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Table of Content
    Volume 08 Issue 3
    20 August 2000
    Genetic diversity of threeGobiocypris raruspopulations and one inbreeding stock
    WANG Jian-Wei, WANG Wei, CUI Ying-Song
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  241-247.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000033
    Abstract ( 3368 )   PDF (254KB) ( 2547 )   Save
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    Genetic diversity of three Gobiocypris rarus populations and one inbreeding stock was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Materials of natural populations were collected from three counties of Sichuan Province , Hanyuan (HY) , Guanxian ( GX) and Pengxian (PX) , where water system belongs to three tributaries of the Yangtz River , Dadu River , Minjiang River and Tuojiang River system , respectively. The inbreeding stock was the tenth generation descendant of a brother- sister mating ( F10 ) system whose parents were collected in Hanyuan. Percentage of polymorphic sites , genetic similarity and the Shannon’s index of phenotypic diversity were used to analyze genetic diversity. The results showed the genetic diversity of F10 was very low , whereas that of natural populations was relatively abundant . In natural populations , nearly half of the RAPD sites were polymorphic , and the average Shannon’s index was 0. 3235 (HY) , 0. 3075 ( GX) and 0. 2911 (PX) , respectively. Genetic similarity among individuals indicated that genetic diversity of HY and GX was higher than that of PX. Difference in genetic structure between F10 and natural populations was fairly obvious. Although the differences on phenotype frequency were detected on 11 to 19 sites , no molecular marker was found to distinguish natural populations. Analysis on the coefficient of differentiation using Shannon’s index revealed that 91. 33 % of total genetic diversity existed within natural populations and 8. 67 % among them. Treating the presence and absence of bands as two phenotypes , Chi- test (χ2) and the analysis of Shannon’s index was suggested to be effective approach for studying population differences.
    Genetic diversity in the wild and hatchery populations of Red Seabream (Pagrus major)
    MENG Xian-Hong, KONG Jie, ZHUANG Zhi-Meng, WANG Wei-Ji, LIU Ping
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  248-252.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000034
    Abstract ( 3134 )   PDF (179KB) ( 2358 )   Save
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    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed to detect the DNA polymorphism in each 23 individuals of the index samples from the wild and hatchery populations of Red Seabream. A total of 20 decamer arbitrary primers were used and 16 of them generated clear RAPD bands. Of them , 131 were obtained from the wild population and 123 from the hatchery population. The mean percentage of polymorphic fragments of wild population was 62. 60 %opposite to 54. 47 % in the hatchery population , while the average heterozygosity valued 0. 4786 and 0. 3633 , respectively. The richer polymorphic bands and the higher value of average heterozygosity indicated higher genetic diversity level of this species and the great potential in piscatorial genetic improvement . The experiment revealed the fact that the percentage of polymorphic fragments and the value of average heterozygosity of the hatchery population were lower than those of the wild population. As a result , it implied that effective husbandry and management measures must be taken to avoid reduction of genetic diversity so as to enable the sustainable development of the mariculture.
    Genetic diversity of Diqing-Tibetan Pig of Yunnan
    LI Xiang-Yun, REN Zhan-Jun, CHANG Hong
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  253-256.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000035
    Abstract ( 3429 )   PDF (129KB) ( 2142 )   Save
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    In the present study , analysis of 13 blood protein loci obtained from 52 Diqing- Tibetan pigs was carried out by means of horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Polymorphism was found in seven loci , i. e. the Transferrin ( Tf) , Ceruloplasmin (Cp) , Amylase (Am) , Hemopexin ( Hp) , 6- Phosphogluconate dehydroge2 nase (6PGD) , Cell esterase(CEs) and Carbonic anhydrase (Ca) , which consisted of 3 , 2 , 5 , 5 , 2 , 2 and 3 alleles , respectively. A new variant was discovered at Ca locus. The allele frequencies at each locus were calcu2 lated and their precision degree and confidence were also estimated simultaneously. The other six loci , namely Prealbumin(Pa) , Esterase-D ( EsD) , Phosphohexose isomerase ( PHI) , Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ( G6PD) , Phosphoglucomutase( PGM) and Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) , were monomorphic. This paper revealed the rich blood protein polymorphisms in Diqing- Tibetan pig and indicated that the method was practi2 cable on population phylogenesis studies
    RAPD analysis of genetic diversity of Cachesium polypinum
    ZHANG Xi-Yuan, SUN Chong, YAN Ting-Ting, WU Hai, ZHENG Yi, LI Xiao-Ying, MIAO Wei, YU Yu-He, SHEN Yun-Fen,
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  257-261.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000036
    Abstract ( 3469 )   PDF (212KB) ( 2486 )   Save
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    Three regional populations (Hankou :CP-1 ,Hanyang :CP-2 ,Wuchang :CP-3) of Cachesium polypinum in Wuhan were analysed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA ( RAPD) technique. Based on RAPD data , the pairwise genetic similarity of the three populations were 0.6921 on average , ranging from 0.6522 to 0.7385. The genetic similarity (S) between CP-2 and CP-3 was the greatest ,and S between CP-1 and CP-3 was the least . The relationship between variations and environment , and the significance of RAPD analysis of genetic diversity of Cachesium polypinum were discussed.
