Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 246-254.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016137

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Monitoring and research of amphibians and reptiles diversity in key areas of China

Cheng Li1, Feng Xie1, Jing Che2, Jianping Jiang1, *()   

  1. 1 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
  • Received:2016-05-16 Accepted:2016-09-02 Online:2017-04-07
  • Jiang Jianping E-mail:jiangjp@cib.ac.cn

Amphibians and reptiles are important indicator species of ecosystem health, and they are sensitive to environmental changes and are often regarded as critical “early warning systems”. Many of their populations are undergoing rapid decline and therefore a long-term monitoring system is imperative to identify immediate threats to the animals. Monitoring program on Chinese amphibians began in the Zoige wetlands in 1997. Since 2000, a great number of monitoring studies of amphibians and reptiles have been carried out in mountains of Southwest China, Taiwan, and other regions with rich biodiversity. In 2011, the Ministry of Environmental Protection officially launched the “Amphibian Observation Initiative of China” program, which expanded regional programs to country-wide using both qualitative and quantitative methods to collect amphibian biodiversity data across long-term temporal scales. From an ecosystem viewpoint, long-term monitoring studies should include not only species distribution, richness, and population structure, but also population growth, key life-history traits, species interactions (e.g., predation, competition, and mutualism), community structure, and other dynamic factors. The program “Monitoring and Research of Amphibians and Reptiles in Key Areas of China” will cover 22 key areas with rich biodiversity and high habitat heterogeneity across China. As part of the Chinese Biodiversity Monitoring and Research Network (Sino BON), this program aims to combine intensive field surveys and ecological modeling techniques to evaluate population dynamics and community structures of amphibian and reptile species in the study areas.

Key words: monitoring networks, amphibians, reptiles, monitoring variables, monitoring methods, China

Table 1

Key areas list of research and monitoring of amphibians and reptiles in China"

省份 Province 所在县/市 County/City 关键样区 Key area 经度 Longitude 纬度 Latitude
1 黑龙江 Heilongjiang 呼玛县 Huma County 呼中 Huzhong 123.25° E 51.78° N
2 新疆 Xinjiang 阜康市 Fukang City 天山 Tianshan Mountains 88.16° E 43.85° N
3 内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 锡林浩特市 Xilinhaote City 锡林郭勒 Xilingol 116.43° E 44.18° N
4 吉林 Jilin 抚松县 Fusong County 长白山 Changbai Mountains 128.08° E 42.38° N
5 北京 Beijing 北京市 Beijing City 东灵山 Dongling Mountain 115.43° E 39.96° N
6 新疆 Xinjiang 若羌县 Ruoqiang County 阿尔金山 Altun Mountains 88.69° E 36.42° N
7 宁夏 Ningxia 中卫市 Zhongwei City 沙坡头 Shapotou 104.97° E 37.50° N
8 山东 Shandong 东营市 Dongying City 黄河三角洲 Yellow River delta 119.05° E 37.82° N
9 陕西 Shaanxi 佛坪县 Foping County 佛坪 Foping 107.68° E 33.55° N
10 河南 Henan 内乡县 Neixiang County 宝天曼 Baotianman 111.94° E 33.49° N
11 四川 Sichuan 九寨沟县 Jiuzhaigou County 九寨沟 Jiuzhaigou 103.89° E 33.12° N
12 四川 Sichuan 都江堰市 Dujiangyan City 龙溪-虹口 Longxi-Hongkou 103.57° E 31.13° N
13 湖南 Hunan 桑植县 Sangzhi County 八大公山 Badagong Mountains 110.09° E 29.77° N
14 西藏 Xizang 拉萨市 Lasa City 雅鲁藏布江中游 Middle reach valley of the Yarlung Zangbo River 89.66° E 29.20° N
15 湖南 Hunan 岳阳市 Yueyang City 洞庭湖 Dongting Lake 112.80° E 29.50° N
16 浙江 Zhejiang 开化县 Kaihua County 古田山 Gutian Mountain 118.12° E 29.25° N
17 四川 Sichuan 石棉县 Shimian County 栗子坪 Liziping 102.35° E 28.89° N
18 云南 Yunnan 丽江市 Lijiang City 玉龙雪山 Yulong Snow Mountain 100.22° E 27.14° N
19 广东 Guangdong 肇庆市 Zhaoqing City 鼎湖山 Dinghu Mountain 112.32° E 23.10° N
20 广西 Guangxi 龙州县 Longzhou County 弄岗 Nonggang 106.95° E 22.43° N
21 云南 Yunnan 勐腊县 Mengla County 西双版纳 Xishuangbanna 101.57° E 21.61° N
22 海南 Hainan 乐东县 Ledong County 尖峰岭 Jianfengling 108.80° E 18.60° N
1 Boughton RG, Staiger J, Franz R (2000) Use of PVC pipe refugia as a sampling technique for hylid treefrogs. The American Midland Naturalist, 144, 168-177.
