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Table of Content
    Volume 11 Issue 6
    20 November 2003
    Species diversity of butterflies in Shimentai Nature Reserve, Guangdong
    WANG Min, HUANG Guo-Hua, FAN Xiao-Ling, XIE Guo-Zhong, HUANG Lin-Sheng, DAI Ke-Yuan
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (6):  441-453.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003052
    Abstract ( 3720 )   PDF (436KB) ( 4083 )   Save
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    Surveys in Shimentai Nature Reserve from June 1999 to April 2003 recorded 361 species of butterflies, which are classified into 190 genera in 11 families. Among these, endemic Chinese species and nationally endangered species accounted for 14.1% and 12.0%, respectively. The analysis of the coefficient of butterfly communities in the experimental, buffer and core zones of the reserve indicates that the similarity between the experimental and core zones was the lowest among all comparisons. The species and community diversity of the three representative areas was analyzed by using the G-F and Shannon-Wiener indices. Both indices from the buffer zone were higher than other areas. The results indicated that the buffer zone is a stopover site for many endangered species, suggesting that the protection of this area is very important for butterfly conservation. The results also suggested that conservation of forests is a key measure for protecting butterflies in Shimentai Nature Reserve, the largest nature reserve of Guangdong Province for tropical and subtropical lowland forests. As the G-F index reflects the diversity of higher classification units of the community, it is a very useful diversity index for the analysis of butterfly communities. The combination of the G-F index and Shannon-Wiener index provides a comprehensive measure to evaluate community diversity.
    Genetic diversity and protection of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar)on the Loess Plateau of eastern Gansu
    HUANG Zu-Hao, LIU Nai-Fa, ZHOU Tian-Lin
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (6):  454-460.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003053
    Abstract ( 3561 )   PDF (287KB) ( 2008 )   Save
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    Chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) is a very important bird for hunting in northern China. Currently chukar partridges are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting, and human persecution on the  Loess Plateau of eastern Gansu. We used polymerase chain reaction and dideoxy direct sequencing methods to analyze the genetic diversity of chukar partridge. A total of 491 nucleotides of the mitochondrial DNA control region gene were sequenced in 78 chukar partridges of eight populations collected from the Loess Plateau. The 24 variable sites (4.89% of the entire sequences) defined 25 haplotypes (32.05% of all the samples). The sequence variation, haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of the Tongchuan population were the largest among the eight populations, up to 0.47, 0.82 and 0.0029, respectively, while those of Honghui population were the lowest, 0.10, 0.28 and 0.0008, respectively. This might  result from founder effect, genetic isolation or natural selection. The eight populations shared one haplotype C1, which indicated that they came from a common ancestor and belonged to one monophyletic group and one evolutionarily significant unit. However, they clustered into two groups. The haplotype similarity index between the two groups was only 0.15, and genetic distance was 0.43%. The genetic variability was significantly different between the two groups according to one-way analysis of variance (F=5.02>F0.05 (14,1)=4.06). It is suggested that the chukar partridge throughout the  Loess Plateau of eastern Gansu should be protected as two management units since the demographic connection between them is low. The Tongchuan population, with the highest genetic variation and genetic diversity, should be well-protected.
    Analysis of genetic variation of Chinese native chicken breeds using microsatellite markers
    WU Ping, LI Yi-Ren, WANG Jin-Yu, CHEN Kuan-Wei
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (6):  461-466.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003054
    Abstract ( 3468 )   PDF (224KB) ( 2286 )   Save
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    Genetic variation of ten chicken breeds, including nine native breeds and one introduced breed Yellow Bantam from France, was studied using eight microsatellite markers covering seven chromosomes. A total of 54 alleles were detected from eight microsatellite loci, and the average number of alleles per locus was 6.75. All microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic, with the mean PIC ranging from 0.5071 to 0.7434. All populations showed high levels of heterozygosity with the lowest value of 0.5564 for Yellow Bantam and the highest value of 0.7135 for Xianju chickens. A dendrogram was constructed based on DA distance. The ten populations grouped into three clusters: the introduced breed formed a separate branch, while the second branch comprised Chahua chickens and Gushi chickens, and the third branch included the other seven native chicken breeds. The results may be useful as an initial guide in evaluating the level of genetic variation, developing conservation strategies and predicting heterosis.
    Community diversity of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in West Lake,Hangzhou
    WU Gen-Fu, YU Zuo-Ming, WU Jie, ZHOU Xue-Ping
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (6):  467-474.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003055
    Abstract ( 3330 )   PDF (307KB) ( 2173 )   Save
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    >We studied the community structure and diversity of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in West Lake, Hangzhou from October 2001 to October 2002. Results showed that there were 510 CFU of bacteria per mL water and 2.27×105 CFU per gram of dry sediment. The bacterial population in water was higher in cold seasons than in hot seasons. In sediments, the bacterial population varied not only with seasons but also with dredging of the mud. Soon after dredging of mud in Changqiao,bacterial counts were about 0.81×105 CFU per gram in the new sediment. After three months, the bacterial population had increased to 4.60×105 CFU per gram. There were 14 types of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the West Lake ecosystem. The dominant types were Pseudomonas,Enterobacteriaceae or Aeromonas, which accounted for 36.8%~80.4% of the total bacterial population in water column; and 27.7%~72.7% of those in sediments. Analysis of Shannon-Wiener index (H) and Simpson index (L) indicated that the Lake had low bacterial diversity. The index H was between 0.682 and 1.787 in water columns; and between 0.809 and 1.774 in sediments, and the index L was between 0.196 and 0.662 in the water column, and between 0.179 and 0.572 in sediments. Among the bacteria from water column, 95% were Gram negative rods, and 20.1% produced yellow pigments. In sediments, about 85% of the bacteria were Gram negative rods and only 2.07% produced yellow pigments. Furthermore, the population of Bacillus was much higher in sediments than in the water column, suggesting that there are different niches in water column and sediments in West Lake despite the frequency of water-mud exchange.
