生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (5): 448-457.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.08343

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

潜在洞巢资源差异对次级洞巢鸟及繁殖鸟类群落的影响

周大庆, 周春发, 邓文洪*   

  1. 北京师范大学生命科学学院 生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2008-12-23 出版日期:2009-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 邓文洪

Influence of potential cavity resources on secondary cavity-nesters and breeding bird community composition

Daqing Zhou, Chunfa Zhou, Wenhong Deng*   

  1. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Sciences and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Received:2008-12-23 Online:2009-09-20
  • Contact: Wenhong Deng

为了解次生林中潜在洞巢资源(包括各种啄木鸟的啄洞和人工巢箱)的多寡对次级洞巢鸟集团及繁殖鸟类群落结构的影响, 2007年11月至2008年7月, 我们在吉林省吉林市大岗林场选择洞巢密度不同的样地, 对其次级洞巢鸟及鸟类群落结构进行了比较研究。根据洞巢资源密度我们将9块样地分为3组, 即巢箱区(啄洞密度最低, 悬挂人工巢箱使其潜在洞巢资源总密度大幅提高)、低密度区(啄洞密度较低, 无巢箱)和高密度区(啄洞密度较高, 无巢箱), 调查了3组样地内鸟类的组成和密度、潜在洞巢资源的利用情况等。3组样地中均调查到4种初级洞巢鸟, 其种类组成略有不同; 4种次级洞巢鸟在3组样地广泛分布, 分别为白眉姬鹟(Ficedula zanthopygia)、大山雀(Parus major)、沼泽山雀(P. palustris)和普通鳾(Sitta europaea)。巢箱区和高密度区的次级洞巢鸟总密度显著高于低密度区。巢箱区同高密度区一样, 大山雀和白眉姬鹟的密度显著高于低密度区, 这是由于大山雀和白眉姬鹟是人工巢箱的主要利用鸟种, 而沼泽山雀和普通鳾的密度在三组样地间差异不显著。初级洞巢鸟总密度与啄洞密度、次级洞巢鸟总密度与潜在洞巢资源总密度都呈显著正相关关系。潜在洞巢资源丰富的样地中鸟类群落多样性指数显著高于潜在洞巢资源贫乏样地中的鸟类群落多样性指数, 人为增加洞巢资源可以改变鸟类群落组成并显著提高群落的多样性指数。三组样地中鸟类群落的均匀性、丰富度指数和种间相遇率没有显著差异, 群落相似性指数也相近。高密度区和低密度区鸟类群落集团结构相似。次级洞巢鸟密度的增加短时期内未对群落内其他主要鸟种的密度产生显著影响。研究结果显示, 初级洞巢鸟的密度决定了啄洞的丰富程度, 而洞巢资源的差异会对次级洞巢鸟集团的分布模式产生影响, 进而影响整个繁殖鸟类群落的结构。

To explore how density of potential cavity resources (including cavities and artificial nest boxes) affects the composition and distribution of secondary cavity-nesting guilds, as well as the community structure of breeding birds, we studied plots with different densities of nest cavities in Dagang Forestry Farm, Jilin Province, China from November 2007 to July 2008. Based on the density of cavity resources, the nine sample sites were divided into three treatments, i.e., NBP (nest-box plots with less cavities and high-density nest boxes), LDP (low-density cavities plots without nest boxes) and HDP (high-density cavities plots without nest boxes). We then surveyed avian communities and noted the use of cavities and artificial nest boxes. All the treatments contained four primary cavity excavators, and three species were the same. Four secondary cavity nesters were widespread in the three treatments, including the great tit (Parus major), marsh tit (P. palustris), yellow-rumped flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia) and eurasian nuthatch (Sitta europaea). Total densities of secondary cavity nesters in NBP and HDP were higher than that of LDP. Densities of great tits and yellow-rumped flycatchers were higher in NBP and HDP than in LDP, because they were major users of nest boxes. There were no significant differences in the densities of marsh tits and eurasian nuthatches among treatments. A significant positive correlation was detected between the density of primary cavity excavators and cavity density, and also between the density of secondary cavity nesters and potential cavity resources. Bird species diversity indices were lower in LDP than in NBP and HDP. Nest-box addition could potentially regulate the composition of avian communities by increasing bird species diversity indices. We observed no differences in evenness, species richness indices or probability of interspecific encounter (PIE) among treat-ments, and Sørensen similarity indices differed little among treatments. There were no obvious differences in structure of breeding bird guilds between HDP and LDP. Nine species were found in all the three treatments, and their densities were not affected by the temporary increase in secondary cavity nesters. We hypothesize that density of primary cavity excavators determines the density of cavities in forests, which may change dis-tributional patterns of secondary cavity-nester guilds, and therefore affect the structure of breeding avian communities.

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