2 Buckley J, Beebee T (2004) Monitoring the conservation status of an endangered amphibian: the Natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Britain. Animal Conservation, 7, 221-228.
3 Cai B, Li JT, Chen YY, Wang YZ (2016) Exploring the status and causes of China’s threatened reptiles through the red list assessment. Biodiversity Science, 24, 578-587.
(in Chinese with English abstract) [蔡波, 李家堂, 陈跃英, 王跃招 (2016) 通过红色名录评估探讨中国爬行动物受威胁现状及原因. 生物多样性 24, 578-587.]
4 Che J, Chen HM, Yang JX, Jin JQ, Jiang K, Yuan ZY, Murphy RW, Zhang YP (2012) Universal COI primers for DNA barcoding amphibians. Molecular Ecology Resources, 12, 247-258.
5 Chou WH, Lee MC, Yu HT (2002) Community structure of ground-dwelling vertebrates sampled with drift-fence pitfall traps in a subtropical montane forest in Central Taiwan. Endemic Species Research, 4(1), 1-11.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[周文豪, 李敏嘉, 于宏灿 (2002) 台湾中部亚热带山地森林地栖脊椎动物的群落结构——兼论拦截篱掉落桶研究法的应用. 特有生物研究 4(1), 1-11.]
6 Corn PS, Muths E, Adams MJ, Dodd CK Jr (2005) The United States Geological Survey’s Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative. Alytes, 22(3-4), 65-71.
7 Dai Q, Dai JH, Li C, Liu ZJ, Wang YZ (2006) Discussion on relative fatness. Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology, 12, 715-718.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[戴强, 戴建洪, 李成, 刘志君, 王跃招 (2006) 关于肥满度指数的讨论. 应用与环境生物学报 12, 715-718.]
8 Fei L, Hu SQ, Ye CY, Huang YZ (2006) Fauna Sinica, Amphibia, Vol. 1, General Accounts of Amphibia, Gymnophiona and Urodela. Science Press, Beijing.(in Chinese)
[费梁, 胡淑琴, 叶昌媛, 黄永昭 (2006) 中国动物志·两栖纲·第一卷, 总论、蚓螈目、有尾目. 科学出版社, 北京.]
9 Fei L, Hu SQ, Ye CY, Huang YZ (2009a) Fauna Sinica, Amphibia, Vol. 2, Anura. Science Press, Beijing.(in Chinese)
[费梁, 胡淑琴, 叶昌媛, 黄永昭 (2009a) 中国动物志·两栖纲·第二卷, 无尾目. 科学出版社, 北京.]
10 Fei L, Hu SQ, Ye CY, Huang YZ (2009b) Fauna Sinica, Amphibia, Vol. 3, Anura, Ranidae. Science Press, Beijing.(in Chinese)
[费梁, 胡淑琴, 叶昌媛, 黄永昭 (2009b) 中国动物志·两栖纲·第三卷, 无尾目, 蛙科. 科学出版社, 北京.]
11 Fei L, Ye CY, Jiang JP (2012) Colored Atlas of Chinese Amphibians and Their Distributions. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.(in Chinese)
[费梁, 叶昌媛, 江建平 (2012) 中国两栖动物及其分布彩色图鉴. 四川科学技术出版社, 成都.]
12 Fellers GM, Wang YZ, Liu SY (2003) Status of amphibians at the Zoige wetlands, Sichuan Province, China. Froglog, 58, 1.
