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Table of Content
    Volume 11 Issue 1
    20 January 2003
    A general review of the conservation status of Chinese orchids
    LUO Yi-Bo, JIA Jian-Sheng, WANG Chun-Ling
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  70-77.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003010
    Abstract ( 4349 )   PDF (289KB) ( 5997 )   Save
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    Orchids are a flagship group in plant conservation. There are about 1,247 species and about 171 genera in China. The Chinese orchid flora is distinguished by having rich diversity in geographical types, especially by having a broad subtropical area lying between the Qinling Mountains and the Tropic of Cancer. This paper generally reviews the present situation of research and conservation of Chinese orchids. The publication of three volumes of flora of China (Orchidaceae), and some local flora of orchids, such as those for Hainan, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Guangxi Provinces, has laid down a profound foundation not only for correctly identifying and naming Chinese orchids but also for properly making conservation policy and strategies. Compared with relatively rich taxonomic knowledge, however, there is a wide gap in our knowledge of orchid ecology and many other aspects of orchid biology related to conservation. Five main priorities for education and scientific research for the long and short terms are suggested. First, strengthen and improve basic research such as ecology, biology and floristics. Second, identify and categorize Chinese orchid diversity hot spots at the country level. Third, promote study of ex situ conservation techniques, particularly developing artificial propagation methods for commercially important species, and starting reintroduction of selected endangered species. Fourth, develop public education programs through school lessons, the press, TV and radio. Finally, establish a scientific information pool at national level.
    Macrobenthic species diversity in southern and central Bohai Sea, China
    HAN Jie, ZHANG Zhi-Nan, YU Zi-Shan
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  20-27.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003003
    Abstract ( 3358 )   PDF (348KB) ( 2432 )   Save
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    Macrobenthic species diversity in southern and central Bohai Sea was studied on the basis of quantitative investigations of macrobenthic abundance and biomass as well as secondary production in three cruises carried out in June 1997, September 1998 and April 1999. The results show that there is no obvious trend in planar distribution of macrobenthic species diversity within the surveyed areas. Statistical analysis demonstrate that diversity indices have closer relationships to sediment factors than to bottom water factors, and sediment pollutant contents have negative effects on macrobenthic species diversity. Variation of Shannon Wiener index in three seasons was not significant ( P >0.05) when comparing the averages of samples from the same three stations among the three cruises. Moreover, there is no marked difference in the average Shannon Wiener indices from 20 common stations between cruises in September 1998 and April 1999 ( P >0.05). The species number in the Bohai Sea is higher than in Jiao Zhou Bay, China.
    The species richness of nonvolant mammals in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China: distribution patterns along elevational gradient
    LI Yi-Ming, XU Long, MA Yong, YANG Jin-Yuan, YANG Yu-Hui
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  1-9.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003001
    Abstract ( 4149 )   PDF (332KB) ( 3226 )   Save
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    The species richness of nonvolant mammals in different habitats at six sites of Shennongjia Nature Reserve was investigated during 1999~2001. The habitats were classed into eight types: primary forest, selectively logged forest (primary forest with deadwood removal), secondary forest, shrub forest, grassland, rivers and streams, crop field, and residential areas. The small nonvolant mammals were investigated using steel removal traps. Large nonvolant mammals were studied through data on skin trade, line transects and survey of mammal trails. The vegetation of forests was sampled in plots of 10 m×10 m. The results indicate that there are 59 species of nonvolant mammals in Shennongjia Nature Reserve(not including the introduced species Cervus nippon ). At the same elevation, the primary forest usually has higher species richness than selectively logged forest and secondary forest, suggesting that logging has greatly reduced species richness. By comparing species richness at different elevations in the same habitat, it is found that the highest species richness occurs at the middle elevational zones (800~1700 m). In primary forest and secondary forest, species richness is highest at Dongxi at 1700 m elevation. In the selectively logged forest, species richness peaks at Jiuchong at 800 m elevation. Species composition at the six sites can be classed into two groups by cluster analysis: a higher elevational group (above 2100 m) and a middle low elevational group (below 1700 m). The vertical distribution of species composition is matched with that of vegetation. The species richness of the mammals at different sites is correlated with average tree species richness in a unit area (100 m2), number of habitat types and elevation. There is a correlation among average tree species richness, number of habitat types and elevation, suggesting that elevation has a very important effect on average tree species richness and the number of habitat types. Two conservation implications were formulated from the results. First, emigrant engineering and forest recovery for the reserve should begin at Jiuchong, which has the highest species richness, then be carried out at Dongxi and Xiagu. Second, the zone between the two fragments of the reserve should be set aside as a protected corridor to improve the flow of individuals and genes between the fragments.
