生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 229-236.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016294

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

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中国森林冠层生物多样性监测

沈浩1, 蔡佳宁1, 2, 李萌姣1, 2, 陈青1, 2, 叶万辉1, *(), 王峥峰1, 练琚愉1, 宋亮3   

  1. 1 .中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650
    2 .中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3 .中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南勐腊 666303
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-12 接受日期:2016-11-17 出版日期:2017-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 叶万辉 E-mail:why@scbg.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31370446)

On Chinese forest canopy biodiversity monitoring

Hao Shen1, Jianing Cai1, 2, Mengjiao Li1, 2, Qing Chen1, 2, Wanhui Ye1, *(), Zhengfeng Wang1, Juyu Lian1, Liang Song3   

  1. 1 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
  • Received:2016-10-12 Accepted:2016-11-17 Online:2017-03-20
  • Contact: Ye Wanhui E-mail:why@scbg.ac.cn

林冠作为森林与外界环境相互作用最直接和最活跃的关键生态界面, 承载了森林生物多样性的主体, 在生物多样性的形成与维持以及生态系统功能过程中发挥着重要的作用, 被称为地球的“第八大洲”。同时, 林冠对气候变化和人为干扰高度敏感, 在人类活动和全球气候变化加剧的背景下, 森林生态系统正面临着严重的威胁, 首当其冲的就是森林冠层。气候变化下的林冠生物多样性保护与可持续利用已成为现代生态学研究的热点问题, 受到森林生态学、气候学、环境科学等研究领域的学者越来越多的关注。据此, 中国生物多样性监测与研究网络以网络内拥有森林冠层塔吊的生物多样性监测样地为平台, 建立了林冠生物多样性监测专项网。该专项网将参照国际标准, 统一监测指标, 规范监测标准, 通过大尺度地带性森林冠层内植物(包括附生种子植物和附生孢子植物)多样性、动物多样性、微生物多样性及其动态变化的长期监测, 结合林冠小气候环境特征监测, 建立林冠小环境特征、植物多样性、节肢动物多样性和微生物多样性等4个动态更新的数据库, 以阐明我国典型森林林冠生物多样性变化的规律, 揭示其对森林生态系统功能过程的影响和对全球变化的响应。

关键词: 林冠, 塔吊, 生物多样性监测, 全球变化

As the most direct and active ecological interface of the interaction between forest and its environment, the forest canopy, known as the earth’s “eighth continent”, contains the greatest forest biological diversity, and plays an important role in the formation and maintenance of biodiversity as well as the processes and functions of the ecosystem. However, the forest canopy is highly sensitive to global climate change and human disturbance. In the wake of increasing human activities and global climate change, the forest ecosystem, especially the forest canopy, is facing a serious threat. Therefore, protection of forest canopy biodiversity and sustainable utilization are increasingly important issues in modern ecology research under the scenarios of climate change, and have gained more and more attention in the fields of forest ecology, climatology, and environmental science. Accordingly, in 2015, the Chinese Forest Canopy Biodiversity Monitoring Network was created within the framework of Sino BON. This network includes biodiversity monitoring plots those were or will be equipped with forest canopy cranes. According to international standards, the network will unify monitoring parameters of forest canopy biodiversity using monitoring standards and norms, and conduct long-term monitoring of plant diversity (including epiphytic seed plants and epispore plants), fauna diversity, microbial diversity and their dynamic changes, through large scale zonal forest canopies. Combined with monitoring of the microclimate, we will build four dynamic databases (including a forest canopy microclimate database, canopy plant, canopy arthropod, and canopy microbial). The network is expected to discern the change patterns of forest canopy biodiversity of typical forest ecosystems in China, and to reveal how they influence the functioning of forest ecosystems and respond to global change.

Key words: forest canopy, canopy crane, biodiversity monitoring, global change

表1

中国森林冠层生物多样性监测专项网样点布局"

序号No. 样点名称
Plot name
森林类型
Forest type
地理坐标
Geographic coordinates
1 吉林长白山阔叶红松林25 ha样地 25-ha deciduous broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forest plot at Changbai Mountain in Jilin Province 温带阔叶红松林 Temperate broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forest 42.38° N, 128.08° E
2 湖南八大公山中亚热带山地常绿落叶阔叶混交林25 ha样地 25-ha mid-subtropical mountain evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest plot at Badagong Mountain in Hunan Province 中亚热带山地常绿落叶阔叶混交林 Mid-subtropical mountain evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest 29.77° N, 110.09° E
3 浙江古田山亚热带常绿阔叶林24 ha样地 24-ha subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest plot at Gutian Mountain in Zhejiang Province 中亚热带常绿阔叶林 Mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest 29.25° N, 118.12° E
4 四川栗子坪亚高山针叶林20 ha样地 20-ha subalpine coniferous forest plot at Liziping in Sichuan Province 亚高山针叶林 Subalpine coniferous forest 28.91° N, 102.36° E
5 云南云杉坪暗针叶林25 ha样地 25-ha dark coniferous forest plot at Yunshanping in Yunnan Province 寒温性云冷杉林 Cold temperate spruce-fir forest 27.14° N, 100.23° E
6 云南哀牢山亚热带常绿阔叶林20 ha样地 20-ha subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest plot at Ailao Mountain in Yunnan Province 亚热带常绿阔叶林 Subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest 24.54° N, 101.03° E
7 广东鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林20 ha样地 20-ha lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest plot at Dinghu Mountain in Guangdong Province 南亚热带常绿阔叶林 South subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest 23.10° N, 121.32° E
8 云南西双版纳热带雨林20 ha样地 20-ha tropical rain forest plot at Xishuangbanna in Yunnan Province 热带雨林 Tropical rain forest 21.61° N, 101.57° E
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