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Table of Content
    Volume 26 Issue 12
    20 December 2018
    Metarhizium fungi are important fungi resources in biocontrol of the insect in agriculture and forestry and they are abundant in Gaoligong Mountains, southwestern China. To explore the species diversity and vertical distribution characteristics of Metarhizium in Gaoligong Mountains, Chen et al isolated Metarhizium strains from the soil samples from seven typical vegetation types and identified them based on multi-gene (nrSSU, nrLSU, EF-1α, RPB1, and RPB2) phylogenetic analysis. The picture shows that Metarhizium rileyi infects a larva of Lepidoptera. (Photographed by Zihong Chen)
    Research trends and hotspots of Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Network (CForBio): A bibliometric analysis
    Ruiyu Fu, Hongxin Su, Zhonghua Zhang, Gang Hu
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1255-1267.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018265
    Abstract ( 2257 )   HTML ( 118 )   PDF (2858KB) ( 1487 )   Save
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    The research achievements of the Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Network (CForBio), a comprehensive research platform for biodiversity science, are highly influential for promoting biodiversity-related research in China. A detailed assessment of CForBio’s publication growth, core research areas, and ability to foster cooperation will provide important information for the long-term development of CForBio and related ecological monitoring research. In order to understand CForBio’s impact on science, this study made a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of research papers produced by CForBio-associated scientists, published between 2007 and 2017, using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Web of Science databases. Since 2007, the number of papers published by CForBio has grown rapidly, from 3 in 2007 to 55 in 2017 , as has the number of papers published in journals included in the Science Citation Index (from 1 in 2007 to 34 in 2017). The top three most prolific authors are Guangze Jin (70 papers), Keping Ma (68 papers), and Zhanqing Hao (68 papers). The most active research institutions are the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (104 papers), the Institute of Applied Ecology of CAS (67 papers), and the South China Botanical Garden of CAS (59 papers). CForBio-associated institutions and scholars cooperate infrequently, and cross-unit collaborative research needs improvement. The core research topics of CForBio focus on patterns of tree spatial distribution, plant functional traits, tree density dependence, and community phylogeny; these topics provide a theoretical basis for elucidating the mechanisms of forest community assembly among the different climatic zones in China. In the future, CForBio should strengthen cooperation among institutions—both domestic and abroad, establish data sharing pathways, further emphasize new technologies and techniques such as near-surface remote sensing and multi-source data fusion, and continue to fund research on the multi-scale and multi-dimensional analysis of biodiversity patterns, plant-soil feedback mechanisms, and tree canopy and root structure function.

    Original Papers: Plant Diversity
    Spatial distribution and environmental interpretation of wild Sinojackia xylocarpa communities based on self-organizing map (SOM)
    Guodong Yang, Xinyue Ji, Lin Chen, Yuqian Zhong, Feifei Zhai, Xiangui Yi, Xianrong Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1268-1276.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018019
    Abstract ( 1454 )   HTML ( 50 )   PDF (2504KB) ( 723 )   Save
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    A self-organizing map (SOM) based on field investigations was adopted to analyze the numerical classification and ordination of wild Sinojackia xylocarpa communities in the Nanjing Laoshan Forest Park in hopes of illuminating the relationship between the wild communities and environmental conditions. The results show that the 100 quadrats were divided into five associations, spatially reflecting the successional trend of wild S. xylocarpa communities. The association boundary, community structure and species composition differed significantly among communities. Through visualizing environmental gradients, the altitude, slope position and soil thickness were found to be the main factors affecting the growth and distribution of S. xylocarpa in this area, though the relationships differed among dominant species. The SOM removes the restrictive assumptions of many quantitative techniques so that the neural network is attractive to the community ecological characteristics and the interrelationship between community and environment can be explored. Based on the potential of SOM for vegetation data classification and, to a lesser extent, ordination, the SOM can aid in the conservation of endangered plants across different community types.

