Hainan Island is a key biodiversity hotspot in China with a unique ecosystem and climate. In order to explore the species diversity of Chiroptera on the island, 15 bat surveys were carried out in the area between 2002 and 2016. During these surveys, mist nets, harp traps and other tools were deployed. Captured specimens were identified according to their external form, skull features and phylogenetic description. In total, 1,025 specimens from 5 families, 15 genera and 31 species were recorded and collected. On December 21, 2016, two small Murina bats were captured in a harp-trap in a forest at Chaocan Village, Qiongzhong City, Hainan Province. Based on external, cranio-dental characteristics and phylogenetic evidence, the bats were identified as Murina eleryi. This is the first record of the species on Hainan Island. Based from our survey result and literature review, Chiroptera of Hainan Island consists of a total of 8 families 20 genera and 41 species. The potential distribution area of bats on Hainan Island was mapped using a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model incorporating 363 local records, derived from our records and the literature. High diversity was predicted for Wuzhi Mountain, Diaoluo Mountain, Yinggeling, Jianfengling and Huoshankou National Geopark whereas the low diversity was predicted for Sanya, Chengmai, Tunchang, Lingao, Qionghai areas. Overall, baseline data for Chiroptera distribution, and resource status was assessed by the current study, which is useful for disease prevention, control, resource conservation and management on Hainan Island.