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Table of Content
    Volume 31 Issue 9
    20 September 2023
    In September 2023, the National Forestry and Grassland Administration and other four departments jointly issued the National Botanical Garden System Layout Plan, which determined that based on the two national botanical gardens already established, 14 candidate national botanical gardens were selected to be included in this plan, and gradually build a national botanical garden system with Chinese characteristics, world-class and harmonious all things. The national botanical gardens will strengthen the coordination with the national parks to form a new pattern of biodiversity conservation. This collection mainly focuses on the related aspects of the construction of the national botanical garden system, and the five functions of the national botanical garden are illustrated on the cover. (Photo: Team of National Botanical Garden System Layout Plan)
      
    Special Feature: Construction of the National Botanical Garden System
    Formulating the National Botanical Garden System Layout Plan of China: Background, procedures, ideas and key considerations
    Shifeng Wen, Zhihua Zhou, Tuo He, Hui Dong, Liangchen Yuan, Zeyang Lu, Yongteng Wang, Lin Guo, Jiangping Shu, Kaifan Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23193.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023193
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    Background: In October 2021, Chinese President XI Jinping announced the launch of the construction of a national botanical garden system in cities such as Beijing and Guangzhou. To facilitate the high-quality development of this national botanical garden system, the National Forestry and Grassland Administration of the People’s Republic of China, in collaboration with the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, devised the National Botanical Garden System Layout Plan of China.

    Results: This plan was formulated by considering various factors, including major national strategies, distinct climate types, regional vegetation characteristics, priority areas for biodiversity conservation, and alignment of economic and social developmental needs. By incorporating the distribution and operational foundation of existing botanical gardens, the layout strategically encompasses fourteen candidate national botanical gardens in addition to two established national botanical gardens. These selections are based on criteria such as national representation, scientific systematicity, and public welfare. The plan fosters a comprehensive national botanical garden system that boasts rational layout and complementary functions.

    Outlook: The national botanical garden system will be incrementally advanced following the principle of “mature one and establish one”. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the background, procedures, ideas and critical considerations involved in the development of the National Botanical Garden System Layout Plan of China. The creation of the national botanical garden system will significantly contribute to biodiversity conservation and offer a distinct Chinese approach toward realizing the goals set by the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.

    Historical review, current status and future prospects of global botanical gardens
    Jingping Liao, Dujuan Ni, Tuo He, Hongwen Huang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23256.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023256
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    Background: Botanical gardens have deep historical roots, drawing inspiration from the ancient “Shennong Herbal Garden” that has played a pivotal role in China’s herbal civilization. While the origins of modern botanical gardens can be traced back to the medicinal gardens of early European universities, their predecessors lie in medieval herb gardens, representing the rich heritage and evolutionary path of traditional botany and ancient gardens.

    Review findings: Over the course of 500 years since the European Renaissance, modern botanical gardens have evolved into vital centers of science and art. They have transcended their roles as mere repositories of flora and fauna to become institutions that seamlessly blend nature, culture, art and science. These gardens have consistently embraced new challenges, adapted to changing circumstances, and taken on new missions, propelling them into an era of sustainable development, in which multiple models coexist harmoniously and at the heart of this transformation lies the core mission of ex situ conservation.

    Recommendations: Looking ahead, the construction of China’s national botanical gardens should focus on creating efficient ex situ conservation networks while adhering to rigorous scientific standards. This entails implementing exemplary professional curation practices that bridge the historical legacy of botanical gardens with contemporary conservation imperatives. Prioritizing ex situ conservation efforts, China’s botanical garden community should curate national living collections and conduct high-level scientific research. This approach should be rooted in a renewed emphasis on the value of ex situ flora, ultimately contributing to the establishment of a world-class national botanical garden system. This system will advance plant conservation research, facilitate resource exploration and application, and foster sustainable economic and social development.

    The main features of the world-class national botanical garden with Chinese characteristics
    Hai Ren, Tuo He, Shifeng Wen, Hui Dong
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23192.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023192
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    Aim: The State Council approved the establishment of the National Botanical Garden in Beijing in December, 2021 and the South China National Botanical Garden in Guangzhou in May, 2022. These two gardens will be developed into world-class botanical gardens with distinctive Chinese characteristics where all forms of life coexist harmoniously. This paper explores the main features of world-class national botanical gardens from the perspectives of historical, functional and mission dimensions, aiming to provide reference for the construction of China’s national botanical garden system.

    Methods: Based on the five different evaluation criteria of botanical gardens in the world and China, we summarized the attributes of 12 renowned botanical gardens in the world and 5 well-performing botanical gardens in China. A new evaluation system of botanical gardens was proposed after extensive literature review and consensus among peers. The main features of world-class botanical gardens were identified based on this system and the evaluation process.

    Results: The national botanical garden should possess national representativeness, scientific systematicness, and social public welfare. A world-class botanical garden should demonstrate strong international competitiveness in areas such as plant conservation, scientific research, public education, garden horticultural display, and resource utilization while leading the development of other botanical gardens. Chinese characteristics refer to the gradual formation of unique attributes through long-term practice, encompassing characteristics of Chines ethnic plants, traditional culture, garden art, institutional mechanisms, and more. From the perspectives of historical, functional, and mission dimensions, the main features of a world-class national botanical garden with Chinese characteristics include: (1) It possessed a significant development history, actively engaging in the conservation, research, and utilization of wild plants in response to the country’s economic and social development and the public’s aspiration for a better life. Furthermore, it has a certain influence in the field of botanical gardens both domestically and internationally; (2) The botanical garden demonstrated leaderships, either partially or completely, in five functional domains: ex situ conservation of wild plants, scientific research, sustainable resource utilization, public education, and garden horticultural display; (3) It serves as a vital component of major national strategies, ensuring national ecological security, biosecurity, and food security. Additionally, it contributes to national or global biodiversity conservation, restoration of degraded ecosystems, mitigation of climate change, and sustainable development through the application of science and technology.