    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Trichoderma harzianum and its related species
    ZHANG Chu Long, XU Tong
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  10-19.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003002
    Abstract ( 3735 )   PDF (784KB) ( 3013 )   Save
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    Trichoderma harzianum is one of the most common aggregate species of the genus. Based on different molecular characterizations, strains of T. harzianum have been divided into different subgroups, which has created confusion. We reexamined reference strains representing different subgroups under the name T. harzianum and its related species. Phylogenetic analysis using the NEIGHBOR program in the PHYLIP package based on ITS1 5.8S rDNA ITS2 sequence data distributed the tested strains among two phylogenetic groups (A and B), which was supported by high bootstrap values. Group A contains T. hamatum , T.asperellum, T. atroviride, T.koningii and T.viride , and is divided into two clades. T.viride is more closely related to T.koningii and T.atroviride than to T. hamatum and T. asperellum . Group B contains T. spirale , T. hamatum , T. inhamatum , T. harzianum and T. anam. Hypocrea vinosa , and is divided into six clades. T. inhamatum is further divided into two subgroups (Ti1 and Ti2), and T. harzianum comprises at least five subgroups(Th1, Th2, Th4, Th5 and Th6). The phylogenetic analysis of ITS1 5.8S rDNA ITS2 sequence also indicated the heterogeneity of T. hamatum ,since a neotype of T. hamatum is located in group A but other strains of T. hamatum are located in group B. The RAPD analysis of 18 strains representing T. harzianum and its related species coincided with phylogeny based on sequence analysis of the ITS regions.
    Population ecology of dwarf blue sheep ( Pseudois schaeferi )
    WANG Yu, WANG XiaoMing
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  59-62.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003008
    Abstract ( 3388 )   PDF (154KB) ( 2233 )   Save
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    Dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), currently listed as Endangered (A2d, B1 + 2e) by IUCN (1996, 2000), only occur in China, but little is known about them. In order to protect this rare species, in March and July to August in 1998 and May to August 2000, we studied its population with the line transect method in Batang County, Sichuan Province, China. Eight line transects were set in six villages and each line transect was more than three kilometers in length. The results show that, in Batang County, most of the dwarf blue sheep inhabit the steep, arid, and lower slopes of the Yangtze River, from Sowalong to Zhubalong, with an area of about 200 km2. There are about 141 individuals in Batang County. The group size is from 2 to 10 individuals, and average group size is 3.85±1.99. The density of the population is 0.705 individurals/km2 In this survey, 44(33.6%) females and 31(23.7%)males were found. Another 56(42.7%)individuals were unidentified. The sex ratio was 100:70.4. In fieldwork, only three age groups could be confirmed: young, subadult and adult. We found 17 young, 39 subadults and 75 adults during our survey,representing respectively 13.0%, 29.8%, 57.2% of the total. The species is very timid and wary. They dig the ground usually with their forelimbs to rest, and this behavior accounted for one third of their rest time during our survey. Both number and habitat of dwarf blue sheep declined rapidly from the 1950s, because of the sharp drop in forest cover, over hunting and grazing by domestic stock.
    Ecological diversity of entomogenous fungi of three nature reserves in Shanxi Province
    LI Wen-Ying, HE Yun-Chun, WANG Jian-Ming, ZHANG Zuo-Gang, ZHANG Xian-Hong
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  53-58.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003007
    Abstract ( 3251 )   PDF (237KB) ( 2086 )   Save
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    Ecological diversity of entomogenous fungi in Luyashan,Pangquangou and Manghe national nature reserves of Shanxi were documented continuously from 1996 to 2001. 276 fungal strains were isolated from 469 specimens. 124 strains of entomogenous fungi were preliminarily identified to the generic level by characteristics of fruiting body, vegetative cells and spores. In total, 25 species (including varieties and forms) belonging to 10 genera were recognized, showing high diversity and high endemicity. Entomogenous fungi from Manghe National Nature Reserve are in a dominant position in terms of strains, genera and species. Statistical comparisions of the main entomogenous fungi from different sites, elevation and habitats show that distribution and diversity of the entomogenous fungi are influenced by many environmental factors, such as climate and vegetation. These strains have apparently vertical distribution bands and micro habitat distribution characteristics. Almost all species and 66% of the strains were isolated from a medium elevation range (1000~2000 m). Entomogenous fungal species in mixed forest, deciduous broad leaved forest and scrub near river were more plentiful and well distributed than those in other habitats, especially mixed forest. These results have important implications for exploitation and utilization of entomogenous fungal resources.
