Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (4): 384-395.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017254

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Cultivation history of Camellia oleifera and genetic resources in the Yangtze River Basin

Shengyuan Qin1, Jun Rong1, 2, *(), Wenju Zhang3, Jiakuan Chen1, 2, 3   

  1. 1 Center for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Nanchang University and School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031
    2 Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031
    3 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
  • Received:2017-09-20 Accepted:2017-12-20 Online:2018-09-11
  • Rong Jun
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Camellia oleifera is the dominant woody oil crop in China. According to current records, the cultivation history of C. oleifera as an oil crop may be less than 1,000 years, and the Yangtze River Basin may be one of the earliest cultivation areas. Wild relatives of C. oleifera are valuable genetic resources for breeding. Camellia oleifera belongs to Sect. Oleifera of the genus Camellia in the family Theaceae. Wild relatives of C. oleifera may include species in Sect. Oleifera and Sect. Paracamellia. However, the division of Sect. Oleifera and Sect. Paracamellia is still under debate, and the phylogenetic relationships among species remain unresolved. Sect. Oleifera and Sect. Paracamellia have the highest frequency of polyploids in the genus Camellia, and the same species may have various ploidies, which may be promoted by artificial selection and interspecies hybridization. The Yangtze River Basin is the main production area of C. oleifera, and the main distribution area of wild C. oleifera, thus containing rich genetic resources of wild C. oleifera. This study analyzed the distribution of species in Sect. Oleifera and Sect. Paracamellia of the genus Camellia and compared the results with the potential distribution areas of wild C. oleifera. Results show that drainage divides between the Yangtze River Basin and Pearl River Basin (Nanling Mountain, Miaoling Mountain, and adjacent regions) have the highest diversity of species in Sect. Oleifera and Sect. Paracamellia. Meanwhile, these regions are also potential highly suitable growing regions for wild C. oleifera, where there may be potential interspecies hybrid zones between C. oleifera and its wild relative species. Species diversity decreases from the south to the north, likely representing the dispersal direction from south to north. The potential interspecies hybrid zones between C. oleifera and its wild relative species may contain rich genetic diversity and provide natural breeding stations for selective breeding. These regions should be priority areas for research and conservation in order to explore and utilize genetic resources with important economic values.

Key words: Camellia oleifera, cultivation history, genetic diversity, genetic resource, geographic distribution, Yangtze River Basin

Table 1

Species in Sect. Oleifera and Sect. Paracamellia of Genus Camellia (Chang & Ren, 1998; Ming & Bartholomew, 2007)"

张宏达系统 Taxonomy of Chang 闵天禄系统 Taxonomy of Ming
油茶组 Sect. Oleifera 油茶组 Sect. Paracamellia
高州油茶 C. gauchowensis 长瓣短柱茶 C. grijsii
狭叶油茶 C. lanceoleosa ——攸县油茶 C. yuhsienensis
茶梅 C. sasanqua ——芳香短柱茶 C. odorata
越南油茶 C. vietnamensis 小叶短柱茶 C. grijsii var. shensiensis
油茶(普通油茶) C. oleifera ——陕西短柱茶 C. shensiensis
单籽油茶 C. oleifera var. monosperma 窄叶油茶 C. fluviatilis
——小果油茶 C. meiocarpa 大花窄叶油茶 C. fluviatilis var. megalantha
——大花短柱茶 C. kissi var. megalantha
短柱茶组 Sect. Paracamellia ——狭叶油茶 C. lanceoleosa
长瓣短柱茶 C. grijsii 越南油茶 C. drupifera
——攸县油茶 C. yuhsienensis ——高州油茶 C. gauchowensis
——芳香短柱茶 C. odorata ——越南油茶 C. vietnamensis
小果短柱茶 C. confusa 油茶(普通油茶) C. oleifera
落瓣短柱茶 C. kissi ——单籽油茶 C. oleifera var. monosperma
大花短柱茶 C. kissi var. megalantha ——小果油茶 C. meiocarpa
窄叶短柱茶 C. fluviatilis 茶梅 C. sasanqua*
短柱茶 C. brevistyla ——琉球短柱茶 C. miyagii
冬红短柱茶 C. hiemalis ——冬红短柱茶 C. hiemalis
钝叶短柱茶 C. obtusifolia 落瓣油茶 C. kissi
樱花短柱茶 C. maliflora 大叶落瓣油茶 C. kissi var. confusa
陕西短柱茶 C. shensiensis ——小果短柱茶 C. confusa
粉红短柱茶 C. puniceiflora 短柱油茶 C. brevistyla
大姚短柱茶 C. tenii ——钝叶短柱茶 C. obtusifolia
细叶短柱茶 C. microphylla ——粉红短柱茶 C. puniceiflora
褐枝短柱茶 C. phaeoclada 细叶短柱油茶 C. brevistyla var. microphylla
——细叶短柱茶 C. microphylla