    Conclusion: The construction of China’s national botanical garden should align with internationally renowned botanical garden, guided by mission goals, with a focus on the relocation and conservation of wild plants. It should adhere to national representativeness, scientific systematicness, and social public welfare, coordinate in situ conservation and ex situ conservation, enhance the level of biodiversity conservation, tell the story of Chinese plant well, provide strong support for curbing the biodiversity loss and restoring degraded ecosystems, and provide innovative solutions to mitigate global climate change.

    Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and the construction of the national botanical garden system
    Jin Chen
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23257.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023257
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    Aim: The adoption of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework by the 15th Meeting of Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity signifies another collective effort by the international community to tackle the ongoing biodiversity crisis. It also marks the beginning of China’s leadership in global environmental governance. The establishment of the national botanical garden system serves as an innovative practice to biodiversity conservation. This article aims to examine the potential of the national botanical garden system in facilitating the implementation of the Kunming-Montreal Framework in China.

    Method: Through an analysis of the Kunming-Montreal Framework’s long-term objectives and specific targets for the year 2030, this study identifies the essential inquiries and conservation actions that can be implemented by the national botanical garden system in China.

    Results: This study outlines 26 research questions and 27 conservation actions that can be undertaken by the national botanical garden system. Furthermore, it highlights 7 priority actions that should be given immediate attention. These include conducting a thorough survey of plant species, examining the genetic diversity of nationally protected plants, implementing conservation strategies to mitigate plant extinctions in critical biodiversity areas, executing ecological restoration plans, conducting research on climate change adaptation, promoting education on conservation and sustainable development, and fostering international cooperation in biodiversity conservation.

    Conclusion: The establishment of the national botanical garden system in China not only strengthens China’s capacity to implement the Kunming-Montreal Framework, but also provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the innovative accomplishments of this system. The successful implementation of this initiative will serve as a benchmark and source of inspiration for other countries worldwide with significant biodiversity.

    Parallel situ conservation: A new plant conservation strategy to integrate in situ and ex situ conservation of plants
    Chen Feng, Jie Zhang, Hongwen Huang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23184.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023184
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    Background & Aims In the realm of plant conservation, in situ conservation often faces challenges that stem form climate change and unresolved issues. On the other hand, ex situ conservation poses genetic risks linked to the erosion of genetic diversity and genetic drift. This paper conducts a systematic review of the merits and limitations associated with both in situ and ex situ plant conservation. Furthermore, it amalgamates hybridization analysis within natural populations with previous research findings to elucidate the role of long-distance pollen dispersal in gene flow.

    Progresses We introduce an innovative conservation approach termed “parallel situ conservation”, which integrates elements of both in situ and ex situ conservation. This methodology is conceived with a focus on the dynamics of gene flow, using pollen dispersal as a means to sustain genetic exchanges between the in situ and ex situ populations. In practice, it is imperative to establish ex situ conservation collections in proximity to or within in situ areas, such as natural reserves, while considering the range of pollen dispersal. This step is crucial in ensuring robust gene flow between ex situ population and their natural populations. This integration allows small ex situ-conserved populations to connect to the gene pool of large natural populations, effectively safeguarding the adaptive evolutionary potential of the ex situ-conserved species, particularly those that are rare and endangered.

    Prospect The effectiveness of this approach hinges on species-specific solutions derived from a comprehensive understanding of pollen-mediated gene flow and thoughtful design of ex situ conservation plot. Parallel situ conservation, when combined with other existing plant conservation strategies, holds promise for the future preservation of biodiversity.

    Special Feature: Provincial Plant Species Cataloging: Part III
    A dataset of wild vascular plants and their distributions in Tianjin, China
    Yong Li, Sanqing Li, Huan Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23128.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023128
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    To facilitate revising and updating the checklist of vascular plants in Tianjin, we provided basic information on the status of wild vascular plant resources there, furthering the development of biodiversity conservation. We updated the checklist of wild vascular plants in Tianjin based on previous research by further examining historical collections, newly published records, data analysis, and the field investigation results of authors published over the past 20 years. The checklist was compiled in accordance with the latest classification of vascular plants. The distribution of each species was verified at the county and municipal level based on the information of voucher specimens (preserved specimens that serve as a verifiable and permanent record of wildlife). The present checklist recorded 996 species (including infraspecific taxa) in total, belonging to 519 genera in 135 families. There are 4 species of lycophytes in 1 genus and 1 family, 31 species of pteridophytes in 18 genera and 12 families, 2 species of gymnosperms in 2 genera and 2 families, and 959 species of angiosperms in 498 genera and 120 families. For lycophytes, the only family is Selaginellaceae (4 species). For pteridophytes, the top three largest families are Pteridaceae (7), Dryopteridaceae (4), and Woodsiaceae (4). For angiosperms, the top 10 largest families are Asteraceae (123), Poaceae (87), Fabaceae (67), Cyperaceae (41), Rosaceae (40), Amaranthaceae (36), Lamiaceae (28), Polygonaceae (27), Ranunculaceae (22) and Brassicaceae (22). The top ten largest genera are Artemisia (21), Cyperus (14), Amaranthus (14), Persicaria (14), Potentilla (12), Carex (12), Euphorbia (11), Cynanchum (10), Aster (9), and Saussurea (9), respectively. The wild plant species in Tianjin are predominantly common species with wide distribution. However, according to literature and specimen records, eight wild plant species are in the list of National Key Protected Wild Plant Species. The number of invasive plant species has continuously increased in recent years. Meanwhile, field surveys of rare and endangered vascular plants and invasive plants in Tianjin were insufficient; therefore, we recommend increasing the breadth and depth of follow-up field surveys. Furthermore, we call for strengthening specialized taxonomic studies on particular families and genera, which will help to further revise and update the checklist.