    Conservation genetics of Pinus bungeana .Ⅰ.Gene conservation analysis
    LI Bin, GU Wan-Chun, ZHOU Shi-Liang
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  28-36.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003004
    Abstract ( 3245 )   PDF (824KB) ( 3004 )   Save
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    Pinus bungeana is an endemic pine with typical fragmented distribution in central and northwestern China. Its genetic diversity is gradually decreasing and needs to be conserved. For strengthening its genetic resources conservation, ten populations were sampled in the main distribution areas of Pinus bungeana and studied by starch gel electrophoresis on 16 enzyme systems. On the basis of analysis of allozyme bands, 31 loci and 53 alleles were coded, among which, there were 32 essential genes, 14 widespread genes, six sporadic genes and one unique gene. Differences exist in the number and type of genes among populations. The central population P4 had the largest number of genes, and the marginal populations P1, P7 and P10 had the least, but they had more rare and unique genes. Sampling capture curve analysis indicated that the captured genes increased when the sampled populations increased, and 99.9% out of the whole gene pool of ten populations would be captured when five populations were randomly selected. Correlation analysis showed that gene frequency on loci Idh and Pgi-2 had gradient variation trends which were in accord with most of the phenotypic characteristics. This study provides the basis for gene conservation in natural populations of P. bungeana.
    Stream algae in Niangziguan, Shanxi: a preliminary study
    SHI Ying, XIE Shu-Lian, LIANG Ya-Li, ZHONG Hai-Xiu
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  47-52.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003006
    Abstract ( 3249 )   PDF (234KB) ( 2732 )   Save
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    Niangziguan, located in Pingding County, Shanxi, has a large cool spring with rich algae resources. The flora and feature of stream algae in Niangziguan has not been previously reported except for the occurrence of some species. We sampled the algae fifteen times from 1984 to 2000. In the research, 107 species of algae have been found, comprising 7 divisions, 32 families and 49 genera. Chlorophyta was represented by the most species, with 45 species from 13 families and 19 genera. Euglenophyta was ranked as second, with 26 species, in 2 families and 7 genera. Charophyta had the least species, with only 3 species, which belonged to 1 family and 1 genus. The algal flora of Niangziguan was mainly divided into 8 kinds of communities: Cladophora-Bangia community, Cladophora community, Chara-Thorea community, Composopogon-Thorea community, Spirogyra-Zygnema community, Vaucheria community, Batrachospermum community, and Jaoa community. In this article, changes in number of algal species and communities are also reviewed. The results show that the species diversity of algae has been decreasing markedly and many species have become endangered. This was mainly caused by human activities, which damaged the habitats of algae. The research provides some important reference data for exploring and utilizing algal resources in Niangziguan.
    On the relationship between protection and sustainable utilization of butterflies in Hainan Province
    GU Mao-Bin
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  86-90.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003012
    Abstract ( 3707 )   PDF (165KB) ( 4523 )   Save
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    Based on the IUCN (the World Conservation Union) Red List and IUCN Red List Categories, the historical background of the butterfly species listed in the Chinese List of Key Protected Wildlife of National Importance (1989) and the Terrestrial Wild Animal Species List of High Economic and Scientific Value is briefly introduced. The basis for definition of protected butterfly species that are naturally distributed in Hainan is evaluated. We suggest that habitat status should be the primary criterion for identifying threatened butterfly species, which differentiates them from the mechanism of endangerment of many amniotes and other arthropods, and makes protection operations more practical. The objective of formulating these lists of threatened species is to guide rational utilization of butterfly resources. Sustainable bio resources should be available for rational use to serve human needs. Evaluation of habitat status should be based on both protection and utilization perspectives. Butterfly raising and near-natural-forestry with advanced technology should be encouraged to simultaneously develop the butterfly industry, to improve resource utilization efficiency and consequently enhance resource protection management.
