生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (12): 1352-1363.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019244

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国植物受威胁等级评估系统概述

单章建1,2,赵莉娜1,2,杨宇昌1,2,谢丹1,2,覃海宁1,2,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    2 中国科学院大学生命科学学院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-01 接受日期:2019-12-16 出版日期:2019-12-20 发布日期:2019-12-24
  • 通讯作者: 覃海宁
  • 基金资助:
    环境保护部生物多样性保护专项——中国高等植物红色名录、国家自然科学基金(31900191);科技部国家标本资源共享平台植物子平台(2005DKA21401)

An overview on assessment systems for threatened plants in China

Zhangjian Shan1,2,Lina Zhao1,2,Yuchang Yang1,2,Dan Xie1,2,Haining Qin1,2,*()   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 College of Life Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2019-08-01 Accepted:2019-12-16 Online:2019-12-20 Published:2019-12-24
  • Contact: Qin Haining

摘要:

濒危物种保护是生物多样性保护工作的重要组成部分, 而物种受威胁等级评估则是濒危物种保护的方向指引。经过多年的发展, 物种受威胁等级的评估由定性评估逐渐向定量评估为主、定性评估为辅的方向发展。本文综述了国内植物受威胁等级定量评估系统的研究进展, 同时介绍了国外较为成熟的IUCN红色名录评估系统、CITES评估系统、美国自然保育协会评估系统, 提出未来制定受威胁物种定量评估标准时要兼顾以下方面: (1)等级设置定义要明确、统一且合理; (2)评估标准应该定量化、客观且不冗余; (3)评估系统应该适应不同地理范围, 最好能同时表达出各范围的受威胁等级; (4)评估指标要包含物种动态信息, 能定量分析物种在过去或者未来的变化。此外, 本文认为国内的物种受威胁等级定量评估系统应该形成规范化的大纲, 加大宣传力度, 尽量将理论研究与具体的保护行动结合起来; 同时, 我国还应该采用全球广泛应用的受威胁等级评估系统获取物种受威胁等级, 将国内生物多样性保护工作纳入到全球范围中去。

关键词: IUCN红色名录, 濒危系数, 二级模糊评价法, 层次分析法, 专家系统, 定量评估

Abstract:

Endangered species conservation is an important part of biodiversity conservation, heavily helped by threatened species assessment guides. The assessment of threatened level has gradually evolved from being qualitative to quantitative with qualitative supplement. This paper reviews the research progress of the domestic threatened plant species quantitative assessment system, and introduces the mature IUCN Red List Assessment System, CITES Assessment System, and the National Natural Conservation Association Assessment System. Through this, we propose future development requirements of quantitative assessment criteria for threatened species should have the following characteristics: (1) a clear, unified, and reasonable definition of category setting, (2) quantitative, objective, and non-redundant criteria for endangered categories, (3) adaptation to different geographical range while simultaneously expressing threatened category over different ranges, (4) evaluation indicators contain the dynamic information of the species which can quantitatively analyze the change of the species through time. In addition, the domestic quantitative assessment system for threatened species should form a standardized outline with increased publicity to combine theoretical research with specific conservation actions. Lastly, China should adopt the widely-used endangered rating systems to assess species threatened level and integrate domestic biodiversity conservation work into the global scale.

Key words: IUCN Red List, endangerment coefficient, fuzzy two-stage comprehensive evaluation, analytic hierarchy process, expert system, qualitative assessment