    Insect abundance and environmental effects in Shennongjia Natural Reserve, Hubei Province
    ZHOU Hong-Zhang, YU Xiao-Dong, LUO Tian-HOng, HE Jun-Jian, ZHOU Hai-Sheng, YE Chan-Juan
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  262-270.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000037
    Abstract ( 3620 )   PDF (294KB) ( 3424 )   Save
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    Insects are the most species- rich group of all organisms. Studying insect species diversity is a fundamental part of natural conservation , and its main purpose is to reduce the increasing loss of biodiversity on this globe. Nevertheless , there have been very few studies involving insect species conservation in China. Shennongjia Natural Reserve , which owns plenty of insects species and other organisms , is one of the most important areas for terrestrial biodiversity of China. Although Shennongjia Natural Reserve has been well protected , few work has been fulfilled on insect species diversity. In this study , we focused on investigating insect species and their abundance in Shennongjia Natural Reserve in order to understand distribution patterns in different habitats , so that we can get fundamental knowledge for long- term monitoring and conservation in this area. We chose 23 samples representing six different types of vegetation , i. e. coniferous forests , deciduous broadleaved forests , mixed forests , shrubs near river , meadows and bamboo. Besides the ordinary methods such as sifter and net trap , Barber trap was employed as the main way of quantification. The results were as follows : (1) a total of 58 368 specimens were collected , of which 46 213 were insects ; the rest belonged mainly to Annelida , Mollusca , Myriopda and Arachnida. Of insects , the most abundant groups were found to be Formicidae (Hymenoptera) , Staphylinidae and Carabidae (Coleoptera) , and next to them were Hemiptera , Homoptera , Diptera , Orthoptera and Neuroptera ; (2) vegetation types determined the distribution of insects , but the impact was significant only in terms of relatively lower taxa , family level , e. g. the beetle groups like Staphylinidae and Carabidae. From relatively higher taxa , i. e. order level , no difference was evident (the following groups were all considered in details : Coleoptera , Diptera , Hymenoptera , Orthoptera , Hemiptera and Homoptera) ; (3) some species were found in some special sites , which indicated that Shennongjia was a special area for species conservation.
    Species diversity of a shrub community in Tiantong region, Zhejiang Province and its implication for succession
    ZHANG Guang-Fu
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  271-276.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000038
    Abstract ( 3285 )   PDF (180KB) ( 2521 )   Save
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    Species diversity of a shrub community in Tiantong region , Zhejiang Province was measured by applying Shannon-Wiener diversity index(SW) , Simpson ecological dominance(SN) and evenness index(PW) . The result showed that these indices could effectively reveal the characteristics of species composition for subtropic shrubs. SW value of the shrub layer in Tiantong shrub community (TSC) is higher than that of tree layer in evergreen broad-leaved forest ( EBLF) , but is lower than that of shrub layer in EBLF. SN value of the shrub layer in TSC is lower than that of tree layer in EBLF , but it is higher than that of shrub layer in EBLF.PW value of the shrub layer in TSC is lower than that of both tree layer and shrub layer in EBLF. In addition , restoration measures on how to accelerate the progressive succession of the shrub community were tentatively discussed based on species diversity.