    Community characteristics of bryophyte in Karst caves and its effect on heavy metal pollution: A case study of Zhijin Cave, Guizhou Province
    Run Liu, Zhaohui Zhang, Jiachen Shen, Zhihui Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1277-1288.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018109
    Abstract ( 1328 )   HTML ( 27 )   PDF (2525KB) ( 739 )   Save
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    Heavy metal pollution caused by the development and utilization of Karst caves seriously threatens the cave environment and groundwater. Understanding the pollution dynamics has important practical significance for monitoring the cave environment. Here, the characteristics and heavy metals of the bryophytes in a typical Dark River Cave, Zhijin Cave, in Guizhou province were studied to explore the effect of the bryophyte community on cave pollution. A total of 34 types of bryophyte communities were observed, representing 49 taxa of bryophytes (12 of liverworts, 37 of mosses) in 33 genera (8 of liverworts, 25 of mosses) and 20 families (8 of liverworts, 12 of mosses). The dominant families were Pottiaceae, Fissidentaceae and Mniaceae, comprising 16%, 14%, and 14% of all taxa, respectively. Mercury (Hg) levels were up to 59.45, much higher than Cr and Zn, which indicates that Hg is the most serious pollutant in caves. The bryophyte community index showed a decreasing trend with an increase in heavy metal pollution. The Hg content of the measured heavy metals was significantly negatively correlated with its corresponding bryophyte community indices (P < 0.05), which indicates that the bryophyte community characteristics can accurately reflect the level of Hg pollution within a cave. The RDA sequencing results showed that bryophyte communities in Karst caves adapt to low photometric environment and thus exhibit photopic movement, grow well in Ca substrate and are resistant to heavy metals. The Hg content in the Conocephalum conicum was significantly correlated with its substrate Hg content (P < 0.05). This shows that C. conicum is affected by the substrate Hg pollution. In the future, C. conicum can be used as one of the biomonitoring materials for cave environments.

    Original Papers: Animal Diversity
    Genetic diversity and population demographic history of Ochetobius elongatus in the middle and lower reaches of the Xijiang River
    Jiping Yang, Ce Li, Weitao Chen, Yuefei Li, Xinhui Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1289-1295.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018121
    Abstract ( 1368 )   HTML ( 34 )   PDF (1247KB) ( 642 )   English Version Save
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    Ochetobius elongatus used to be an economically important fish species in many rivers of China. However, due to environmental destruction and human disturbance the resources of this fish species have reduced rapidly, and its populations are in a critically endangered condition. At present, it is very difficult to obtain specimens of O. elongatus, which limits research on this species. We obtained specimens of O. elongatus via larva and adult fish collection. Two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear genes were used to explore the genetic diversity and population demography of O. elongatus in middle and lower Xijiang River. Results showed that the genetic diversity of O. elongatus was low and is in recession, suggesting that O. elongatus might have undergone a genetic bottleneck event. Additionally, population demographic analyses revealed that O. elongatus population expanded during the Late Pleistocene (0.06 and 0.13 Million years ago), following the glacial retreat of the Middle Pleistocene glaciations (0.78-0.126 Million years ago). The results also revealed that Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have influenced the population demography of O. elongatus. Due to its potential as an important spawning ground for O. elongatus, sections of middle and lower Xijiang River should be considered as candidates for creating nature reserves to conserve and restore its genetic resources.

