Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (12): 1353-1363.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016095

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Ten-years period of grass and small woody plant dynamics in a 5-ha evergreen forest plot in Baishanzu, Zhejiang Province

Yunxia Huang, Xuan Xu, Lixiang Zhang, Yue Song, Zhengrong Luo*()   

  1. College of Ecology, Lishui University, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000
  • Received:2016-04-01 Accepted:2016-10-19 Online:2017-01-10
  • Luo Zhengrong E-mail:extra@lsu.edu.cn

Forest dynamics are directly driven by multiple factors, including changes in understory grasses and small woody plants. Yet the dynamics of these small woody plants and grasses as well as underlying ecological forces are still not fully understood, particularly in evergreen forests. Here, we analyzed ten year (from 2003 to 2013) shifts in species importance values, diversity, habitat associations, and distributions of understory small woody plants and grasses (including herbs, herbal lianas and woody plants with diameter at breast height (DBH) < 1 cm) in a 5-ha subtropical forest plot in Baishanzu, Zhejiang, China. Results showed that the number of individuals decreased by 28.7% overall, 76.9% in herbal lianas, and 14.4% in seedlings or saplings of tree species. Species richness of shrubs and grasses decreased notably, while evenness decreased in small woody plant communities and increased in herb communities. Except for Lithocarpus brevicaudatus, Symplocos phyllocalyx, Stauntonia conspicua, Rubus fujianensis, whose importance values increased conversely, correlations between changes of importance values during the ten-years period and initial importance values were positive among erective shrub species and negative among species of other life forms. Shifts in species-habitat associations were complex, as the number of species with significant habitat-associations decreased during the ten year period, except for the increasing richness of species with positive gully associations. Only species diversity in steep slope habitats did not decrease significantly. These findings suggest the small woody plants and grasses of the Baishanzu evergreen forest have not yet reached climax status, and were developing to the climax over 2003 to 2013. Internal community-level processes, such as intraspecific and interspecific competitions, should be dominant factors that drive the forest dynamics.

Key words: forest dynamics, species composition, habitat association, shrub and grass layer, climate warming

Table 1

Shifts in numerical characteristics of different life forms in the shrub and grass layer of the Baishanzu evergreen broad- leaved forest between 2003 and 2013"

生活型 Life form 个体数 No. of individuals 物种数 No. of species Camargo指数 Camargo index
2003 2013 2003 2013 2003 2013
乔木 Tree species 9,402 8,052 29 26 0.224 0.173
直立灌木 Erective shrubs 43,352 29,003 79 72 0.167 0.135
蔓性灌木 Spreading shrubs 3,431 2,453 10 9 0.176 0.229
木质藤本 Woody lianas 1,630 1,170 17 16 0.191 0.130
草质藤本 Herbaceous lianas 26 6 2 2 0.692 1.000
草本蕨类 Herbaceous ferns 21,333 16,323 6 6 0.198 0.225
其他草本 Other herbs 6,549 4,090 37 35 0.145 0.192
总计 Total 85,723 61,097 180 166 0.127 0.114

Table 2

Shifts in importance value (IV) of dominant species in the shrub and grass layer of the Baishanzu evergreen broad-leaved forest between 2003 and 2013"