Table 2

Karyotypes of species in Sect. Oleifera and Sect. Paracamellia of Genus Camellia"

物种 Species 核型 Karyotype 参考文献 Reference
2n m sm st sat L/S AR Type
油茶组 Sect. Oleifera
高州油茶 C. gauchowensis 30 17 12 1 1.46 1.72 2A Gu & Sun, 1997
茶梅 C. sasanqua 45 Zhang & Ming, 1999
60 Zhang & Ming, 1999
75 Zhang & Ming, 1999
90 Zhang & Ming, 1999
105 Zhang & Ming, 1999
120 Zhang & Ming, 1999
越南油茶 C. vietnamensis 105 61 37 7 2 1.87 1.76 2A Zhang & Ming, 1999
120 86 26 8 2 2.89 1.56 2B Zhang & Ming, 1999
120 56 48 16 1.70 2.01 2A Mo, 1990
普通油茶 C. oleifera 30 24 4 2 2 2.00 1.44 2A Li, 1981
60 Zhang & Ming, 1999
90 60 29 1 3 Zhang & Ming, 1999
90 60 22 8 2.38 1.70 2B Zhang & Ming, 1999
单籽油茶 C. oleifera var. monosperma
——小果油茶 C. meiocarpa 60 Zhuang, 2008
短柱茶组 Sect. Paracamellia
长瓣短柱茶 C. grijsii 30 22 6 2 2 1.83 1.55 2A Zhang & Ming, 1999
30 25 5 Zhang & Ming, 1999
30 20 7 3 1.78 1.85 2A Lü et al, 1993
60 Zhang & Ming, 1999
75 Zhang & Ming, 1999
——攸县油茶 C. yuhsienensis 60 Zhuang, 2008
75 Zhuang, 2008
90 Zhuang, 2008
90 61 23 6 2.01 1.72 2B Zhang & Ming, 1999
90 60 24 6 2 2.12 1.61 2B Zhang & Ming, 1999
落瓣短柱茶 C. kissi 30 22 4 4 1.48 1.73 2A Huang & Xu, 1985
30 Zhang & Ming, 1999
60 Zhang & Ming, 1999
75 Zhang & Ming, 1999
窄叶短柱茶 C. fluviatilis 30 16 14 2 1.30 1.67 2A Qi et al, 1986
短柱茶 C. brevistyla 30 18 10 2 2.06 1.71 2B Zhang & Ming, 1999

Table 3

Distributions and diversity of wild relative species of Camellia oleifera (Chinese Virtual Herbarium; Gao et al, 2005; Yao & Huang, 2013)"

