zhi-Tong, LIU Hui. (2018) Changes in hydraulic traits of nine vascular plants from different evolutionary lineages . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 42(2): 220-228.
[11] Hua-Jun YIN,Zi-Liang ZHANG,Qing LIU. (2018) Root exudates and their ecological consequences in forest ecosystems: Problems and perspective . Chin J Plant Ecol, 42(11): 1055-1070.
[12] Ying-Di CHE, Min-Xia LIU, Li-Rong LI, Jiao JIAO, Wei XIAO. (2017) Exploring the community assembly of subalpine meadow communities based on functional traits and community phylogeny . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 41(11): 1157-1167.
[13] Jia-Xiang LI, Wen-Ting XU, Gao-Ming XIONG, Yang WANG, Chang-Ming ZHAO, Zhi-Jun LU, Yue-Lin LI, Zong-Qiang XIE. (2017) Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and the empirical regulations in dominant woody plants of shrublands across southern China . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 41(1): 31-42.
[14] Di XIAO, Xiao-Jie WANG, Kai ZHANG, Nian-Peng HE, Ji-Hua HOU. (2016) Effects of nitrogen addition on leaf traits of common species in natural Pinus tabuliformis forests in Taiyue Mountain, Shanxi Province, China . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 40(7): 686-701.
[15] Bin-Bin KONG, Xin-Hua WEI, Jia-Li DU, Ying-Nian LI, Zhi-Hong ZHU. (2016) Effects of clipping and fertilization on the temporal dynamics of species diversity and functional diversity and their relationships in an alpine meadow . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 40(3): 187-199.
Full text