    Database/Dataset Profile

    Title A dataset of wild vascular plants and their distributions in Tianjin, China
    Author(s) Yong Li, Sanqing Li, Huan Wang
    Corresponding author Yong Li (liyong21st@126.com)
    Time range 2004-2022
    Geographical scope Tianjin
    File size 246 kb
    Data volume Number of records in File 1: 996 and File 2: 519.
    Data format *.xlsx
    Data link https://www.scidb.cn/s/UrYjAz
    https://doi.org/10.57760/sciencedb.10908
    https://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/1005-0094/DATA/2023128.zip
    Database/Dataset composition The dataset consists of 2 data files. File 1: A checklist of wild vascular plants in Tianjin, and File 2: List of families and genera of wild vascular plants in Tianjin. The File 1 contains 996 records (rows), and the 16 fields (columns) as following: sequence number, main categories of vascular plants, sequence number of family, Chinese family, family, Chinese genus, genus, Chinese name, scientific name, distribution areas, reference or voucher specimen, collector and collection number, native/introduced, invasive species/non-invasive species, rank in the List of National Key Protected Wild Plants 2021, knowledge degree.
    A checklist of wild vascular plants in Xinjiang, China
    Huimei Chen, Wenjun Li, Juan Qiu, Zhancang Ma, Bo Li, Zongzong Yang, Zhibin Wen, Yan Meng, Qiumei Cao, Dong Qiu, Danhui Liu, Guangzhao Jin
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23124.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023124
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    In order to fully understand the current situation of wild vascular plant resources in Xinjiang and provide basic information for subsequent work, it is necessary to revise and update the wild vascular plant list in Xinjiang. Based on previous studies, we updated the list of wild vascular plants in Xinjiang through literature collection, specimen study, field investigation and the latest taxonomic research results. In total, the present checklist recorded 4,109 species belonging to 800 genera in 113 families (including infraspecific taxa, the same below), with 52 species of lycopods and ferns in 23 genera and 14 families, 22 species of gymnosperms in 6 genera and 3 families, and 4,035 species of angiosperms in 771 genera and 96 families. The top 4 families of lycopods and ferns with the largest number of species were Aspleniaceae (9 species), Equisetaceae (8 species), Dryopteridaceae (7 species) and Cystopteridaceae (7 species), and the largest genus was Asplenium (9 species). Ephedraceae (11 species) and Ephedra (11 species) were the most abundant families and genera of gymnosperms. Angiosperms are the most important components of wild vascular plants in Xinjiang, accounting for 85.0%, 96.4% and 98.2% of the total number of families, genera and species, respectively. The top 5 families with the largest number of species are Asteraceae (600 species), Fabaceae (465 species), Poaceae (423 species), Brassicaceae (215 species) and Ranunculaceae (181 species). The top 5 genera were Astragalus (212 species), Oxytropis (101 species), Carex (86 species), Artemisia (65 species) and Allium (64 species). In addition, the list covers 53 species and subspecific taxa in 41 genera and 20 families of suspected species in Xinjiang, 59 species of protected plants in 26 genera and 20 families in China; 125 species of protected plants in 73 genera and 46 families in Xinjiang; there are 95 species of threatened plants in 61 genera and 38 families. This study can provide basic data for the revision of Xinjiang Flora and biodiversity conservation.

    Database/Dataset Profile

    Title A checklist of wild vascular plants in Xinjiang, China
    Authors Huimei Chen, Wenjun Li, Juan Qiu, Zhancang Ma, Bo Li, Zongzong Yang, Zhibin Wen, Yan Meng, Qiumei Cao, Dong Qiu, Danhui Liu, Guangzhao Jin
    Corresponding author Wenjun Li (liwenjunao@ms.xjb.ac.cn)
    Time range 1991-2022
    Geographical scope 34°22′-49°10′ N, 73°40′-96°23′ E
    File size 653 Kb
    Data volume Number of records: 5,212
    Data format *.xlsx
    Data link https://www.scidb.cn/en/s/EfAVbm
    https://doi.org/10.57760/sciencedb.12557
    https://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/1005-0094/DATA/2023124.zip
    Database/Dataset composition The dataset consists of 1 datafile containing 5 sheets, including: (1) A checklist of wild vascular plants in Xinjiang, which contains 4,109 records and 17 fields of data: sequence number, sequence number of family, Chinese family, family, Chinese genus, genus, Chinese name, scientific name, author, rank, voucher specimen, national conservation level, local conservation level, threatened level, distribution status, distribution areas and notes. (2) The list of wild vascular plants in Xinjiang contains 800 records and 4 fields of data: family, total genus/total species, genus, and species within the genus. (3) List of protected species of wild vascular plants in Xinjiang, which contains 155 records. (4) List of threatened species of wild vascular plants in Xinjiang, which contains 95 records. (5) List of suspected species of wild vascular plants in Xinjiang, which contains 53 records.
    A checklist of wild vascular plants in Qinghai, China
    Yun Han, Xiaofeng Chi, Jingya Yu, Xujie Ding, Shilong Chen, Faqi Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23280.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023280
    Abstract ( 629 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (409KB) ( 437 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aim: In order to comprehensively understand the current status of wild vascular plant resources and to provide the basic information for the conservation of plant diversity, it is necessary to compile, improve and update the checklist of Qinghai plants.