13 Gu XD, Liang CP, Dai Q, Li C (2009) A Simple and Convenient Method for Measuring and Monitoring Small Terrestrial Vertebrates: Drift Fences and Pitfall Traps. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 28, 273-275.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[古晓东, 梁春平, 戴强, 李成 (2009) 一种简便实用的小型陆栖脊椎动物监测方法——围栏陷阱法. 四川动物 28, 273-275.]
14 Heyer WR, Donnelly MA, McDiarmid RW, Hayek LAC, Foster MS (1994) Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press,Washington, DC.
15 Hoffmann M, Hilton-Taylor C, Angulo A, Böhm M, Brooks TM, Butchart SH, Carpenter KE, Chanson J, Collen B, Cox NA, Darwall WR, Dulvy NK, Harrison LR, Katariya V, Pollock CM, Quader S, Richman NI, Rodrigues AS, Tognelli MF, Vié JC, Aguiar JM, Allen DJ, Allen GR, Amori G, Ananjeva NB, Andreone F, Andrew P, Aquino Ortiz AL, Baillie JE, Baldi R, Bell BD, Biju SD, Bird JP, Black-Decima P, Blanc JJ, Bolaños F, Bolivar-G W, Burfield IJ, Burton JA, Capper DR, Castro F, Catullo G, Cavanagh RD, Channing A, Chao NL, Chenery AM, Chiozza F, Clausnitzer V, Collar NJ, Collett LC, Collette BB, Cortez Fernandez CF, Craig MT, Crosby MJ, Cumberlidge N, Cuttelod A, Derocher AE, Diesmos AC, Donaldson JS, Duckworth JW, Dutson G, Dutta SK, Emslie RH, Farjon A, Fowler S, Freyhof J, Garshelis DL, Gerlach J, Gower DJ, Grant TD, Hammerson GA, Harris RB, Heaney LR, Blair Hedges S, Hero JM, Hughes B, Ainul Hussain S, Javier Icochea M, Inger RF, Ishii N, Iskandar DT, Jenkins RKB, Kaneko Y, Kottelat M, Kovacs KM, Kuzmin SL, La Marca E, Lamoreux JF, Lau MWN, Lavilla EO, Leus K, Lewison RL, Lichtenstein G, Livingstone SR, Lukoschek V, Mallon DP, McGowan PJK, McIvor A, Moehlman PD, Molur S, Muñoz Alonso A, Musick JA, Nowell K, Nussbaum RA, Olech W, Orlov NL, Papenfuss TJ, Parra-Olea G, Perrin WF, Polidoro BA, Pourkazemi M, Racey PA, Ragle JS, Ram M, Rathbun G, Reynolds RP, Rhodin AGJ, Richards SJ, Rodríguez LO, Ron SR, Rondinini C, Rylands AB, Rondinini C, Rylands AB, Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Sanciangco JC, Sanders KL, Santos-Barrera G, Schipper J, Self-Sullivan C, Shi Y, Shoemaker A, Short FT, Sillero-Zubiri C, Silvano DL, Smith KG, Smith AT, Snoeks J, Stattersfield AJ, Symes AJ, Taber AB, Talukdar BK, Temple HJ, Timmins R, Tobias JA, Tsytsulina K, Tweddle D, Ubeda C, Valenti SV, van Dijk PP, Veiga LM, Veloso A, Wege DC, Wilkinson M, Williamson EA, Xie F, Young BE, Akçakaya HR, Bennun L, Blackburn TM, Boitani L, Dublin HT, da Fonseca GAB, Gascon C, Lacher TE Jr, Mace GM, Mainka SA, McNeely JA, Mittermeier RA, Reid GM, Rodriguez JP, Rosenberg AA, Samways MJ, Smart J, Stein BA, Stuart SN (2010) The impact of conservation on the status of the world’s vertebrates. Science, 330, 1503-1509.
16 IUCN (2016) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version2016-3. . (accessed on 2016- 12-07)
17 Jiang JP, Xie F, Zang CX, Cai L, Li C, Wang B, Li JT, Wang J, Hu JH, Wang Y, Liu JY (2016) Assessing the threat status of amphibians in China. Biodiversity Science, 24, 588-597.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[江建平, 谢锋, 臧春鑫, 蔡蕾, 李成, 王斌, 李家堂, 王杰, 胡军华, 王燕, 刘炯宇 (2016) 中国两栖动物受威胁现状评估. 生物多样性 24, 588-597.]