    Nitrogen levels modify earthworm-mediated tomato growth and resistance to pests
    Yu Zhang, Zhenggao Xiao, Linhui Jiang, Lei Qian, Xiaoyun Chen, Fajun Chen, Feng Hu, Manqiang Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1296-1307.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018245
    Abstract ( 1216 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF (1402KB) ( 973 )   English Version Save
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    Excessive chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer application causes serious environmental problems and affects the ecosystem services that depend on soil biota. Earthworms improve soil fertility and plant productivity via activities such as feeding, burrowing and casting, and alter the relationships between crop plants and pests by modifying plant primary and secondary productivity. In order to mechanistically understand the functional roles of soil fauna in ecosystem services, a pot experiment using tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) was conducted in a greenhouse. The study used a complete factorial design that manipulated earthworm (Metaphire guillelmi) abundance, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and N input. Results showed that under low N-input conditions, earthworms significantly reduced shoot and root biomass and shoot soluble sugar content, and increased shoot jasmonic acid content (by 6 times) and shoot salicylic acid content (by 3 times), compared to treatments without earthworms. This was accompanied by the decrease of thrips abundance by 58%, indicating a remarkable suppression of aboveground pests by earthworms. However, under high N-input conditions, earthworm presence did not affect the contents of shoot jasmonic acid or shoot salicylic acid or thrips abundance by the end of the experimental period (45 days). The earthworm-mediated responses of plant nutrition (shoot soluble sugar and shoot total nitrogen) was significantly positively correlated with thrips abundance, whereas defense (shoot jasmonic and salicylic acid) was significantly negatively correlated. Changes to soil N availability due to N fertilizer input can shift the direction of earthworm-mediated plant resistance against herbivores by altering plant resource acquisition and secondary defense. Effects of earthworms on plant growth and resistance depend on soil management practices such as N fertilizer application. A comprehensive understanding of the roles of soil biota in mediating plant growth requires knowledge of the multifaceted relationships among soil management, soil fauna, and plant pathogens.

    Original Papers: Microbial Diversity
    Species diversity and vertical distribution characteristics of Metarhizium in Gaoligong Mountains, southwestern China
    Zihong Chen, Xiaona Yang, Ningjing Sun, Ling Xu, Yuan Zheng, Yuming Yang
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1308-1317.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018131
    Abstract ( 1942 )   HTML ( 52 )   PDF (1927KB) ( 980 )   Save
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    Gaoligong Mountains in Yunnan Province, China have diverse ecological systems and biological resources. To understand the diversity and the vertical distribution of Metarhizium species at different elevations in this area, Metarhizium resources were investigated in seven typical vegetation types (i.e., I, dry-hot valley; II, monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest; III, warm coniferous forest; IV, mod-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest; V, mountain moss dwarf forest; VI, cold shrubs of meadow; and VII, rocky beach sparsely vegetation) along an elevation gradient (600-3,800 m). Strains of Metarhizium were isolated from soils of the vegetations at different elevations and identified using multi-gene (nrSSU, nrLSU, EF-1α, RPB1, and RPB2) phylogenetic analysis. Our result indicated that the species of Metarhizium in Gaoligong Mountains were abundant and the obtained 161 strains represented 12 Metarhizium species, namely, M. rileyi, M. viridulum, M. lepidiotae, M. brunneum, M. pingshaense, M. anisopliae, M. robertsii, M. guizhouense, M. indigoticum, M. pemphigi, M. campsosterni, and Metacordyceps neogunnii, and most of them (8 species) belonged to M. anisopliae complex. Additionally, Nigelia martiale, a taxon close to Metarhizium was also found in this area. M. indigoticum is new to China. Fungi of Metarhizium in Gaoligong Mountains were widely distributed in six vegetation types at elevation between 600 m and 3,400 m, but not in type VII at the elevation of 3,600-3,800 m. The vegetations at the low and middle elevations (I-IV) harbored larger number of strains (≥ 23) and higher species diversity (4-9 species), whereas those at high elevations (V-VI) possessed fewer strains (2-8) and relatively limited species (1-2 species). Metarhizium resources were the most abundant in evergreen broad-leaved forests at the middle elevation. The monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (vegetation type II) possessed the largest number of Metarhizium strains (52 strains, 32.3% of the total) and species (9 species), while mid-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest (vegetation type IV) (47 strains, 29.2% of the total) was the next. The superior species phenomenon of Metarhizium was remarkable in Gaoligong Mountains, M. brunneum being the most dominant, at 46.6% of the total strain numbers. It widely exists in six vegetation types (I-VI) with very different habitat conditions, suggesting that this species has the highest ecologic adaptability.