    Method: Based on the existing historical data, we comprehensively collected relevant literature on plant research in Qinghai Province, combined data from years of field surveys and specimen information, and compiled a checklist of wild vascular plants. 85.01% of the species are accompanied by voucher specimens (including collector, specimen collection number, and barcode number), provenance, habitat, and distribution information of each species and infraspecies.

    Results: There were 2,916 species (including subspecies) of wild vascular plants in 109 families and 602 genera in Qinghai Province, including 55 species from 12 families and 20 genera of lycophytes and ferns; 36 species from 3 families and 6 genera of gymnosperms; 2,825 species from 94 families and 576 genera of angiosperms, with 500 species added compared with the Index Florae Qinghaiensis. The results showed that the top 10 dominant families of wild vascular plants in Qinghai Province were Asteraceae (346 species), Poaceae (343 species), Fabaceae (222 species), Ranunculaceae (160 species), Rosaceae (146 species), Brassicaceae (113 species), Orobanchaceae (96 species), Gentianaceae (90 species), Cyperaceae (86 species), and Caryophyllaceae (84 species), which were comprised of 1,686 species, accounting for 57.82% of the wild vascular plants in Qinghai Province. The top 5 dominant genera were Astragalus (95 species), Pedicularis (83 species), Saussurea (76 species), Artemisia (66 species), and Carex (65 species). The composition of families is dominated by families with less than 20 species, and the composition of genera is dominated by genera with less than 5 species. Meanwhile, the checklist contained a total of 47 species of national key protected wild plants, belonging to 17 families and 25 genera, all of which were under the second level of protection.

    Conclusion: The checklist can provide basic data for field survey and monitoring, collection and preservation of germplasm resources and biodiversity conservation.

    A dataset on inventory and geographical distribution of vascular plants in Xizang, China
    Yousheng Chen, Zhuqiu Song, Ran Wei, Yan Luo, Wenli Chen, Fusheng Yang, Lianming Gao, Yuan Xu, Zhuoxin Zhang, Pengcheng Fu, Chunlei Xiang, Huanchong Wang, Jiachen Hao, Shiyong Meng, Lei Wu, Bo Li, Shengxiang Yu, Shuren Zhang, Li He, Xinqiang Guo, Wenguang Wang, Yihua Tong, Qi Gao, Wenqun Fei, Youpai Zeng, Lin Bai, Zichao Jin, Xingjie Zhong, Buyun Zhang, Siyi Du
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23188.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023188
    Abstract ( 904 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (429KB) ( 681 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    The Xizang Autonomous Region, the provincial administrative region with the second largest land area in China, is located on the vast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which, in addition to being the tallest and largest plateau in the world, is also an incredibly rich biodiversity hotspot, supporting a variety of ecosystem. Initial efforts by research groups in the 1980’s to elucidate the full extent of plant diversity in this region has been described previously in the book series Flora Xizangica, however the collection of records of plants in southern Xizang remains largely incomplete in this work. The study presented here compiles information extracted from floras, periodical literature, dissertations, collected specimens from field surveys, and the Plant Photo Bank of China (PPBC) to provide an updated dataset of vascular plants in all of Xizang. Each record in this dataset represents the distribution of taxonomic groups at the county or city level and includes the following: category, survival status, Chinese family name, Latin family name, Chinese genus name, Latin genus name, Chinese species name, Latin species name, authors of the Latin species name, county or city level distribution, literature evidence, literature notes, specimen evidence, etc. Based on this new dataset, we archived a list of vascular plants of Xizang. As of August 2023, this checklist contains 11,853 taxa across 252 families and 2,049 genera of vascular plants, including 50 taxa belonging to 2 families and 7 genera of lycopods, 699 taxa belonging to 31 families and 110 genera of pteridophytes, 84 taxa belonging to 6 families and 19 genera of gymnosperms, and 11,020 taxa belonging to 213 families and 1,913 genera of angiosperms. From this data we identified the top 10 families possessing the highest number of species in this region (Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Ericaceae, Ranunculaceae, Lamiaceae, Primulaceae, and Apiaceae). Finally, we also generated a checklist of vascular plants with excluded/dubious records in Xizang, which includes 900 species of 454 genera across 121 families. This study will provide an expanded basic background and central framework for the second edition of Flora Xizangica, as well as serve as an important reference for plant diversity conservation and monitoring throughout Xizang forward.

