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Table of Content
    Volume 09 Issue 3
    20 August 2001
    Pathotype diversity of Magnaport he grisea and resistance of rice cultivars to the pathogen in Jiangsu Province
    LU Fan, , , ZHENG Xiao-Bo, CHEN Zhi-Yi, LIU Yong-Feng, WANG Fa-Ming, FAN Yong-Jian
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  201-206.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001031
    Abstract ( 3155 )   PDF (151KB) ( 2911 )   Save
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    Three hundred and twenty-four isolates were obtained from rice blast specimens collected from five typical areas —Wujiang , Ganyu , Tongzhou , Gaoyou and Yixing in Jiangsu Province during 1997~1999. The isolates were assessed against 13 Japanese cultivars for which resistance genes have been determined and were divided into 90 pathotypes. This indicated that complex virulence diversity exists in Magnaporthe grisea in Jiangsu Province. The pathotype composition were dissimilar in the five typical areas , and from 1997~1999 , the dissimilarity tended to increase. The analysis of virulence frequency indicated that the resistance genes Pi-ks , Pi-ta , Pi-ta2 and Pi-sh had narrow resistance spect ra to Magnaporthe grisea isolates tested in Jiangsu Province , while the genes Pi-i , Pi-z , Pi-z t and Pi-b had wide resistance spect ra to the pathogen and had value in rice breeding as resources of resistance. Inoculation with six st rains that represent six typical pathotypes of Magnaporthe grisea on 80 major cultivars and newly-bred cultivars of Jiangsu Province showed that most of the Indica cultivars and hybrid rice cultivars tested were resistant and the Japonica rice cultivars were susceptible to the pathogen. The results provide a basis for use of resistance diversity of rice cultivars to control rice blast .

    A preliminary study on ecological diversity of myxobacter ia
    FANG Xiao-Mei ZHANG Li-Ping
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  207-213.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001032
    Abstract ( 3091 )   PDF (248KB) ( 3107 )   Save
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    Through study on ecological diversity of myxobacteria in some areas of Hebei , Yunnan , and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau , more than 150 st rains of 10 genera ( Archangium , Myxococcus , Cystobacter , Corallococcus , Melit tangium , Sorangium , Polyangium , Chondromyces , Angiococcus and Stigmatella) of Myxococcales were isolated from 42 samples , including some special strains that have never been described before. These strains were preliminary identified to generic level by their fruiting bodies , swarms , myxospores and vegetative cells. Comparison of myxobacteria statistics with the different sites , vegetations and nut rition sources of these special habitat sshows wide distribution and variety of ecological diversity of myxobacteria. This sets a strong base for developing and utilizing myxobacteria efficiently.
    Habitat distribution and species diversity of Carabus and Cychrus in She nnongjia Nature Reserve, Hubei Province
    YU Xiao-Dong, ZHOU Hong-Zhang, LUO Tian-Hong
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  214-221.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001033
    Abstract ( 3991 )   PDF (370KB) ( 2720 )   Save
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    This study was conducted in Shennongjia Nature Reserve in Hubei Province , China. Twelve plots within six different habitats were investigated and the method of pitfall traps was employed to compare the influence of elevation , disturbance and habitat difference on the distribution of Carabus and Cychrus . Seven species of Carabus and two of Cychrus were recorded , of which four species , C.ohshimaianus , C. blumenthaliellus , C. yokoae , and Cy. bispinosus shennongding , dominated the trap catches and accounted for 88.2 %of the total collected specimens. Elevation and disturbance influenced species distribution. Dominant species could be trapped in an interval of over 1000 m while the other species were trapped only in an interval of about 500 m. Species were richest between 1500 to 2000 m above sealevel , and individuals were most abundant between 2000 to 2500 m. Fewer species and fewer individuals were captured between 500 to 1000 m. Severe disturbance from intensive humanand natural activity strongly limited species distributions and their abundance. The highest species number was observed in habitats with a moderate degree of disturbance , and the highest abundance was found where disturbance existed in a much lower degree. Habitats in very stable and undisturbed ecosystems did not show the highest number of species and abundance. Analysis showed significant habitat preferences for each species : C. blumenthaliellus was more abundant in meadows , C. yokoae in broad-leaved forest , and C. ohshimaianus in mixed forest . Considering genus as the unit in analysis (i. e. , Carabus and Cychrus) abundance did not show significant difference at the 0.05 level among different habitats , but Carabus showed a lower abundance in mixed forests and Cychrus was more abundant in mixed forests and in meadows. Species diversity ( H′value) was highest in shrubs near rivers and lowest in coniferous forest . Broad-leaved forest showed the highest evenness value and coniferous forest the lowest , while the highest species richness was observed in mixed forest and shrubs near rivers and the lowest in broad-leaved forest and meadows. The results indicate that elevation and disturbance determine the species distribution of Carabus and Cychrus and habitat differences st rongly modify numbers of each species. For species diversity protection , it is very important to maintain environmental heterogeneity and reduce the magnitude of disturbance from human and natural activity in Shennongjia