    Community composition of bacteria associated with ascocarps of Tuber indicum using traditional culture method and Roche 454 high-throughput sequencing
    Xiaojuan Deng, Jianli Liu, Xingfu Yan, Peigui Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1318-1324.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018184
    Abstract ( 1376 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (978KB) ( 649 )   English Version Save
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    Truffles are important economic fungi, and bacteria play an important role in their growth and development. We investigated the bacterial community composition inside ascocarps of Tuber indicum. Using the traditional culture method, 532 isolates were obtained from ascocarps. Using the rarefaction curve, the 16S rRNA gene was collected and sequenced from 112 purified isolates to identify 4 genera and 40 species. Isolates of the genera Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Streptomyces and Variovorax accounted for 80%, 12.5%, 5% and 2.5% of the number of these sequenced isolates, respectively. On the other hand, 9,862 sequences of the bacterial V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene, which represented 220 species, were analyzed via Roche 454 high-throughput sequencing. Species of the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were dominant, accounting for 99.7% of all identified species. Genera Flavobacterium, Agromyces, Microbacterium, Ensifer, and Stenotrophomonas were dominant among the bacteria identified with this alternative method, accounting for 86.3% of the number of total species. It was found that relatively few bacterial species were isolated from ascocarps of T. indicum when analyzed via traditional culture method. The bacterial population associated with ascocarps of T. indicum was augmented when analyzed by Roche 454 high-throughput sequencing, which indicates that this latter method provides more comprehensive results.

    Special Feature: Camera-trapping Survey
    Preliminary survey on mammal and bird diversity at Siguniang Mountains National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China
    Xixi Hu, Weichao Zheng, Jiaqi Li, Sheng Li, Han Yang, Xing Chen, Tianpei Guan
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1325-1331.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018260
    Abstract ( 1574 )   HTML ( 67 )   PDF (837KB) ( 1296 )   English Version Save
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    Knowledge of the abundance and distribution of biodiversity is vitally important to understand ecological processes, manage for conservation goals, and assess the impacts of global change. In order to investigate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of mammals and birds in Siguniang Mountains National Nature Reserve, we deployed 60 camera traps from May to December 2017. With an extensive survey effort of 11,013 camera-days, we recorded 31 mammal and bird species belonging to 7 orders and 18 families. Among the recorded species, five are first class and ten are second class national protected wildlife, whereas two are listed as Endangered, five as Vulnerable, and three as Near Threatened by the IUCN Red List. In addition to providing a preliminary inventory of large mammals and birds in the reserve, we also assessed the abundance of each species using the relative abundance index. According to this index, the five most abundant mammal species were tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus), sambar (Rusa unicolor), Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and northern hog badger (Arctonyx collaris). The five most abundant avian species were blood pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus), white eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon), giant laughing thrush (Garrulax maximus), chestnut-throated partridge (Tetraophasis obscurus) and chestnut thrush (Turdus rubrocanus). Comparison between Siguniang Mountains and the adjacent Wolong Nature Reserve revealed different community compositions, this was likely due to distinct differences in local climate, vegetation, and topography between the two regions. The data obtained in this study will provide an important basis for future wildlife research and conservation management, and also provides support for biodiversity monitoring and regional inventories of mammals and birds.