18 Koo MS, Vredenburg VT, Gross J, Spencer CL, Tunstall T, Wake DB (2013) Visualizing AmphibiaWeb Data with Continuous Cartograms. AmphibiaWeb: Information on Amphibian Biology and Conservation. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb./. (accessed on 2016-12-07)
19 Li C, Gu HJ, Dai Q, Liu ZJ, Wang YZ (2008) Impacts on anurans in Caopohe River impounded by a small-sized dam. Resources and Environmental in the Yangtze Basin, 17(Z1),114-118.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[李成, 顾海军, 戴强, 刘志君, 王跃招 (2008) 草坡河流域小水电开发对无尾两栖动物的影响. 长江流域资源与环境 17(Z1), 114-118.]
20 Li YM, Wu ZJ, Duncan RP (2006) Why islands are easier to invade: human influences on bullfrog invasion in the Zhoushan archipelago and neighboring mainland China. Oecologia, 148, 129-136.
21 Li YM, Xu F, Guo ZW, Liu X, Jin CN, Wang YP, Wang SP (2011) Reduced predator species richness drives the body gigantism of a frog species on the Zhoushan Archipelago in China. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80, 171-182.
22 Liu X, Li YM (2009) Aquaculture enclosures relate to the establishment of feral populations of introduced species. PLoS ONE, 4, e6199. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0006199.
23 Liu X, Luo Y, Chen JX, Guo YS, Bai CM, Li YM (2015) Diet and prey selection of the invasive American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) in Southwestern China. Asian Herpetological Research, 6, 34-44.
24 Ma KP (2011) Assessing progress of biodiversity conservation with monitoring approach. Biodiversity Science, 19, 125-126.
(in Chinese) [马克平 (2011) 监测是评估生物多样性保护进展的有效途径. 生物多样性 19, 125-126.]
25 McDiarmid RW, Foster MS, Guyer C, Gibbons JW, Chernoff N(2012) Reptile Biodiversity: Standard Methods for Inventory and Monitoring. University of California Press, Los Angeles.
26 Muths E, Jung RE, Bailey LL, Adams MJ, Corn PS, Dodd CK, Fellers GM, Sadinski WJ, Schwalbe CR, Walls SC, Fisher RN, Gallant AL, Battaglin WA, Green DE (2005) Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): a successful start to a national program in the United States. Applied Herpetology, 2, 355-372.
27 Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853-858.
28 Pounds JA, Bustamante MR, Coloma LA, Consuegra JA, Fogden MPL, Foster PN, La Marca E, Masters KL, Merino-Viteri A, Puschendorf R, Ron SR, Sánchez-Azofeifa G A, Still CJ, Young BE (2006) Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature, 439, 161-167.
29 Sparreboom M, Xie F, Fei L (2001) Reproductive behavior of the Chinhai salamander (Echinotriton chinhaiensis) (Caudata: Salamandridae). Amphibia-Reptilia, 22, 309-320.
30 Stewart MM, Pough FH (1983) Population density of tropical forest frogs: relation to retreat sites. Science, 221, 570-572.
31 Stuart SN, Chanson JS, Cox NA, Young BE, Rodrigues AS, Fischman DL, Waller RW (2004) Status and Trends of Amphibian Declines and Extinctions Worldwide. Science, 306, 1783-1786.
32 Urban MC (2015) Accelerating extinction risk from climate change. Science, 348, 571-573.
33 Wake DB (1990) Declining amphibian populations. Science, 253, 860.
34 Wake DB (1998) Action on amphibians. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 13, 379-380.
35 Wake DB (2007) Climate change implicated in amphibian and lizard declines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,USA, 104, 8201-8202.
36 Wang G, Li C, Xie F, Jiang JP (2012) Application of providing artificial cover method in monitoring amphibian population. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 47(3), 53-58.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[王刚, 李成, 谢锋, 江建平 (2012) 应用人工掩蔽物法监测两栖动物种群动态. 动物学杂志 47(3), 53-58.]