    Change in structure and diversity of soil arthropod communities after slash and burn of secondary forest in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province
    YANG Xiao-Dong, TANG Yong, TANG Jian-Wei
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  222-227.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001034
    Abstract ( 3293 )   PDF (153KB) ( 2383 )   Save
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    The change in st ructure and diversity of soil arthropod communities of secondary forest after the simulated process of slash-and-burn was studied in Xishuangbanna. The results showed that colonies and individuals of soil arthropod communities declined from 14 colonies , 564 individuals in secondary forest to 7 colonies , 164 individuals in slash-and-burn fields one week after burning. The composition of soil arthropod communities was also changed. The proportion of individuals of Hymenoptera (ants) in burned remnants was greatly increased on the first day after burning , and this was obviously the dominant group in the soil arthropod community. The proportion of individuals of Acari was greatly increased during the first week after burning , and it was the only dominant group of the soil arthropod community in the field. The diversity of the soil arthropod community was decreased and the verticalst ructure of the community was disrupted by slash-and-burn. After the slash-and-burn process , there were many more colonies and individuals of soil arthropod in the lower soil than in the surface soil. The dest ruction by slash-and-burn of soil arthropod communities was reduced to a certain extent in deeper soil layers. Some soil arthropods can keep their numbers and species by moving lower in the soil during the slash-and-burn process.
    Study on soil animal diversity in the Yellow River Delta
    TIAN Jia-Yi, PAN Huai-Jian, FU Rong-Shu
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  228-236.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001035
    Abstract ( 3429 )   PDF (288KB) ( 2478 )   Save
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    Based on qualitative and quantitative investigations of soil animals in nine sampling areas of the Yellow River Delta ( YRD) made from 1995 to 1996 and yearly investigations made in the same period of soil animals in three sampling areas of ancient , recent and contemporary YRDs , the species composition , dist ribution , seasonal changes and diversity of soil animals have been characterised. In the YRD ,38 species of soil animals have been identified ,most belong to the orders Acarina , Coleoptera and Collembola. According to different sampling methods , 19 species of large soil animals , 31 species of medium - small Tullgren soil animals and 3 species of medium - small Baermann soil animals have been identified. The species compositions and dist ributions in the three YRDs are different because of the age of soil formation. So are the seasonal species compositions and dist ributions , the soil animal in summer being richest in diversity. The index of diversity of soil animals in the YRD is correlated with the index of evenness , but is negatively correlated with the purity.
    Effect of chemical fertilizer on nematode community composition and diversity in the Black Soil Region
    LIANG Wen-Ju, ZHANG Wan-Min, LI Wei-Guang, DUAN Yu-Xi
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  237-240.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001036
    Abstract ( 3814 )   PDF (181KB) ( 2926 )   Save
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    The effects of chemical fertilizer on nematode community composition and diversity were investigated in a field throughout the corn-growing season in the Black Soil Region , Northeast China. 14 families and 16 genera were observed. Cephalobidae , Rhabditidae , A phelenchus , and Tylenchus were found to be the dominant families/ genera. Significant differences were found between sampling dates ( p < 0. 01) and between treatments ( p < 0. 01) in the total number of nematodes during the study period. Ecological indices of diversity , evenness , richness and dominance and the dynamics of the nematode community were compared between the t reatment and the cont rol plot . Shannon index and richness were found to be more sensitive indicators than other ecological indices for assessing the response of nematode communities to the application of chemical fertilizer.