    Camera-trapping survey of wild mammals and birds in Daiyunshan, Fujian Province
    Kaimiao Lin, Jianguo Xu, Wenzhou Li, Yaqiong Huang, Bin Chen, Jinhui Guo
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1332-1337.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018216
    Abstract ( 1547 )   HTML ( 29 )   PDF (976KB) ( 753 )   Save
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    To investigate the biodiversity of wild mammals and birds in Daiyunshan National Nature Reserve and Shiniushan Forest Park (located in Dehua County, Fujian Province), 60 camera-traps were established and monitored from February 2017 to March 2018. A total of 3,499 independent photographs were collected with a sampling effort of 19,924 camera-days. This effort identified 18 wild mammal species belonging to 4 orders, 10 families, and 17 genera; 24 wild bird species belonging to 5 orders, 11 families and 21 genera; and 3 domestic animal species. Two of the species are listed as Class I Nationally Protected Wildlife, and 5 species are listed as Class II. One new species, Syrmaticus ellioti, was recorded at the Daiyunshan National Nature Reserve. Based on the relative abundance index, the five most abundant wild mammal species are Muntiacus reevesi, Sus scrofa, Muntiacus vaginalis, Callosciurus erythraeus, Arctonyx collaris, and the five most abundant bird species are Lophura nythemera, Myophonus caeruleus, Garrulax pectoralis, Arborophila gingica, Bambusicola thoracica. In addition, the detection rates of poultry, livestock and local villagers were rather high, which indicates high levels of anthropogenic disturbance across the study area. The results of this study provide a comprehensive baseline of the wild mammals and birds in the Daiyunshan and Shiniushan areas, fill the gaps in the observations of large and medium-sized mammals in central Fujian Province, and establish the basis for follow-up protection management and long-term monitoring.

    Camera-trapping surveys of the large and medium-sized mammal and understory bird diversity in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve, Anhui Province
    Lei Zhou, Yaqiong Wan, Xin Hong, Heng Zhang, Lifu Qian, Chencheng Wang, Zheng Kong, Kai Zhao, Jiaqi Li, Baowei Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1338-1342.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018166
    Abstract ( 1499 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF (2130KB) ( 1317 )   Save
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    Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve is located on the southern slope of the Dabie Mountains. To describe the diversity of large and medium-sized mammal and understory bird diversity in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve, from 2014 to 2017 a baseline survey was conducted using a camera-trapping approach. Over 16,658 camera trapping days at 72 camera locations, 2,142 usable images were obtained. Nine mammal species and 15 bird species were identified, belonging to 8 orders and 15 families. One species, Moschus anhuiensis, is listed as national first-class protected wild animal, whereas two species, Pucrasia macrolopha and Syrmaticus reevesii, were listed as national second-class protected wild animals. The top five mammals in relative abundance were Muntiacus reevesi, Sus scrofa, Callosciurus erythraeus, Arctonyx collaris and Sciurotamias davidianus, and the top five birds in relative abundance were S. reevesii, P. macrolopha, Garrulus glandarius, Turdus hortulorum and Urocissa erythrorhyncha. We also found evidence of intensive human activities in the reserve, which may have potential impacts on wildlife. This study provides basic information on the species composition of terrestrial mammals and understory birds in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve; it will form the foundation of future monitoring research and will provide data information to wildlife management and protection efforts.

    Wildlife monitoring in Weishan Qinghua Green Peafowl Nature Reserve using infrared cameras, Yunnan Province
    Binqiang Li, Pengying Li, Jiawei Yang, Hongjun Zi, Xingquan Li, Xihuan Duan, Xu Luo
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1343-1347.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018164
    Abstract ( 1362 )   HTML ( 42 )   PDF (2202KB) ( 1054 )   Save
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    Between October 2016 and September 2017, we deployed 28 infrared cameras (6,377 camera trapping days) to detect bird and mammal species in Weishan Qinghua Green Peafowl Nature Reserve. We obtained 1,692 effective images (mammals n = 563; birds n = 1,129). From these images, we identified 13 mammal species from 5 orders and 11 families and 58 bird species from 9 orders and 23 families. Among these, Syrmaticus humiae and Moschus berezovskii are listed as national first-class protected species, and Martes flavigula, Accipiter virgatus, Buteo japonicus, Chrysolophus amherstiae, Lophuar nycthemera, Otus lettia, Strix aluco are listed as national second-class protected species. Of the species identified, 1 species is evaluated as Critically Endangered (CR) and 3 species as Vulnerable (VU) in the Red List of China’s Vertebrate. One species is also listed in Appendix I and 7 other species are in Appendix II of CITES. We found that Garrulax pectoralis had the highest relative abundance (5.68 effective images per 100 trap-days), followed by Callosciurus erythraeus (2.81) and Muntiacus muntjak (1.68). Our results provided the first record of large and mid-sized mammals and terrestrial birds from this nature reserve, thereby providing primary baseline data of wildlife resources for future management of biodiversity.