    A study on the ecotones betweenQuercus mongolica community and other communities
    YU Shun-Li, LIU Can-Ran, MA Ke-Ping
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  277-283.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000039
    Abstract ( 3574 )   PDF (225KB) ( 2169 )   Save
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    The ecotones between Quercus mongolica community and other communities such as Juglans mandshurica, Larix olgensis and shrub in Tonghua , Huadian and Daqinggou were studied by sampling method. The structure and composition of three communities and their ecotones in these sites were analyzed. Species richness index , Simpson diversity index and Shannon-Weiner diversity index of Quercus mongolica community , Juglans mandshurica community , Larix olgensis community and their ecotones were calculated. The diversity index and richness index of the ecotones were the highest in Tongha and Daqinggou. But diversity index and richness index of the ecotones in Huadian weren’t the highest due to the absence of strong edge effect . The relationships among the coverage of tree layer ,shrub layer and herb layer were also analyzed.
    Trade of wild animals and plants in China-Laos border areas: status and suggestion for effective management
    YANG Qing, CHEN Jin, BAI Zhi-Lin, DENG Xiao-Bao, LIU Zhi-Qiu
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  284-296.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000040
    Abstract ( 4498 )   PDF (419KB) ( 3225 )   Save
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    An investigation was conducted on wild plants and animals trade in China-Laos border areas. The results showed that during the period of 1997~1998 , the annual amount of the trade was over 10 million US dollars , of which about 5 million US dollars through legal channel and 3. 8 million US dollars registered in Xishuangbanna Transboundary Trade Management Bureau. Our study recorded 51 species of wild plants in the transboundary trade , including 35. 3 % species prohibited for trade and 43. 14 % species with export-amount limitation by Laos government . There were about 134 species of animals in the trade , including 56 species of mammals , 45 birds , 31 reptiles , one fish and one species of amphibian. Among which , 71 species were forbidden for trade by some international conventions , 19 species were categorized as first-class protected in CITES , and 32 species as second-class protected. In legal trade , the price of wild plants and animals increased by 20 %~70 % in average from the collectors to the first peddlers. When the products were transported to Mengla County of Yunnan Province , the price increases about 2.7 times of the original price , if transported to other places outside Yunnan Province , the price was about 3.6 times of the original. The price of illegal trade was about 2.7~4.5 times higher than the legal one , and most of the profits was obtained by intermediary traders. Local collectors gained a relatively small part of the profit , however , they could still get 0.6~2.8 US dollars per person per day , which was higher than other agricultural activities such as paddy rice or upland rice cultivation in this area. We also put forward some suggestions for effective management of the trade of the animals and plants in the China-Laos border areas.
    A preliminary study on soil microorganisms of artificial vegetation in the center of Taklimakan Desert
    GU Feng-Xue, PAN Bo-Rong, WEN Qi-Kai, YANG Yu-Suo
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  297-303.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000041
    Abstract ( 3423 )   PDF (202KB) ( 3016 )   Save
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    Artificial plantations were set up by irrigating saline ground water (salt content 4~5 g/ L ) in extremely arid areas in the center of Taklimakan Desert . Soil microorganisms were detected in the drift sand dunes and afforestation plots in March and J une 1998. The result showed that : 1) after the establishment of artificial vegetation , the quantity of microorganisms increased greatly with ages ; 2) soil microbial taxa varied with plant species in the plots of same age ; 3) bacteria were predominant , accounting for 90 % of the total , actinomyces the next and fungi the least ; and 4) there are more microorganisms in the topsoil (0~10 cm deep) of afforested sand dunes than in the subsoil layers (10~50 cm deep) . The changes in quantities of soil microorganisms showed that the drift sand was developing into more fertilized soil.
    A preliminary study on diversity of soil animal communities in the forest of Badagong Mountain Nature Reserve
    XIANG Chang-Guo, LI Wen-Fang, YU De-Zhen
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  304-306.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000042
    Abstract ( 3632 )   PDF (119KB) ( 2280 )   Save
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    A preliminary study on diversity of soil animal communities in the forest of Badagong Mountain Nature Reserve was made , and 27 species of soil animals were found , belonging to 12 classes of five phyla , of which Acarina , Collembola , Nematoda and Enchytraeidae were dominant communities , accounting for 88.67 %of the total hunted ones. There existed a certain relationship between animal density and the type and nature of soil. The density of animals in the main soil types were as follows : 1.256 million ind./m3 in the black limestone soil , 1.043 million ind./m3 in the brown limestone soil , 912 000 ind./m3 in mountain soddy yellow- brown earth and 742,000 ind./m3 in mountain yellow- brown earth.
