生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (5): 468-475.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09036

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

地下结实植物白番红花的繁育系统与传粉生物学

张洋, 谭敦炎*   

  1. 新疆农业大学草业与环境科学学院, 新疆草地资源与生态重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐 830052
  • 收稿日期:2009-02-12 出版日期:2009-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 谭敦炎

Breeding system and pollination biology of Crocus alatavicus (Iridaceae), a geocarpic subalpine plant of the western Tianshan Mountains

Yang Zhang, Dunyan Tan*   

  1. Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Grassland Resources and Ecology, College of Grassland and Environment Sciences, Xinji-ang Agricultural University, Urümqi 830052
  • Received:2009-02-12 Online:2009-09-20
  • Contact: Dunyan Tan

地下结实是植物用来防御不利环境的一种策略, 研究地下结实植物的繁殖特性, 可以揭示它们的繁殖对策多样性, 对于探讨环境选择压力对其繁育系统及后代适合度的影响具有重要意义。白番红花(Crocus alatavicus)是一种分布在天山西部亚高山带、具地下芽和地下结实特性的早春短命植物。我们采用野外观测和统计分析方法, 对该物种的繁育系统与传粉生物学及其对亚高山环境的适应进行了研究。研究结果表明: 白番红花具有先花后叶的特性, 于4月上中旬始花, 呈爆发式开花式样; 花白色, 无花蜜无气味; 开花时, 下位子房位于地下, 花蕾在地上开放并随光照变化而开闭; 单花花期为6–9 d, 花萎蔫时花粉活性仍保持在75.39±5.69%, 柱头可授期为8 d。人工授粉实验结果显示, 该物种属于兼性异交繁育系统, 且具有自主自花授粉能力。白番红花属于泛化传粉系统, 鲁熊蜂 (Bombus lucorum)、老条蜂 (Anthophora senilis)和黄腹地花蜂 (Andrena capillosa)是有效传粉昆虫, 通过采食花粉进行传粉, 访花频率分别为0.50±0.27次•花–1•h–1、0.18±0.08次•花–1•h–1和0.13±0.05次•花–1•h–1。在天山西部亚高山早春环境中, 白番红花不仅利用其开花式样、泛化传粉系统及早春空白生态位来提高传粉效率, 而且通过自交亲和及主动自花授粉等繁育系统特征来弥补传粉昆虫少及访花频率低的不足, 从而保障繁殖成功。

Crocus alatavicus, a geophytic-geocarpic plant, is an early spring ephemeral species that grows in subalpine areas of the western Tianshan Mountains. To understand the ecological significance of geocarpy in plants, we studied the breeding system and pollination biology of C. alatavicus, with special reference to its adaptive strategies for a subalpine existence. We found that C. alatavicus is hysteranthous and its flowering pattern was explosive at the population level. It began to flower in early- to mid-April, and the white flowers had neither nectar nor scent. The inferior ovary was below ground at anthesis, while the other floral parts were aboveground. The flowers were open during the day and closed at night, and individual flower duration was 6–9 days. Pollen viability was 75.39±5.69% at the end of anthesis, and stigma receptivity lasted eight days. Results of artificial pollination experiments suggested that the breeding system of C. alatavicus is facultative xenogamy with the ability to self-pollinate spontaneously. Crocus alatavicus has a generalist pollination system, with Bombus lucorum, Anthophora senilis and Andrena capillosa being effective pollinators. These insects initiated pollination while foraging for pollen, and their visitation frequencies were 0.50±0.27, 0.18±0.08 and 0.13±0.05 per flower per hour, respectively. Thus, C. alatavicus not only has evolved unique flowering pattern and generalist pollination system, but also utilizes an otherwise vacant niche in the early spring to improve the effectiveness of pollination. Furthermore, characteristics of its breeding system, such as self-compatibility and spontaneous self-pollination, ensure reproductive success even when pollinators are scarce and pollinator visitation frequencies are low in early spring.

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