    Database/Dataset Profile

    Title A dataset on inventory and geographical distribution of vascular plants in Xizang, China
    Authors Yousheng Chen, Zhuqiu Song, Ran Wei, Yan Luo, Wenli Chen, Fusheng Yang, Lianming Gao, Yuan Xu, Zhuoxin Zhang, Pengcheng Fu, Chunlei Xiang, Huanchong Wang, Jiachen Hao, Shiyong Meng, Lei Wu, Bo Li, Shengxiang Yu, Shuren Zhang, Li He, Xinqiang Guo, Wenguang Wang, Yihua Tong, Qi Gao, Wenqun Fei, Youpai Zeng, Lin Bai, Zichao Jin, Xingjie Zhong, Buyun Zhang, Siyi Du
    Corresponding author Yousheng Chen (yschen@scbg.ac.cn)
    Time range 1951-2023.8
    Geographical scope Xizang Autonomous Region
    Spatial distribution resolution District (County)
    File size 5.61 Mb
    Data format *.xlsx
    Data link https://www.scidb.cn/en/s/U7ZzQv
    https://doi.org/10.57760/sciencedb.10219
    https://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/1005-0094/DATA/2023188.zip
    Database/Dataset composition The dataset consists of 1 data file with 50,525 items (rows) and 21 fields (columns) as following: number, categories, sequence number of family, Chinese name of family, Latin name of family, Chinese name of genus, Latin name of genus, Chinese name of species, Latin name of species, author, altitude, growth status, county-level distribution, literature, literature notes, specimen vouchers, specimen links, PPBC photo links, protection level, Latin names in Catalogue of Life China: 2023 Annual Checklist, Latin names in Flora of China.
    A dataset on inventory and geographical distributions of higher plants in Guangdong, China
    Zhuqiu Song, Wen Ye, Shiyong Dong, Zichao Jin, Xingjie Zhong, Zhen Wang, Buyun Zhang, Yechun Xu, Wenli Chen, Shijin Li, Gang Yao, Zhoufeng Xu, Shuai Liao, Yihua Tong, Youpai Zeng, Yunbao Zeng, Yousheng Chen
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23177.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023177
    Abstract ( 920 )   HTML ( 26 )   PDF (441KB) ( 664 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Guangdong Province has a rich diversity of higher plants, ranking it sixth in China. This study compiles an updated dataset of higher plants with county-level records in Guangdong Province by drawing from sources including floras, illustrated plant books, nature reserve plant checklists, academic papers, dissertations, specimens, photos from the Plant Photo Bank of China, and our own field surveys. The resulting dataset details distributions of various taxa in specific counties and cities. As of July 2023, this dataset contains 8,106 taxa from 374 families and 2,284 genera of higher plants in Guangdong. Native wild higher plants account for 6,864 taxa from 350 families and 1,828 genera, where bryophytes (including hornworts, liverworts and mosses) makeup 865 taxa from 96 families and 272 genera, lycopods and pteridophytes account for 642 taxa from 36 families and 123 genera, gymnosperms total 35 taxa from 7 families and 17 genera, and angiosperms makeup 5,322 taxa from 211 families and 1,416 genera. In addition, 17 species are here reported new to the Guangdong Province. The families with the largest number of species are Poaceae, Fabaceae, Orchidaceae, Cyperaceae, Rubiaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lauraceae and Gesneriaceae. This dataset also includes 323 invasive species from 58 families and 204 genera, 257 species of naturalized plants from 62 families and 206 genera, and 662 species of common cultivated plants from 129 families and 441 genera. Furthermore, this study provides a list of higher plants with excluded and dubious records; this list encompasses includes 905 species from 182 families and 545 genera. This dataset will provide foundational information and a framework for the second edition of Flora of Guangdong.

    Database/Dataset Profile

    Title A dataset on inventory and geographical distributions of higher plants in Guangdong, China
    Authors Zhuqiu Song, Wen Ye, Shiyong Dong, Zichao Jin, Xingjie Zhong, Zhen Wang, Buyun Zhang, Yechun Xu, Wenli Chen, Shijin Li, Gang Yao, Zhoufeng Xu, Shuai Liao, Yihua Tong, Youpai Zeng, Yunbao Zeng, Yousheng Chen
    Corresponding author Yousheng Chen (yschen@scbg.ac.cn)
    Time range 1923-2023.7
    Geographical scope Guangdong Province
    Spatial resolution District (County)
    File size 6.45 Mb
    Data format *.xlsx
    Data link https://www.scidb.cn/en/s/JzQfqa
    https://doi.org/10.57760/sciencedb.10170
    https://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/1005-0094/DATA/2023177.zip
    Database/Dataset composition The dataset consists of 1 data file with 72,279 items (rows) and 20 fields (columns) as following: number, categories, sequence number of family, Chinese name of family, Latin name of family, Chinese name of genus, Latin name of genus, Chinese name of species, Latin name of species, author, rank notes, growth status, county-level distribution, literature, literature notes, specimen vouchers, endemic and protected plants, Latin names in The Provincial Red List of Higher Plants in Guangdong (2022), Latin names in Flora of China, and Latin names in Catalogue of Life China: 2022 Annual Checklist.
    Original Papers: Plant Diversity
    Spatial pattern of dominant species with different seed dispersal modes in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in Pu’er, Yunnan Province
    Minghui Wang, Zhaoquan Chen, Shuaifeng Li, Xiaobo Huang, Xuedong Lang, Zihan Hu, Ruiguang Shang, Wande Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23147.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023147
    Abstract ( 270 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (2568KB) ( 239 )   Save
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    Aim: Multiple processes such as habitat filtering, dispersal restriction, and intra-/interspecific interactions within and between species could affect the spatial distribution patterns and population structure of species. Studying how species are distributed in space, as well as their connections with environmental factors, is valuable for revealing the maintenance mechanism that uphold biodiversity and to exploring the ecological process of community succession.

    Method: The monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, representative of a zonal vegetation type, serves as an important subject for studying the species patterns within the interlacing area between tropical and subtropical zones. Using point pattern analysis on survey data from a 30-ha dynamics plot in the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in Pu’er, we examined the scale-changing spatial distribution patterns of three dominant species (Castanopsis echidnocarpa, Anneslea fragransand Betula alnoides), each with distinct seed dispersal modes. Concurrently, we scrutinized the effects of habitat heterogeneity and dispersal restriction on the spatial distribution patterns of species, as well as the intra-/interspecific associations between different life stages.