物种 Species 株数 Number of individuals 频度 Frequency 重要值排序 Rank of IV
2003 2013 2003 2013 2003 2013
木质藤本植物(前3位) Woody lianas (Top 3)
显脉野木瓜 Stauntonia conspicua 994 (60.98%) 914 (78.12%) 474 (59.62%) 524 (77.86%) 1 1
钻地风 Schizophragma integrifolium 264 (16.19%) 148 (12.65%) 119 (14.97%) 68 (10.10%) 2 2
南五味子 Kadsura longipedunculata 167 (10.25%) 21 (1.79%) 83 (10.44%) 16 (2.38%) 3 3
乔木(前3位) Tree species (Top 3)
短尾柯 Lithocarpus brevicaudatus 3,430 (36.48%) 4,366 (54.22%) 1,288 (26.62%) 1,536 (38.79%) 1 1
多脉青冈 Cyclobalanopsis multinervis 1,716 (18.25%) 1,200 (14.90%) 885 (18.28%) 747 (18.86%) 2 2
木荷 Schima superba 980 (10.42%) 621 (7.71%) 468 (9.67%) 362 (9.18%) 3 3
直立灌木(前5位) Erective shrubs (Top 5)
连蕊茶 Camellia cuspidata 5,894 (13.59%) 4,384 (19.38%) 1,561 (13.18%) 1,558 (16.07%) 1 1
新木姜子 Neolitsea aurata 5,856 (13.51%) 4,318 (14.89%) 1,517 (12.81%) 1,501 (15.22%) 2 2
薄叶山矾 Symplocos anomala 4,560 (10.52%) 1,691 (0.62%) 973 (5.22%) 875 (1.43%) 3 14
叶萼山矾 Symplocos phyllocalyx 795 (1.83%) 4,426 (15.26%) 142 (1.20%) 1,117 (11.33%) 15 3
四川山矾 Symplocos setchuensis 4,032 (9.30%) 2,912 (10.04%) 990 (5.36%) 1,000 (10.14%) 4 4
厚叶红淡比 Cleyera pachyphylla 4,824 (11.13%) 2,114 (7.29%) 525 (4.43%) 592 (6.00%) 5 5
蔓性/攀援灌木(前3位) Spreading shrubs (Top 3)
尖叶菝葜 Smilax arisanensis 2,752 (80.21%) 1,667 (67.96%) 1,129 (81.46%) 852 (72.63%) 1 1
福建悬钩子 Rubus fujianensis 434 (12.65%) 579 (23.60%) 133 (9.60%) 159 (13.55%) 2 2
巴东胡颓子 Elaeagnus difficilis 95 (2.77%) 36 (1.47%) 50 (3.61%) 32 (2.73%) 3 5
暗色菝葜 Smilax lanceifolia var. opaca 34 (0.99%) 66 (2.69%) 20 (1.44%) 47 (4.01%) 5 3
草本蕨类植物(前3位) Herbaceous ferns (Top 3)
华东瘤足蕨 Plagiogyria japonica 20,106 (94.25%) 14,477 (88.69%) 1,683 (84.02%) 1,621 (79.27%) 1 1
美观复叶耳蕨 Arachniodes speciosa 746 (3.50%) 479 (2.93%) 162 (8.09%) 80 (3.91%) 2 3
林下凸轴蕨 Metathelypteris hattorii 286 (1.34%) 1,143 (7.00%) 96 (4.79%) 289 (14.13%) 3 2
草质藤本 Herbaceous lianas
鸡屎藤 Paederia foetida 21 (80.77%) 3 (50.00%) 11 (68.75%) 2 (66.67%) 1 1
三叶崖爬藤 Tetrastigma hemsleyanum 5 (19.23%) 3 (50.00%) 5 (31.25%) 1 (33.33%) 2 2
其他草本植物(前5位) Other herbs (Top 5)
薹草属多种 Carex spp. 2,415 (36.88%) 1,570 (38.39%) 715 (45.60%) 412 (40.95%) 1 1
麦冬 Ophiopogon japonicus 2,683 (40.97%) 763 (18.65%) 508 (32.40%) 152 (15.11%) 2 2
山麦冬 Liriope spicata 185 (2.82%) 27 (0.66%) 46 (2.93%) 15 (1.49%) 3 11
求米草 Oplismenus undulatifolius 36 (0.55%) 637 (15.57%) 5 (0.32%) 22 (2.18%) 18 3
异药花 Fordiophyton faberi 111 (1.69%) 333 (8.14%) 36 (2.30%) 50 (4.97%) 4 4
赤车 Pellionia radicans 139 (2.12%) 240 (5.87%) 23 (1.47%) 42 (4.17%) 5 5

Fig. 1

Relationships between importance values of species with different life forms in 2003 and its changes from 2003 to 2013. Solid triangles indicate oddities labeled with the corresponding species names nearby. Solid lines display linear regression curves for data without or excluding oddities."

Table 3

Number of species with remarkable association to each habitat type of the Baishanzu evergreen broad-leaved forest in 2003 and 2013"

生境
Habitat
与生境负相关的物种数
Number of species positively associated with habitats
与生境正相关的物种数
Number of species negatively associated with habitats
2003 2013 差异 Difference 2003 2013 差异 Difference
山谷 Gull 7 5 -2 5 11 6
陡坡 Steep slope 1 1 0 1 1 0
缓坡 Mild slope 1 0 -1 7 4 -3
山脊 Ridge 4 2 -2 4 4 0

Fig. 2

Ordination of the main species and four habitat factors in the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Black points indicate species living in 2003, while hollow triangles indicate species living in 2013. The marks of elev, slope and convex mean elevation, slope and convexity of 10 m × 10 m quadrates which plants was allocated in, while BA means basal area of all plants with DBH ≥ 1 cm in the quadrates."

Table 4

Average basal area and changes in density and diversity in each habitat in the Baishanzu evergreen broad-leaved forest between 2003 and 2013"

生境
Habitat
胸高断面积 Basal area (m2/quadrat) 密度 Density (ind./m2) Shannon-Wiener指数 Shannon-Wiener index Simpson指数 Simpson index
2003 2013 2003 2013 差异 Difference 2003 2013 差异 Difference
山谷 Gull 1.36 1.54 1.08 2.44 2.29 -0.15* 0.86 0.84 -0.02*
陡坡 Steep slope 1.74 2.04 1.74 2.49 2.41 -0.08 0.85 0.84 -0.01
缓坡 Mild slope 1.82 1.80 1.25 2.41 2.25 -0.16* 0.85 0.84 -0.01
山脊 Ridge 1.97 1.83 1.28 2.38 2.27 -0.11* 0.84 0.85 0.01
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