37 Wang J (2015) Current status of Japanese giant salamander and the enlightenment on the conservation of Chinese giant salamander. Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology, 21, 683-688.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[王杰 (2015) 日本大鲵的现状及对中国大鲵保护的启示. 应用与环境生物学报 21, 683-688.]
38 Xie F, Fei L, Ye CY, Cai CM, Wang ZW, Sparreboom M (2000) Breeding migration and oviposition of the Chinhai salamander, Echinotriton chinhaiensis (Caudata: Salamandridae). The Herpetological Journal, 10, 111-118.
39 Xie F, Jiang JP, Zheng ZH (2002) Survey on amphibians and reptiles. Herpetologica Sinica, 9, 218-223.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[谢锋, 江建平, 郑中华 (2002) 两栖爬行动物野外调查方法. 两栖爬行动物学研究 9, 218-223.]
40 Xie F, Lau MW, Stuart SN, Chanson JS, Cox NA, Fischman DL (2007) Conservation needs of amphibians in China: a review. Sciences in China C: Life Sciences, 50, 265-276.
41 Zhang MW, Zong Y, Ma JF (1998) Fauna Sinica, Reptilia, Vol. 1, General Accounts of Reptilia, Testudoformes and Crocodiliformes. Science Press, Beijing.
(in Chinese) [张孟闻, 宗愉, 马积藩 (1998) 中国动物志·爬行纲·第一卷, 总论、龟鳖目、鳄目). 科学出版社, 北京. ]
42 Zhao EM, Huang MH, Zong Y (1998) Fauna Sinica, Reptilia Vol. 3, Squamata (Serpentes). Science Press, Beijing.
(in Chinese) [赵尔宓, 黄美华, 宗愉 (1998) 中国动物志·爬行纲·第三卷, 有鳞目: 蛇亚目. 科学出版社, 北京.]
43 Zhao EM, Zhao KT, Zhou KY (1999) Fauna Sinica, Reptilia Vol. 2, Squamata (Lacertilia). Science Press, Beijing.
(in Chinese) [赵尔宓, 赵肯堂, 周开亚 (1999) 中国动物志·爬行纲·第二卷, 有鳞目: 蜥蜴亚目. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[1] Jiang Kaiwen, Pan Bo, Tian Bin. Recent taxonomic changes for Fabaceae (Leguminosae) genera in China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 689-697.
[2] Chen Xing, Zhao Lianjun, Hu Xixi, Luo Chunping, Liang Chunping, Jiang Shiwei, Liang Lei, Zheng Weichao, Guan Tianpei. Impact of livestock terrain utilization patterns on wildlife: A case study of Wanglang National Nature Reserve [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(6): 630-637.
[3] Fan Jingyu, Li Hanpeng, Yang Zhuo, Zhu Gengping. Selecting the best native individual model to predict potential distribution of Cabomba caroliniana in China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 140-148.
[4] Chen Zuoyi, Xu Xiaojing, Zhu Suying, Zhai Mengyi, Li Yang. Species diversity and geographical distribution of the Chaetoceros lorenzianus complex along the coast of China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2019, 27(2): 149-158.
[5] Chen Fan, Qian Qian, Wang Tai, Dong Aiwu, Qi Xiaoquan, Zuo Jianru, Yang Shuhua, Lin Rongcheng, Xiao Langtao, Gu Hongya, Chen Zhiduan, Jiang Liwen, Bai Yongfei, Kong Hongzhi, Chong Kang. Research Advances in Plant Science in China in 2017 [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2018, 53(4): 391-440.
[6] Yuan-Feng SUN, Hong-Wei WAN, Yu-Jin ZHAO, Shi-Ping CHEN, Yong-Fei BAI. Spatial patterns and drivers of root turnover in grassland ecosystems in China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2018, 42(3): 337-348.
[7] LIU Hai-Yue, LI Xin-Mei, ZHANG Lin-Lin, WANG Jiao-Jiao, HE Xue-Li. Eco-geographical distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Hedysarum scoparium in the desert zone of northwestern China [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2018, 42(2): 252-260.
[8] Ruiyu Fu, Hongxin Su, Zhonghua Zhang, Gang Hu. Research trends and hotspots of Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Network (CForBio): A bibliometric analysis [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(12): 1255-1267.