    Results: The results showed that C. echidnocarpa and A. fragrans were commonly distributed on the ridges and hillsides, with less frequent occurrence in the valleys, whereas B. alnoides predominantly thrived on hillsides. Under the complete randomness model, all three species displayed aggregated distribution patterns across all scales. With the degree of aggregation decreasing as the spatial scale increased. Upon accounting for habitat heterogeneity, all the three species showed aggregated distribution only on small scale, transitioning to random or regular distribution on a large scale. Dispersal restrictions minimally effect the distribution pattern of C. echidnocarpa and A. fragrans, but significantly effect on the distribution pattern of B. alnoides. Regarding the spatial association among different age classes within species, significant correlations were observed for all growth stages of C. echidnocarpa and A. fragrans, whereas such correlations were less pronounced for B. alnoides. In terms of interspecific correlation, C. echidnocarpaplayed a positively correlation with A. fragrans and a negatively correlation with B. alnoides. Meanwhile, A. fragrans showed both positive and negative correlations with B. alnoides.

    Conclusion: Our study underscores that species spatial distribution patterns arise from a complex interplay between species attributes and environmental conditions. The combined influence of habitat heterogeneity and dispersal restriction emerges as the primary determinant shaping species spatial distribution.

    Original Papers: Microbial Diversity
    Microbial community diversity among different soil particle sizes of mossy biocrusts-soil continuum in the southeastern Tengger Desert
    Xiaomin Duan, Jiajia Li, Jingyu Li, Yannan Li, Cunxia Yuan, Yingna Wang, Jianli Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23131.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023131
    Abstract ( 277 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (2690KB) ( 215 )   Save
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    Aim: Moss biocrust formation means the stable crust development of soils in arid and semiarid regions; they participate in the material cycle and energy flow of desert ecosystems and provide a microhabitat for the maintenance of microbial diversity. The microbial diversity of soil with different particle sizes in moss biocrusts-soil continuum is of great significance for understanding the ecological process of moss biocrusts.

    Method: In this study, we used Illumina MiSeq techniques to analyze the microbial diversity and community structure of different soil particle sizes in moss biocrusts-soil continuum and biocrust sublayer.

    Results: A total of 10,730 bacterial amplicon sequence variant (ASVs) and 3,035 fungal ASVs were obtained by sequencing. The α diversity index of the bacterial community was lower in the moss biocrust adhesion soil than in the biocrust layer, while the α diversity index of the fungal community was significantly higher in the moss biocrust adhesion soil than in different soil particle sizes in moss biocrust sifting soil and biocrust sublayer. The common bacterial phyla of the moss biocrusts were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, while the common bacterial phyla of the biocrust sublayer soil were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria. The common fungal phyla of the moss biocrust and biocrust layers included Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota was higher in the moss biocrust adhesion soil than in moss biocrust sifting soil and biocrust sublayer. Significant differences of relative abundance in the bacterial communities of Microvirga, Rubrobacter, Bryobacter, Solirubrobacter, Geodermatophilus, Sphingomonas, Nocardioides, Rubellimicrobium, Blastococcus and Modestobacter occurred between the moss biocrust adhesion soil and the moss biocrust sifting soil with different particle sizes. There were significant differences of relative abundance in the fungal communities of Aspergillus, Knufia, Darksidea, Entoloma, Monosporascus, Bhatiellae, Didymella, Alternaria, Cladosporiumand Fusarium between the moss biocrust adhesion soil and the moss biocrust sifting soil with different particle sizes. The results of the cooccurrence network showed that there was more complex connectivity in the rhizosphere of the mossy biocrusts than in the bulk soil and mossy biocrust sublayer.

    Conclusion: These results are helpful to explore the changing rule of microbial diversity of biological soil crust participating in biogeochemical cycle of desert ecosystem at microenvironment scale.

    Original Papers: Biocultural Diversity
    Traditional livelihood and biodiversity management of Dulong people
    Zhuo Cheng, Chen Lin, Chunlin Long
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23019.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023019
    Abstract ( 270 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (2104KB) ( 339 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aim: In the process of long-term mutual adaptation with their living environment, Dulong people have been relying on biological resources to maintain their survival and life. They have accumulated a lot of traditional knowledge on the use of bio-resources and the protection of the ecological environment. The purpose of this study is to record the traditional knowledge, explore the ecological concepts, analyze the threats, and promote them to provide better services for the protection of biocultural diversity in the Dulongjiang region.

    Method: In this study, ethnobiological method including semi-structure interview and participatory observations were used to investigate the traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity in Dulong community, and to analyze the ecological thoughts.

    Results: The results showed that the Dulong people had rich traditional knowledge, involving a total of 399 species of organisms. Among them, 209 plant (and fungi) species were collected for livelihood, 179 species for animal husbandry, 26 for timber and construction, 34 for fishing and hunting, 25 for farming, and 31 for firewood. The traditional livelihood methods of the Dulong people, such as collecting, breeding, fishing and hunting, fuelwood collection and farming practices, contain sustainable ecological ideas, which are conducive to the conservation of local biocultural diversity.