    On the Chinese name for genus Docynia (Rosaceae)
    Huajie Liu, Jinshuang Ma, Su Liu, Bing Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1348-1349.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018254
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    Establishing a national indicator system in China for the assessment of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity
    Dongmei Liu, Dayuan Xue, Lei Cai, Junsheng Li, Nengwen Xiao
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1350-1357.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018257
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    More data needs to be collected to assess the wide range of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity to identify the key pressures on diversity today and also highlight protection gaps for decision makers in biodiversity conservation. An indicator system is a useful tool in scientific assessments, yet few studies have made use of them. An indicator system to assess traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity was preliminarily established at a regional and national scale based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model, taking into account major players, species threats, existing measures for protection and transmission of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. Through expert consultation, 30 indicators were identified, including 7 pressure indicators, 14 status indicators and 9 response indicators. These indicators could be used for a comprehensive assessment of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity, and also could also be applied to a separate assessment concerning the basic status of threats to biodiversity, current protections, the transmission of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity and relevant genetic resources. Moreover, “The National Technology and Methodology System for Surveying Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity” was developed based on the results of “The National Survey on Traditional Knowledge Associated with Biodiversity”, which combined interviews with key figures, questionnaire responses and participatory observations and was supplemented by scientifically-derived biological and ecological knowledge. Interviewees were identified from target groups using snowball sampling. This system was developed according to parameters drawing on the results of surveys on ethnobotanical and traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity at home and abroad. The system was then piloted and modified accordingly.

    Progress in negotiations on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework and suggestions for Chinese government
    Wenjing Liu, Jing Xu, Yijia Geng, Yu Tian, Senlu Yin
    Biodiv Sci. 2018, 26 (12):  1358-1364.  doi:10.17520/biods.2018188
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    The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework is currently the focus of negotiation at the Convention on Biological Diversity. Understanding the progress of the negotiation will have a positive impact on the success of the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) which will be held in China. Based on the progress of the negotiation, this paper analyzes the views of the main parties involved and makes suggestions to the government of China on how to prepare for international negotiations and promote the development of the framework as the host country. Results show that the main parties involved have reached a relatively unanimous consensus on timetable, procedures and general principles for the formulation of the framework. They believe that the procedures and the timetable for the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework should be confirmed as soon as possible. Additionally, the main parties have expressed the following views on the formulation of the framework. Firstly, the framework should be based on experience gained by implementation of the Aichi Biodiversity Target, scientific conclusions and extensive sources of information. Secondly, negotiation should be linked with the Sustainable Development Goals and other international processes. Thirdly, scenarios and models should be used. Fourthly, support should be extended for more stakeholders’ participation in the formulation process. Involved parties also believe that the framework should mainly include land use, measures to protect and restore biodiversity, address underlying causes of biodiversity loss, mainstreaming, capacity building, resource mobilization, and national commitments. In order to prepare for international negotiations, it is suggested that China put forward the following viewpoints at the conferences of the convention on negotiations in a timely manner: accord importance to achieving the goals on sustainable use; improving the rationality of the evaluation index system; making measures scientific. In addition, it is suggested that China should promote the development of the framework by making full use of the international high-level meeting to increase political attention to the framework, actively collaborate with major international processes to promote in-depth discussion of the framework, and make it a priority to mobilize the enthusiasm of stakeholders.

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