    A preliminary study on avian ecology in mangrove wetland of Qinglangang, Hainan
    ZOU Fa-Sheng, SONG Xiao-Jun, CHEN Kang, LIANG Yong, XU Da-Hong
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  307-311.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000043
    Abstract ( 3282 )   PDF (189KB) ( 3268 )   Save
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    This paper reported the results of avian survey in mangrove wetland of Qinglangang. Fifty two species of birds were recorded , belonging to 19 families , nine orders. Of them , 23 species were migratory birds , 29 resident birds ; 31 were waterbirds and 21 terrestrial birds. Three species were listed as national second-class protected birds , 17 species listed in the Sino-Japan Migratory Birds Protection Agreement , 18 species lised in Sino-Australia Migratory Birds Protection Agreement . Number of birds varied with seasons. The number of bird species as a whole and waterbird species were the most in winter and the least in summer. The annual trend of species number was exhibited in this order : winter > autumn > spring > summer. Migratory birds affected the annual fluctuation of bird species. The composition and number of birds varied with food condition and area of habitats. This paper also discussed the status of avian diversity in Qinglangang Reserve.
    A preliminary investigation on fish species diversity in western region of Qinling Mountains
    WANG Xu-Zhen, HE Shun-Ping, ZHANG Tao
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  312-313.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000044
    Abstract ( 3239 )   PDF (76KB) ( 2428 )   Save
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    The investigation on fish and their habitats in Hanjiang River system and Jialingjiang River system in west region of Qinling Mountains indicated that human activities had a great impact on fish diversity. This paper intended to give a general report and analysed the causes of the descent of fish diversity in this area. There were 142 species of fish recorded in these two river systems in Qinling Mountains ,but only 34 species were collected in this expedition to west region of Qinling. It was discovered that decrease of the number of fish species was caused by a lot of factors , including water conservancy facilities construction ,water pollution , over-fishing and illegal fishery.
    A preliminary research on the relationship between Tibetan Buddhism and wildlife conservation in Tibetanzone of Sichuan Province
    ZHANG Ke-Jia, WANG Xiao-Ming
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  314-316.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000045
    Abstract ( 3262 )   PDF (108KB) ( 2791 )   Save
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    The questionnaire investigation of the relationship between Tibetan Buddhism and wildlife conservation was carried out in Shiqu and Baiyu counties of Sichuan Province from J uly to August 1999. According to the 44 questionnaire sheets from different sites , the authors found that hunting occurred in 50 % villages investigated , 96 % and 98 % of local people insisted that the wolves ( Canis lupus) and pikas ( Ochotona spp. ) should be eliminated , respectively. The attitudes of 57 % and 45 %of local people toward the raptor and ungulates showed that they would not hunt them. As there is at least one temple in each village , the local temples play an important role in wildlife conservation. The authors suggest that the local government collaborate with the local temples on the issue of wildlife conservation.
    Metallothionein diversity and its ecological service functions of invertebrates: an overview
    YE Shu-Feng, LUJian-Jian
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  317-324.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000046
    Abstract ( 3561 )   PDF (281KB) ( 2735 )   Save
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    Metallothioneins(MTs) are low molecular mass , cysteine-rich metal binding polypeptides , which have been found widely distributed in invertebrates since 1975 and established a central role in the regulation of the essential metals , zinc and copper , and the detoxification of nonessential metals , cadmium and mercury. So far , more than 60 invertebrate MTs have been reported each with two and more than two MT isoforms and variants respectively in most major invertebrate groups including nematodes , annelids , echinoderm , mollusks , arthropods , pogonophora , and crustaceans. It was reported that MTs differed significantly among invertebrate species with plentiful information of biodiversity and many kinds of ecological functions , including the following three aspects : diversity of binding metals to MTs , diversity of MT isoforms and variants , and diversity of MTs ecological service functions. Up to now , however , studies on the diversity of MTs are not enough , especially on MTs ecological service functions , so that few MTs ecological functions have been found and studied in natural populations of invertebrates. For this reason , it is important to indicate the ecological service functions on the basis of the diversity of invertebrate MTs in terms of theory and practice. The diversity of invertebrate MTs are overviewed and analyzed in this paper , and their ecological service functions are also discussed in three aspects : MTs function in detoxification and regulation of heavy metals , MTs as biomarkers in environmental monitoring , purification function of MTs in environmental heavy metal pollution and their roles in the environmental pollution management .