    Successional dynamics and structure characteristics of pioneer Musa acuminata Colla communities in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan
    TANG Jian-Wei, SHI Ji-Pu, ZHANG Guang-Ming, BAI Kun-Jia, GUO Xian-Ming, ZHU Sheng-Zhong, DUAN Wen-Gui, SONG Jun-Ping, DAO Jian-Hong, HUANG Jian-Guo
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  37-46.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003005
    Abstract ( 3954 )   PDF (381KB) ( 3050 )   Save
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    Musa acuminata , a huge herbaceous plant, usually develops a mono dominant plant community in tropical regions. In order to understand the successional dynamics and structure characteristics of this community, three pioneer Musa acuminata communities of different ages on the same slope, each of which regenerated from tropical rain forest after slash and burn cultivation in Mamushu, Mengla County, Xishuangbanna, were chosen for establishment of three 1000 m 2 permanent plots. A grid (5 m×5 m) was used to record all individuals over 2.0 cm DBH in each plot. Shrub and herb species were investigated in 2 m×2 m sub quadrats. Plant species composition, floral distribution types, structural characteristics, and the age structure and number of the Musa acuminata populations in each community were analyzed. The results showed that, in each 1000 m 2 plot, plant species richness increased with community development from 30 species, 27 genera and 17 families at the invasion stage to 98 species, 74 genera and 50 families in the habitation stage, and further to 113 species, 87 genera and 55 families in the expansion stage. The floral composition in each plot can be divided into nine distributional types, of which the tropical distribution comprised 90%. The ratio of Pan tropic and Asian tropic (Indo—Malesia) increased, while the ratio of Old World tropics and East Asia to North American disjunction decreased with forest age. The tree species diversity index (Shannon Wiener index) in the arboreal layer increased from 1.79 in invasion stage to 2.83 in habitation stage, and then decreased to 1.87 in the expansion stage. Diversity in the understory also increased from 2.78 in habitation stage to 3.56 in expansion stage. The structure of communities became more and more complex, and the number of individual stems in each plot and the individual frequency in each age class of the Musa acuminata population sharply increased with development. The development of the Musa acuminata community has no effect on the directionality of community succession, which is proceeding towards a humid tropical rain forest community.
    Some scientific questions for ecosystem services
    GUO Zhong-Wei, GAN Ya-Ling
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  63-69.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003009
    Abstract ( 3849 )   PDF (237KB) ( 6614 )   Save
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    Ecosystem services and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth′s life supporting system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. Four scientific quastions about the functions of ecosystem services are discussed in this paper. They are: 1) study of the integration, amount and spatial location of functions of ecosystem services; 2) the spatial transfer of functions of ecosystem services; 3) the relationship between ecosystem service and ecological security; and 4) the sustainable use of ecosystem services. The heterogeneity in the structure of ecosystem's results in heterogeneity of their functions. Consequentially, there is spatial heterogeneity in the functions of ecosystem services. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the functions of ecosystem services by qualitative, quantitative and spatial means. Some functions of ecosystem services can be transferred spatially by various methods, and produce benefits at areas far removed from their habitats and range of suitable conditions. This phenomenon is called spatial transfer of ecosystem services. Thus, characteristic ecosystem services can bring economic values to a region of larger area than that covered by the ecosystem′s habitats. Ecosystem services provide supporting system for humans, and their strengths depend on ecological capital stock. Ecological capital stock illustrates the capability of sustainable development of a country. Ecological capital stock of an ecosystem relies in turn on the function and the structure of the ecosystem. Endangerment of ecosystem service raises a question for ecological security. In many regions ecological resources are rare. To use ecological resources sustainably, local communities should be urged to develop their economies by means of managing ecosystem services, i.e., to industrialize the management of ecosystem services. These four scientific questions for ecosystem services are related to each other. The aim of discussing them is to focus study on ecosystem services in the future.
    Biodiversity assessment at broad scale
    ZHAO Hai-Jun, JI Li-Qiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (1):  78-85.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003011
    Abstract ( 3511 )   PDF (278KB) ( 4120 )   Save
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    How to make a balance between reducing sampling efforts and gaining accurate information is a central problem in broad-scale biodiversity assessment. This article tries to address this question by introducing multiscale methodology. We first provide a definition of broad-scale assessment, then highlight this problem after reviewing the history of global assessments. In the third part, we summarize the methodology of assessment design from five aspects: sampling strategy, surrogate species, rapid assessment technique, indicators and remote sensing techniques. Finally, a hierarchical multiscale method is described that provides a better balance. In a typical multiscale assessment, biodiversity is characterized at a series of spatial scales, thus it is different from the traditional sampling design. Correspondingly, multiscale planning can be simply divided into two categories: one comprises sampling designs with loosely-defined scales, and the other comprises those with strictly-defined scales. The former has the advantage of synthesizing information more easily among multiple scales. In our view, the essence of this method is construction of a middle-scale, which can be realized by “top-down” and “bottom-up” approaches. The ideal method for biodiversity conservation based on this multiscale methodology is to plan in the broad-scale context, to integrate at the middle scale and to act at the local, manageable scale.

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