生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (2): 216-227.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015214

• • 上一篇    下一篇

异质生境中水生植物表型可塑性的研究进展

黎磊1,2,3, 耿宇鹏4, 兰志春1,2,3, 陈家宽1,2, 宋志平2,,A;*()   

  1. 1 (南昌大学生命科学研究院流域生态学研究所, 鄱阳湖环境与资源利用教育部重点实验室, 南昌 330031
    2 复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所, 上海 200438
    3 江西鄱阳湖湿地生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 南昌 330038
    4 云南大学生态学与地植物学研究所, 昆明 650091);
  • 收稿日期:2015-07-30 接受日期:2015-10-16 出版日期:2016-02-20 发布日期:2016-03-03
  • 通讯作者: 宋志平
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31400403)、中国博士后科学基金(2015M571484)和国家林业局珍稀濒危物种野外救护与繁育项目(13007561)

Phenotypic plasticity of aquatic plants in heterogeneous environments: a review

Lei Li1,2,3, Yupeng Geng4, Zhichun Lan1,2,3, Jiakuan Chen1,2, Zhiping Song2,*()   

  1. 1 Center for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031
    2 Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
    3 National Ecosystem Research Station of Jiangxi Poyang Lake Wetland, Nanchang 330038
    4 Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
  • Received:2015-07-30 Accepted:2015-10-16 Online:2016-02-20 Published:2016-03-03
  • Contact: Song Zhiping

摘要:

水生植物是一类以草本植物为主、与水紧密相关的生态类群, 大多数具有克隆性。面对水环境的变化, 水生植物在形态、行为和生理上表现出多样化的表型可塑性, 对异质生境具有很强的适应能力。表型可塑性研究已在陆生植物的多个类群展开, 然而目前对异质生境下水生植物的生态适应对策, 尤其是表型可塑性的研究尚重视不够。本文在阐明克隆植物表型可塑性主要实现方式及其关系、水生环境异质性及其特点的基础上, 重点从形态可塑性、觅食行为、克隆整合、克隆分工和风险分摊等5个方面讨论了水生植物如何通过表型可塑性适应异质性水生环境。在今后的水生植物表型可塑性研究中, 建议着重探讨以下问题: (1)表型可塑性的变化规律及机理; (2)克隆整合对群落和生态系统的影响; (3)克隆整合与克隆片段化的权衡; (4)不同克隆构型的表型可塑性及其内在机制; (5)表型可塑性的适应性进化; (6)水生植物与其他类群/营养级物种的关系; (7)水生生态系统对全球变化的响应。

关键词: 环境异质性, 水生植物, 克隆生长, 形态可塑性, 克隆整合, 觅食行为, 克隆分工, 风险分摊

Abstract:

Aquatic plants are the ecological group that mainly consists of herbaceous plants with habitats that are closely associated with water. Most aquatic plants have strong clonality. In response to changes in aquatic environments, aquatic plants exhibit significant plasticity in morphological, behavioral and physiological traits, and thus adapt well to heterogeneous aquatic environments. Compared with extensive studies on phenotypic plasticity of terrestrial plants, less attention has been paid to test how phenotypic plasticity of aquatic plants responds to heterogeneous environments. In this review, we briefly clarified the major types of phenotypic plasticity and their relationships in clonal plants in heterogeneous environments, identified the uniqueness of aquatic environments in relation to environmental heterogeneity, and analyzed the theoretical possibilities of aquatic plants showing high phenotypic plasticity. Furthermore, we probed into how aquatic plants adapted to heterogeneous aquatic environments by means of phenotypic plasticity involved with morphological plasticity, foraging behavior, clonal integration, intraclonal labour division, and risk spreading. Finally, we identified shortcomings in current studies on phenotypic plasticity of aquatic plants, and highlighted some issues deserving more attention in future studies, which include: (1) the changing pattern and mechanism of phenotypic plasticity; (2) the influence of clonal integration on community and ecosystem stability; (3) the trade-offs between clonal integration and fragmentation; (4) the differences of phenotypic plasticity in different types of clonal architecture, and their mechanisms; (5) the adaptive evolution of phenotypic plasticity; (6) the interaction of aquatic plants with species in other taxa or at different tropic levels; and (7) the response of aquatic ecosystems to global change.

Key words: environmental heterogeneity, aquatic plant, clonal growth, morphological plasticity, clonal integration, foraging behavior, intraclonal labour division, risk spreading