    Isozyme variation in four populations of Penaeus chinensis shrimp
    WANG Wei-Ji, , KONG Jie, BAO Zhen-Min, DENG Jing-Yao, ZHUANG Zhi-Meng
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  241-246.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001037
    Abstract ( 3337 )   PDF (260KB) ( 2245 )   Save
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    Horizontal starch gel elect rophoresis was used to investigate the isozyme genetic variation in Penaeus chinensis shrimp. Each 50 individuals from two wild geographic populations dist ributed in the China Coast of the Yellow Sea ( YP) and the western coast of Korean Peninsula ( KP) , and from two cultivated populations (CP1 and CP2) were surveyed. Of 20 loci encoding 12 enzymes , four are polymorphic. The mean proportions of polymorphic loci ( P0. 99) of YP , KP , CP1 and CP2 are 15 % , 20 % , 10 % and 20 % with the average heterozygosities ( Ho) of 0. 014 ±0. 007 , 0. 020 ±0. 010 , 0. 010 ±0. 007 and 0. 033 ±0. 017 , respectively. The mean effective allele number ( Ne) of these four populations are 1. 015 ±0. 008 , 1. 023 ±0. 011 , 1. 011 ±0. 007 and 1. 042 ±0. 022 while the heterozygous divergent indexes ( D) of them value + 0. 037 , - 0. 030 , - 0. 098 and - 0. 030 , respectively. The genetic similarity index ( I) and genetic distance ( Dnei) between two wild geographic populations are 0. 99998 and 0. 00002 , respectively.
    Species diversity of mollusc in intertidal zone, Daya Bay
    LIN Wei, LAI Li-ping, TANG Yi-Jie
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  247-253.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001038
    Abstract ( 3482 )   PDF (159KB) ( 3018 )   Save
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    This paper report s on the result s of investigations on molluscs in four kinds of habitat s. 38 species of molluscs , belonging to 23 families , are recognized. The result s show that values of species richness indices at rocky shores ( D = 4. 33 to 9. 38) are larger than those of muddy and sandy beaches ( D = 4.33 to 6.49) , and those of muddy and sandy beaches are larger than those of sandy beaches ( D = 2. 89) . The studies of species diversity also show that values of species diversity indices at rocky shores ( H′= 0. 429 to 0. 842) are larger than those of muddy and sandy beaches ( H′= 0. 315 to 0. 450) , and those of sandy beaches ( H′= 0. 182) . The results of systematic clustering based on similarity coefficients show that the distribution and quantity of molluscs is affected by sediment s , tide and pollution.
    Studies on differentiation and space utilization strategies of different local populations of Mosla hangchowensis
    LU Yi-Jun, GE Ying, CHANG Jie, GUAN Bao-Hua, YUE Chun-Lei
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  254-259.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001039
    Abstract ( 2769 )   PDF (220KB) ( 1548 )   Save
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    Seeds collected from five different local populations of Mosla hangchowensis were germinated in the laboratory , and the young seedlings were transplanted in plots. At the late period of vegetative growth , 11 parameters of spatialst ructure of M. hangchowensis were measured , including height , crown amplitude , length of the main stem , maximum length of branch , basal stem diameter , leaf area , number of first-class branches , number of second-class branches , number of leaves growing on the main stem , length and crown amplitude of roots. On the basis of these parameters , space utilization st rategies and degree of differentiation of different local populations were analyzed. The results showed that there exist different patterns of adaptation and clear differences of phenotype among populations. The Huian population occupied a largert ransverse space by extending crown amplitude and its differentiation degree was highest . The Hangzhou population occupied the larger longitudinal space by increasing its height and the differentiation degree was only second to the Huian population. Differentiation degrees of Linhai , Tiantai and Putuo populations were less. The seeds from the Linhai and Tiantai populations were sorted by water and germinated. The plants from lower-layer seeds were larger than those f rom upper-layer seeds , but their space utilization strategies were the same.