    How does species diversity change? Spatio-temporal patterns and scales
    ZHOU Hong-Zhang, YU Xiao-Dong, LUO Tian-Hong, HE Jun-Jian
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  325-336.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000047
    Abstract ( 4469 )   PDF (333KB) ( 5113 )   Save
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    It is an important part of biodiversity research to discover the patterns of species diversity over space and time in different scales and to find the mechanisms that control thepattern forming. These are also considered to be the main goals of studies on species diversity , which lay special emphasis on how the number of species changes and how great the species diverse with different biological attributes. This paper discusses at first the spatial patterns of species diversity , especially the modes of“species-area”from different aspects. The factors like latitudinal changes and habitat heterogeneity are considered to see how they affect the pattern forming of species diversity. Secondly , the paper′s discussion is concentrated on the patterns of species diversity over time. In the long- term evolution of all organisms , the process of total species- diversity increase would be interrupted by a series of mass extinctions that occur periodically. The recent progresses show that the patterns of species diversity between any two mass extinctions would be determined by the initial status immediately after the former mass extinction. On short- time scales , e.g. ecological succession in a community , circannual rhythms and seasonality , some special patterns have been found in species- diversity changes. In addition , the results of some researches demonstrated that more species tended to live on a host if they had coevolved for a longer time.
    Molecular techniques and their application to the study of microbial diversity
    YANG Yong-Hua, YAO Jian
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  337-342.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000048
    Abstract ( 3773 )   PDF (210KB) ( 3451 )   Save
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    Microbial diversity is an important part of biodiversity. Microbial diversity research and its conservation and utilization are quite different from those of macroorganisms including animals and plants. In particular , it is necessary to develop new techniques suitable for microbial diversity research. Recently , as the development of modern molecular biology , several molecular techniques have been used to study microbial diversity , including 1) total DNA extraction of microbe and its genetic diversity assay , 2) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis , 3) nucleic acid hybridization , and 4) DNA kinetics. In order to promote extensive and intensive research on microbial diversity , it’s necessary to integrate these methods to enhance a combination of traditional and modern techniques , and to develop novel method.
    Discussion on studying biodiversity by remote sensing
    YUE Tian-Xiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  343-346.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000049
    Abstract ( 3836 )   PDF (131KB) ( 2818 )   Save
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    Remote sensing for biodiversity study has the advantage of the total coverage of extended area that includes the investigation regions and their peripheries , which assures easy assessment of structural parameters in a synoptic way and visualization of the studied area. Remote sensing can provide various useful data at different scales. However , a comprehensive assessment of biodiversity not only needs data from remote sensing , but from other biological , ecological and socio-economic information. Therefore , it is necessary to establish a biodiversity information system under the framework of geographical information system( GIS) , which have the required special functions and contents. To extract knowledge from these data , theoretically rational mathematical models are necessary. In general , the combination of remote sensing data with GIS and mathematical models is an essential foundation for obtaining ideal results , which can be used to quantitatively assess biodiversity , ecologically preserve biodiversity and economically utilize biodiversity.
    Community co-management: a new model for nature reserve management
    ZHANG Jin-Liang, LI Huan-Fang, HUANG Fang-Guo
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (3):  347-350. 
    Abstract ( 3236 )   PDF (96KB) ( 3768 )   Save
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    Co-management demonstration of GEF project were conducted in Taibai ,Foping and Zhouzhi National Nature Reserves , Shaanxi Province as a new approach of reserve managing. According to procedures , reserves clarified objectives of co-management and established co-management committee as well as developed Community Resources Management Plan (CRMP) . Countering threats to biodiversity conservation from economic development of the community , the implementer adopted countermeasures such as publicizing and educating , investigating of community , natural resource using , extending agriculture techniques , choosing some community development programs , practicing of energy- saving techniques , expanding range of community participation and establishing resource conservation system. Some positive outputs of co-management have been achieved. Villagers have benefited especially from exploitation of fuelwood resource , popularization of agricultural technology and community development programs , meanwhile the conservation of biodiverstiy was further strengthened. The experience and demonstration of the community co-management showed its value in seeking a new reserve management model of balancing conservation and development .

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