No. species
Species (No. distribution sites)
Species diversity
南岭地区(粤北、桂北、赣南和湘南交界地带, 包括南岭、越城岭、都庞岭、大庾岭、骑田岭、大瑶山、九连山及附近地区)
Nanling Mountains regions (Boundary regions of North Guangdong, North Guangxi, South Jiangxi and South Hunan, including Nanling, Yuechengling, Dupangling, Dayuling, Qitianling, Dayaoshan, Jiulianshan mountains and adjacent regions)
7 短柱茶 C. brevistyla (12)
落瓣短柱茶 C. kissi (11)
小果油茶 C. meiocarpa (9)
窄叶短柱茶 C. fluviatilis (9)
长瓣短柱茶 C. grijsii (5)
攸县油茶 C. yuhsienensis (3)
细叶短柱茶 C. microphylla (1)
0.815 2, 4, 6
苗岭地区(黔中部和黔东南地区, 包括苗岭及九万大山附近区域)
Miaoling Mountains regions (Central and Southeast Guizhou, including Miaoling and Jiuwandashan mountains and adjacent regions)
5 小果油茶 C. meiocarpa (3)
钝叶短柱茶 C. obtusifolia (2)
越南油茶 C. vietnamensis (1)
长瓣短柱茶 C. grijsii (1)
短柱茶 C. brevistyla (1)
0.750 2, 4, 8
South of Nanling Mountains regions (South of Nanling Mountains, including Central and South Guangdong and East Guangxi mountains regions)
5 落瓣短柱茶 C. kissi (12)
越南油茶 C. vietnamensis (7)
窄叶短柱茶 C. fluviatilis (4)
短柱茶 C. brevistyla (4)
高州油茶 C. gauchowensis (2)
0.728 2, 4, 8
No. species
Species (No. distribution sites)
Species diversity
South China Sea regions (Leizhou Peninsula, Shiwandashan Mountains, Beibu Gulf regions and Hainan Island)
4 越南油茶 C. vietnamensis (8)
落瓣短柱茶 C. kissi (7)
窄叶短柱茶 C. fluviatilis (7)
小果短柱茶 C. confusa (2)
0.712 2, 4, 8
武夷山地区(赣东和闽中南区域, 包括武夷山、戴云山及附近区域)
Wuyi Mountains regions (East Jiangxi, Central and South Fujian, including Wuyi Mountains, Daiyun Mountain and adjacent regions)
6 短柱茶 C. brevistyla (21)
小果油茶 C. meiocarpa (12)
长瓣短柱茶 C. grijsii (5)
攸县油茶 C. yuhsienensis (1)
落瓣短柱茶 C. kissi (1)
细叶短柱茶 C. microphylla (1)
0.635 2, 4, 6
Wuling Mountains regions (Boundary regions of Hubei, Hunan, Chongqing and Guizhou, including Wuling Mountains, Daloushan, Fangdoushan, Mingyue Mountains and adjacent regions)
7 长瓣短柱茶 C. grijsii (15)
陕西短柱茶 C. shensiensis (3)
细叶短柱茶 C. microphylla (2)
攸县油茶 C. yuhsienensis (2)
落瓣短柱茶 C. kissi (1)
窄叶短柱茶 C. fluviatilis (1)
短柱茶 C. brevistyla (1)
0.608 2, 4, 6
罗霄山地区(湘东部和赣西部的山区, 包括罗霄山、武功山、九岭山及附近区域)
Luoxiao Mountains regions (East Hunan and West Jiangxi mountains, including Luoxiao Mountains, Wugong Mountains, Jiuling Mountains and adjacent regions)
4 短柱茶 C. brevistyla (7)
小果油茶 C. meiocarpa (2)
攸县油茶 C. yuhsienensis (2)
粉红短柱茶 C. puniceiflora (1)
0.597 2, 4, 6
Qinling-Bashan Mountains regions (Qinling, Dabashan, Micangshan, Wushan Mountains and adjacent regions)
3 陕西短柱茶 C. shensiensis (9)
长瓣短柱茶 C. grijsii (4)
攸县油茶 C. yuhsienensis (3)
0.586 2, 4, 6
湖南中西部山地(湘中西部山地, 包括雪峰山、衡山及附近地区)
Central and West Hunan Mountains regions (Central and West Hunan Mountains, including Xuefeng Mountains, Hengshan Mountains and adjacent regions)
4 细叶短柱茶 C. microphylla (6)
攸县油茶 C. yuhsienensis (2)
落瓣短柱茶 C. kissi (1)
短柱茶 C. brevistyla (1)
0.580 2, 4, 6
Southwest Mountains regions (Southwest Mountains Regions mainly located in Yunnan and Sichuan, including Wuliangshan, Gongwangshan, Diancangshan, Liuzhaoshan, Wumengshan, Emei Mountains and adjacent regions)
5 落瓣短柱茶 C. kissi (20)
长瓣短柱茶 C. grijsii (11)
小果油茶 C. meiocarpa (1)
小果短柱茶 C. confusa (1)
短柱茶 C. brevistyla (1)
0.547 2, 4
浙南山地(浙南、皖南和赣东北的山地, 包括天目山、黄山、仙霞岭、括苍山、怀玉山、雁荡山及附近区域)
South Zhejiang Mountains regions (South Zhejiang, South Anhui and Northeast Jiangxi Mountains, including Tianmu, Huangshan, Xianxialing, Kuocang, Huaiyu, Yandang Mountains and adjacent regions)
6 短柱茶 C. brevistyla (19)
粉红短柱茶 C. puniceiflora (4)
小果油茶 C. meiocarpa (1)
长瓣短柱茶 C. grijsii (1)
窄叶短柱茶 C. fluviatilis (1)
细叶短柱茶 C. microphylla (1)
0.477 2, 4
Taiwan regions (Taiwan Island regions)
1 短柱茶 C. brevistyla (2) 0.000 2
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