    Avifauna of Old Yellow River Course Nature Reserve in northern Henan Province
    NIU Hong-Xing, BO Yan-Zhen, LU Ji-Qi, QU Wen-Yuan, WANG Yu-Sheng, WANG Xin-Min, NIU Ji-Sheng
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  260-264.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001040
    Abstract ( 2825 )   PDF (185KB) ( 2078 )   Save
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    From 1997 to 1999 ,we carried out an investigation on the bird fauna of wetlands along the Old Yellow River Course Nature Reserve in northern Henan Province. The study revealed that the birds in this area belong to 16 orders , 37 families , and 119 species. Among them , 32 species are residents (26. 9 %) , 24 species are winter migrants (20. 17 %) , 30 species are summer migrants (25. 2 %) ,and 33 species are passage migrants (27. 7 %) . Two species are Class I protected , 19 species are Class II protected , and six species are provincially protected.
    Structure, elasticity and diversity of animal behavior
    JIANG Zhi-Gang, LI Chun-Wang, PENG Jian-Jun, HU Hui-Jian
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  265-274.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001041
    Abstract ( 3812 )   PDF (226KB) ( 4944 )   Save
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    The definition of behavior , the structure of behavior and diversity of behavior have been ignored by researchers for a long time. We defined the concepts of elasticity and inelasticity of animal behavior. We also studied the space requirements for animals to perform behavior. Based on these basic concepts , we discuss the relationship between habitat elements and behavioral diversity. We discovered that captive space affected the social behavior and communication behavior in Père David’s Deer. Available space also had a profound impact on aggregation behavior. Père David’s Deer that were kept in small pens showed no sign of sexual segregation. However , when the deer were released into the field , the stag left the hinds. Sexual segregation , which had been suppressed in the Père David’s deer population held in small pens , was resurgent once the animals had more space. We also discovered that male and female giant panda living in a larger captive space had more court ship behaviors and spent more time on activities. Thus space had a profound impact on court ship behavior of male or female giant pandas. Animals living in captive environment s for generations may only perform behaviors of high inelasticity and may loose behaviors of elasticity. Such a process will reduce behavioral diversity. Taking the saiga and Mongolian wild ass as examples , we point out that we should consider escape space and seasonal migration space requirement s when we keep endangered ungulates in captivity or establish reserves for them. Diversity of animal behavior is not only a fundamental component of biodiversity but it is also relevant to the successful conservation of endangered species , particularly ex sit u conservation. When we attempt to preserve endangered species in captivity , we should pay special attention to maintaining behavioral diversity of these animals , because behavioral diversity is an integral part of biodiversity.
    Diversity of Chinese yellow cattle breeds and their conservation
    CHEN You-Chun, CAO Hong-He
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  275-283.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001042
    Abstract ( 3771 )   PDF (305KB) ( 3636 )   Save
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    Based on a summary of cattle breeds originating in China according to data from skull classification , coat color , blood protein polymorphisms , body stature , ecological characters , chromosome group , mtDNA , and archaeological discoveries , Chinese cattle are f rom two major origins. One was Bos tuarus , including turino-mongolian in the regions out side of the Great Wall and draft taurine on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. The other origin was Zebu cattle , of which there were three. The first was from west Asia , the Af ricander type , second was an indicus origin , influencing Yunnan humped cattle , and the third was South-east Asian in origin , which was supposedly the result of crosses between Bibos banteng and local high-hump cattle. Humpless cattle are mainly the Mongolian breed and their derived breeds , and Tibetan draft cattle. The humped cattle in cent ral regions of China , the Nanyang breed , is obviously influenced by the Af ricander type. When this form breeds with others , the resulting forms have a well-developed chest dewlap and folds. Humped cattle breeds in south-east China have chest dewlaps with poorly developed fold and without an abdominal dewlap. In general , they are two ecological systems , which are divided into three groups. On the ecological side , there are humpless , low humped and high humped cattle. In geographic dist ribution there are the Mongolian group , Huanghe and Huaihai group and Changjiang and Zhujiang group. Nowadays , more than 30 breeds have been int roduced from abroad , and this is accelerating the loss of local cattle genotypes. We make some proposals for conservation of cattle genetic resources.