[9] GU Xiang, ZHANG Shi-Ji, LIU Zhao-Dan, LI Lei-Da, CHEN Jin-Lei, WANG Liu-Fang, FANG Xi. Effects of vegetation restoration on soil organic carbon mineralization in the east of Hunan, China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2018, 42(12): 1211-1224.
[10] Xiuqin Yin, Yan Tao, Haixia Wang, Chen Ma, Xinchang Kou, Huan Xu, Dong Cui. Forest soil fauna ecology in Northeast China: Review and prospect [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(10): 1083-1090.
[11] Chi Zhang, Bo Zhou, Jialong Wu, Meirong Lv, Xufei Chen, Zhongyou Yuan, Ling Xiao, Jun Dai. Application of earthworms on soil remediation in southern China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(10): 1091-1102.
[12] Jinghuai Zhang, Yang Gao, Xiaojun Shi, Xiangli Lü. Species composition and diversity of marine organisms from benthic trawling in Daya Bay of the northern South China Sea [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(9): 1019-1030.
[13] Qiang He, Yu Jia. Assessing the threat status of China’s bryophytes [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(7): 774-780.
[14] Bi Guozhi, Zhou Jianmin. China Takes Long Stride in Plant-microbe Interactions Research [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2017, 52(6): 685-688.
[15] Yao Li, Xiangming Xiao, Xiangping Li, Jun Ma, Bangqian Chen, Yuanwei Qin, Jinwei Dong, Bin Zhao. Multi-scale assessments of forest fragmentation in China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(4): 372-381.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Guoping Wang Dayuan Xue Yi Wen Gong Cheng Qingwen Min. Diversity of traditional knowledge related to utilization of biological resources by Tu nationality in China[J]. Biodiv Sci, 0, 0(0): 735 -742 .
[2] Li-Na SHA, Xing FAN, Hai-Qin ZHANG, Hou-Yang KANG, Yi WANG, Xiao-Li WANG, Li ZHANG, Chun-Bang DING, Rui-Wu YANG, Yong-Hong ZHOU. Phylogenetic relationships in Leymus (Triticeae; Poaceae): Evidence from chloroplast trnH-psbA and mitochondrial coxII intron sequences[J]. J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(6): 722 -734 .
[3] Wei Sun;Chonghui Li;Liangsheng Wang;Silan Dai*. Analysis of Anthocyanins and Flavones in Different-colored Flowers of Chrysanthemum[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2010, 45(03): 327 -336 .
[4] Hong Qian. Climatic correlates of phylogenetic relatedness of woody angiosperms in forest communities along a tropical elevational gradient in South America[J]. J Plant Ecol, 2018, 11(3): 394 -400 .
[5] JIANG Gao-Ming, DONG Ming. A Comparative Study on Photosynthesis and Water Use Efficiency Between Clonal and Non-clonal Plant Species Along the Northeast China Transect (NECT)[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 2000, 42(8): 855 -863 .
[6] YANG Qin-Er. Cytology of eleven species in the genus Ranunculus L. and five in its four related genera from China[J]. J Syst Evol, 2001, 39(5): 405 -422 .
[7] MENG Meng, NI Jian, ZHANG Zhi-Guo. ARIDITY INDEX AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN GEO-ECOLOGICAL STUDY[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2004, 28(6): 853 -861 .
[8] KANG Bing, LIU Shi-Rong, WEN Yuan-Guang, ZHANG Yue-Jin, JIANG Zai-Min, CHANG Jian-Guo. POPULATION DYNAMICS DURING SUCCESSION OF SECONDARY NATURAL FOREST IN DAQINGSHAN, GUANGXI, CHINA[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2006, 30(6): 931 -940 .
[9] Guang-Wan HU, Heng LI,Ying TAN,Yan LIU,Chun-Lin LONG. Tupistra hongheensis (Ruscaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China based on morphological, karyotypic, and pollen morphological studies[J]. J Syst Evol, 2013, 51(2): 230 .
[10] WEI Yuan, WANG Shi-Jie, LIU Xiu-Ming, and HUANG Tian-Zhi. Genetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in karst microhabitats of Guizhou Province, China[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2011, 35(10): 1083 -1090 .