    Species diversity of entomogenous fungal flora of Mountains Dabie, Anhui
    WANG Si-Bao, HUANG Yong-Ping, FAN Mei-Zhen, LI Zeng-Zhi
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (6):  475-479.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003056
    Abstract ( 3663 )   PDF (215KB) ( 2480 )   Save
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    Based on study of species diversity, 50 species of entomogenous fungi belonging to 16 genera, 4 families and 4 orders were recorded in Dabie Mountains in western Anhui. At the family level,  Clavicipitaceae, comprising 27 species, had the highest percentage, with 54% of the total species, while the family Hyphomycetaceae, comprising 15 species, accounted for 30%.  The family Entomophthoraceae comprised 5 species (10%), and the smallest percentage was taken by the family Stilbellaceae, comprising 3 species (6%). Considering genera, the dominant genera were Cordyceps (27 species, 52% of the total), Paecilomyces (6 species, 12%), and Beauveria (3 species, 6%).  These three genera covered 35 species, accounting for 70% of the total, while they amounted to 18.75% of the total genera. Akanthomyces and Zoophthora were oligotypic genera, both with two species. The rest were monotypic genera, comprising 68.75% of the total genera and 22% of the total species. The dominant species were Paecilomyces farinosus, P. tenuipes, C. nutans, B. bassiana, and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae. Therefore, the dominant genera and species were evident in this area. By categorization of modern distribution centers in terms of the present distribution patterns of taxa, species were grouped into Cosmopolitan (42.11%), Eurasian (10.53%), Subtropical to Tropical (5.26%), East Asian (7.89%), East Asian-Papuan (5.26%), Sino-Japanese (5.26%), and Endemic (23.68%). Overall, East Asian elements were characteristic of this region and local and Chinese endemic species were evident.
    nrDNA ITS analysis of Paecilomyces farinosus isolates
    HUANG Bo, WANG Cheng-Shu, WANG Bin, FAN Mei-Zhen, LI Zeng-Zhi
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (6):  480-485.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003057
    Abstract ( 3761 )   PDF (291KB) ( 2242 )   Save
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    nrDNA ITS(ITS1-5.8S-ITS2)  regions of 20 isolates of Paecilomyces farinosus were sequenced,  and its correct ITS sequence  was obtained. The results showed that the ITS of P. farinosus reported by Korean researchers was actually that of P. tenuipes. Two unidentified Korean isolates of Paecilomyces (KACC40219 and KACC40221) were identified as P. farinosus based on molecular data. The neighbour-joining tree showed that P. farinosus is monophyletic, and the teleomorph of P. farinosus was tentatively identified as a Cordyceps species.Sequence polymorphisms of the nrDNA ITS region exist among different isolates  of P. farinosus with the same geographic origins. The molecular data proved that genetic diversity of different isolates of P. farinosus is not related to geographic origins and hosts.
    Genetic variation among Phytophthora parasitica strains isolated from different host plants
    SHEN Gui, WANG Yuan-Chao, ZHENG Xiao-Bo
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (6):  486-490.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003058
    Abstract ( 3368 )   PDF (213KB) ( 2334 )   Save
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    Genomic fingerprints of 29 isolates of the pathogen Phytophthora parasitica from different hosts were analyzed by using 13 RAPD primers selected from 300 random primers with abundant polymorphisms. Genomic DNA from different isolates were amplified with the 13 selected primers and 139 marked bands were produced, of which 133 bands were polymorphic, accounting for 95.7% of the total bands produced. Based on the genetic distance,  a dendrogram was constructed with the software PopGene Version 1.31, and the 29 tested isolates were divided into five genetic groups. Analysis showed that the genetic  variation was very rich among the tested isolates. The isolates from Nicotana tabaccum (tobacco), N. glutinosa (tobacco),Chimonanthus praecox (wintersweet), Yucca spp. (beargrass) and Passiflora edulis (passionflower) were clustered into one group, and showed high relativity with their hosts. The similarity of Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) isolates was about 60.9%, and they could be clustered into two distinct groups. The similarity of the five isolates from Sophora chinensis (sophora) was about 66.7%~88.4%, and they were also clustered into two groups when the dendrogram was constructed at the value point of 0.24 of the genetic distance. The results  indicate that the host plants could have some effect on the genomic structure of the pathogen during the co-evolution between pathogen and their hosts.
    Conservation strategy and potential advantages of the Chinese Paphiopedilum
    LUO Yi-Bo, JIA Jian-Sheng, WANG Chun-Ling
    Biodiv Sci. 2003, 11 (6):  491-498.  doi:10.17520/biods.2003059
    Abstract ( 3739 )   PDF (259KB) ( 2770 )   Save
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    The genus Paphiopedilum is among the most favorite ornamental orchids, from which more than 10 000 of artificial hybrids have been bred since 1850s. South and southwest China is one of the distribution centers of this genus, where the paphiopedilums are still facing continuous demand for wild plants though they have become rather rare today. Considering the incomplete knowledge, both scientifically and technologically, of the plants and their conservation, a tentative strategy to protect the Chinese Paphiopedilum is proposed that the in situ conservation should be taken priority over all others. Meanwhile, it is also needed to pay great attention to scientific researches and conservation technical systems. The establishment of the ex situ conservation centers, on the contrary, should be strictly controlled in quantity and scale. Finally, the potential advantages of the Chinese paphiopedilums in horticulture are discussed.

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