    Recommendations With the rapid economic development and the improvement of transportation, traditional livelihoods and knowledge in Dulongjiang area are facing different opportunities and challenges. For example, cultural shock, intergenerational discontinuity, the cultivation of a single crop and orientation of ecological policy, etc. It is necessary to conduct a more comprehensive investigation, recording and cataloging of traditional knowledge through ethnobotanical methods, follow by research with modern ethnobotanical methods to provide guidance, using new technology to explain the scientificity of traditional knowledge, strengthen the protection, inheritance and benefit sharing of traditional knowledge, and tap the essence of the traditional livelihood of the Dulong to promote the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable development services, and ecological civilization in the Dulongjiang area.

    Bioinventories
    Intertidal crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) species diversity and geographical distribution in Donghai Island and Naozhou Island, Guangdong Province
    Weinuo Liang, Xu Zhang, Liang Hu
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23086.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023086
    Abstract ( 363 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (45678KB) ( 337 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aim: Intertidal crabs represent significant ecological groups within the nearshore zoobenthic biota. The northern South China Sea is rich in intertidal crabs, but the research progress varies considerably across different regions. Compared with eastern Guangdong, Beibu Gulf, and Hainan Island, our understanding of the intertidal crab fauna in western Guangdong remains relatively limited. To bridge this knowledge gap, it is crucial to explore the intertidal crab fauna on Donghai Island and Naozhou Island, located on eastern side of the Leizhou Peninsula. These islands play a vital role in unveiling the nearshore zoobenthic biogeography of western Guangdong and the northern South China Sea. In this study, we present the findings of a comprehensive field survey and incorporate previous studies to report on the species diversity and distribution patterns of intertidal crabs from these two islands.

    Method: During the period of 2021-2022, intertidal crabs were collected from 22 sampling sites located Donghai Island and Naozhou Island. And the taxon recorded in previous studies were revised by literature review. A comprehensive and current checklist of intertidal crabs in the two islands was conducted, and an analysis was conducted to determine the distribution patterns of each species along the coasts of the China seas.

    Results: A total of 91 species of brachyuran crabs were collected, representing 26 families and 62 genera during the field survey. Within this collection, 52 species were previously undocumented in the study area. The updated checklist now encompasses 150 intertidal crab species, originating from 33 families and 91 genera. Out of them, 108 species (72.0%) are characterized as the tropical and/or subtropical, with their distribution spanning from the northern South China Sea to the Taiwan Strait or the East China Sea. The remaining 42 species (28.0%) are considered widespread, with each of them being found across from the northern South China Sea to the Yellow and Bohai seas. The intertidal brachyuran fauna of the study area is tightly related to other areas of the South China Sea. Among these 150 species, 136 species (90.7%) have also been documented on Hainan Island, 124 species (82.7%) in the Beibu Gulf, 123 species (82.0%) on Taiwan Island, and 109 species (72.7%) in Southeast Asia.

    Conclusions The results indicate a strong connection between the intertidal crab population on the eastern coast of Leizhou Peninsula and the northern coast of Hainan Island. Both regions fall within the Subtropical Provinces in terms of nearshore zoobenthic biota. Interestingly, it appears that neither the Leizhou Peninsula nor the Qiongzhou Strait significantly hinder the dispersal of intertidal crabs. The results offer fresh perspectives on the biogeographical classification of nearshore zoobenthic biota in China, as well as the sustainable utilization and preservation of marine biological resources.

    Species diversity of intertidal crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) of Dongzhaigang National Nature Reserve, Hainan Province
    Erhui Feng, Weinuo Liang, Liang Hu, Xu Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23030.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023030
    Abstract ( 462 )   HTML ( 43 )   PDF (3149KB) ( 459 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aim: Brachyuran crabs are one of the important representatives of large benthic invertebrates in intertidal habitats and also an important component of mangrove wetland ecosystem. Dongzhaigang National Nature Reserve (DZGNNR) in Hainan preserves the most typical mangrove wetland ecosystem in China. It is also one of the key areas in the marine biogeographic division of East Asia. However, limited knowledge on intertidal crab species richness and unclear fauna characteristics in this area. Based on a comprehensive field survey combined with previous studies, we have cataloged an updated checklist of intertidal crabs of DZGNNR.

    Method: The field survey was conducted in the intertidal zone of DZGNNR between September and November of 2022. During this time, 16 sampling sites were investigated and a total of 207 specimens were collected and identified. The species recorded in previous documents were reassessed and each taxon was revised according to the recent researches.

    Results: During the field survey, we collected a total of 64 species of brachyuran crabs from 17 families and 39 genera. Out of these, 22 species were previously undocumented in DZGNNR, and two species were newly discovered in Hainan Province (Elamena rostrata and Parasesarma ungulatum). The updated checklist of brachyuran fauna of DZGNNR now includes 115 species belonging to 22 families and 63 genera.

    Conclusions The intertidal brachyuran fauna of DZGNNR is mainly composed of East Asian warm water species, with Indo-West Pacific warm water elements being the most prevalent. This indicates that the DZGNNR is part of the northern South China Sea Subtropical Provinces in terms of its zoobenthic fauna, similar to the intertidal brachyuran fauna found in Guangxi, Guangdong and Fujian. Our study provides new insights on the brachyuran fauna of DZGNNR and north Hainan Island, which improve our understanding of zoobenthic biogeographical patterns in northern South China Sea.

    Reviews
    Research progress on the impact of nitrogen deposition on grassland insect diversity
    Yongjie Niu, Quanhui Ma, Yu Zhu, Hairong Liu, Jiale Lü, Yuanchun Zou, Ming Jiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23130.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023130
    Abstract ( 498 )   HTML ( 22 )   PDF (2013KB) ( 315 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Background & Aim Insects are one of the most abundant biological components in grassland ecosystems, playing a critical role in the structure and function of the grassland food web. A systematic summary is lacking of the response patterns and regulatory mechanisms of insect communities due to the increasing severity of global nitrogen deposition.