    Molecular ecology and animal biodiversity conservation
    YANG Yu-Hui, LI Yi-Ming
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  284-293.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001043
    Abstract ( 3578 )   PDF (339KB) ( 3222 )   Save
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    Recent advances in molecular ecology opened a new chapter in conservation biology study. Disadvantages such as the long2duration of field studies , limited resolution and difficulties in the cont rol of experimental conditions in t raditionalecology research are seen to be overcome by molecular ecology methods. Molecular markers (RFL P , VNTR , RAPD , mitochondrial DNA , etc. ) provide efficient tools for the analyses of phylogeographic patterns , metapopulation dynamics , gene flow , population bottleneck effect s and individual relatedness. All of these are very important for biodiversity conservation and restoration of declining species. Species or race specific molecular markers could help to clarify ambiguity in morphological classification , phylogenetic relationships and possible hybridization among closely related taxa. This would be useful for defining the priority in species protection and the selection of protected areas. Recently , genomic regions encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were used to evaluate various specific questions such as population susceptibility to diseases and appear promising for future analysis. The continuing development of molecular technology will further enhance conservation ecology study. Studies based on multiple molecular marker systems when combined with ecological , demographic , behavioral and physiological data collected in the field , would provide a more definitive assessment of various conservation issues.
    Molecular mechanism for transcription and replication of RNA virus
    LIU Qing-Zhen, LI Ling-Yun, QI Yi-Peng, YANG Fu-Hua
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  294-300.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001044
    Abstract ( 3829 )   PDF (275KB) ( 4230 )   Save
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    RNA viruses are much more than DNA viruses in quantity and species in nature. It can be divided into many types of viruses according to genomic type. Recently , many researchers indicate that the ret ron existing in Myxobacteria , which carries only one reverse transcriptase gene , is the possible ancestor for all kinds of viruses , with the following evolution model : Retron →Ret roposon →Ret ransposon →Ret rovirus →Pararet rovirus →DNA viruses. It is very different between transcription/ replication of RNA virus and DNA virus genomes in many aspects. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is the major catalyst for transcription/ replication. Initiation sites for RNA virus t ranscription/ replication are specific structures [poly (A) or tRNA] at 3′ terminal region. Internal stop results in transcription but reading through to 5′end resulting in replication. RNA viruses use the following four kinds of templates in transcription/ replication : ( + ) ssRNA template , ( - ) ssRNA template , ( + ) aRNA template , ( - ) aRNA template. The mechanism of selective regulation on RNA templates is very complex and the acknowledgements of the regulation mechanism are quite few up to now. Selecting template and the binding of transcription factors with RNA pol to form replicon are two major regulatory means. Besides promoter and transcription factors , 5′UTR and 3′UTR also regulate the transcription of RNA viruses.
    Effects of environmental factors on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
    WANG Fa-Yuan, LIU Run-Jin
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  301-305.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001045
    Abstract ( 3536 )   PDF (202KB) ( 2719 )   Save
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    The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is influenced by many environmental factors , such as soil type , climate , and geographical factors. Researches on ecology of AM fungi in the past ten years are reviewed in this paper. Problems and prospects are discussed.
    Enlightenment from planning of natural protected areas in Canada
    XU Xue-Gong
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  306-309.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001046
    Abstract ( 3300 )   PDF (155KB) ( 2623 )   Save
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    Natural protected areas management holds a unique position within the field of resource and environment . Since the 1990s and with the increasing acceptance of the idea of sustainable development , China has made great progress in nature protection. However , despite the rapid increase in both number and area of natural protected areas , there still exist problems in their management . It is necessary to study and learn advanced managing experiences from other countries. This paper int roduces the planning of National Protected Areas in Canada , including system planning , management planning , resources management planning , service planning and action planning , as well as the relationship of many types of planning. Then brings forward what we gain edification and can use for reference ,so as to promote jointing with international conducts and make well natural protected areas management in China.
    Economic approaches to valuing biodiversity: some theoretical barriers and relevant counter measures
    XU Song-Ling
    Biodiv Sci. 2001, 09 (3):  310-318.  doi:10.17520/biods.2001047
    Abstract ( 2969 )   PDF (267KB) ( 2906 )   Save
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    This paper provides a short commentary on the methodological cont roversy surrounding valuation of world ecosystem services. A new conceptual framework is then proposed for understanding the value of biodiversity , and , based on this , a number of issues are discussed , involving measuring the value of biodiversity , which have not yet been resolved. These are the computability of value , the validity of valuation methods , the additivity and analyticity of value sectors , and error measurement of the value. Finally the paper presents methodological frameworks for two important issues of conservation economics , one of which is estimation of the cost of biodiversity disturbance , and the other is costbenefit analysis (CBA) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) for conservation engineering.

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