    Review results This paper summarizes relevant research in recent years and finds that nitrogen deposition can exert positive, negative, or neutral effects on insect abundance and diversity. The direction of its impact mainly depends on the duration and intensity of nitrogen deposition, different insect taxa, and types of grasslands. Nitrogen deposition can affect the quantity and quality of food resources, abiotic conditions, and biotic interaction of insect communities through various pathways such as changing plant diversity, plant biomass, plant nutrition, community composition and structure, microclimate, and breeding habitat.

    Suggestions & Perspectives In the future, research should strengthen the understanding of (1) the multi-trophic interactions of grassland insects; (2) the interaction between nitrogen deposition and other global change factors; (3) the examination on a larger temporal and spatial scale; and (4) the role of key functional traits of insects to explain and predict the response to nitrogen deposition. A benefit from this study is to understand the impact of nitrogen deposition on grassland insect communities and provide theoretical support for the protection of grassland insect diversity due to global changes.

    Analysis for the prevalence of global bat-borne Bartonella
    Qingduo Li, Dongmei Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23166.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023166
    Abstract ( 187 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1539KB) ( 191 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Background & Aim Bartonellae is a worldwide group of bacteria that causes a variety of zoonoses. Their hosts include carnivores, ruminants, rodents, and even mammals such as marine whales. Recently, it has been discovered that Bartonellae can infect bats, one of the important host animals for Bartonellae, worldwide. This review summarizes studies of bat-borne Bartonella worldwide since 2005 to illustrate the prevalence of Bartonellae in bats.

    Context & Conclusions Bartonellae has been detected in 106 bat species in 31 countries and regions around the world, indicating that bats are major animal hosts. The feeding habit of bats does not affect whether they can carry Bartonellae, which has been found in bats with multiple feeding habits. The phylogenetic tree based on gltA sequences of bat-borne Bartonella displayed that most bat-borne Bartonella sequences are distant from other host-derived Bartonella and constituted a bat-origin Bartonella group. Bat-borne Bartonella, which has spread with bats worldwide, is host-specific to a certain extent. It is hinted that there is coevolution between Bartonellae and bat hosts.

    Theoretical proof, realistic dilemma and realization mechanism of farmers’ rights and interests protection in utilization of Important Agricultural Heritage Systems
    Zhiqian Wan, Yuan Zhang, Wenfei Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  23064.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023064
    Abstract ( 204 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (447KB) ( 198 )   Save
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    Aim: By 2022, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) had announced 139 China National Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (China-NIAHS). As one of the subjects of protecting agro-cultural heritage, farmers should be recognized their contribution. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to explore the farmers’ rights and interests protection in utilization of Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (IAHS), and it can provide reference for protection of IAHS.

    Findings The results indicated that, first, IAHS refer to the agricultural production systems, with rich biodiversity, agricultural technology, traditional knowledge, ecological and cultural landscape, which rooted long-standing cultural traditions in the heritage site and long-term practical experiences of farmers. Second, farmers are the creators, protectors and inheritors of IAHS. The utilization of IAHS cannot ignore the subject status of farmers and protection of their rights and interests. Third, according to the existing legal system, farmers’ rights and interests involved in utilization of IAHS mainly include right to participate, benefit-sharing and ecological compensation. At present, there are varying degrees of realistic dilemma about realization of these three rights and interests.

    Suggestions Based on our results, in order to protect farmers’ rights and interests in utilization of IAHS, and realize high-quality sustainable development of IAHS, we propose the following suggestions: (1) realization of farmers’ right to participate, which through arousing farmers’ willingness to participate, perfecting farmers’ participation mechanism and strengthening farmers’ participation guarantee; (2) realization of benefit-sharing for farmers, which through clarifying benefit-sharing content, establishing benefit-sharing mechanism and improving relevant supporting system; (3) realization of ecological compensation to farmers, which through defining subjects of ecological compensation, determining standards of ecological compensation, and establishing diversified funding sources and compensation methods of ecological compensation.

    Forum
    Discussion and suggestions on several key issues in the integration and optimization of protected areas
    Guofa Cui
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (9):  22447.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022447
    Abstract ( 387 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (7074KB) ( 365 )   Save
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    Aim: The integration and optimization of protected areas represent fundamental endeavors aimed at establishing a comprehensive protected area system, with national parks as the central component. It also constitutes a significant historical initiative designed to address an array of conflicts in these protected areas and to rectify lingering historical problem. Since February 2020, the integration and optimization plan for consolidating and enhancing protected areas at the provincial level has been gradually improved. However, the ultimate goal of crafting a well-considered, practical, and scientifically grounded strategy for the integration and optimization of protected areas remains a formidable challenge. This article proposes some suggestions for reference in the integration and optimization of protected areas.

    Method: This paper provides comprehensive and systematic analysis and discussion of several pivotal issues, including the categories division, classification and zoning of protected areas, the integration and optimization of natural scenic areas, the connection of ecological conservation redlines, and the transfer out of permanent basic farmland.

    Results: The following suggestions may be valuable: (1) Scenic areas featuring natural landscapes as their main scenic resources and protected objects should constitute a distinct category, separate from nature reserves and natural parks; Scenic areas whose main scenic resources are cultural landscapes should not be included from the protected areas system. (2) The main function of aquatic germplasm resources reserve, wild plant original habitat reserve, mini nature reserve, and important habitats of wild animals are nature preservation, categorizing them as nature reserves rather than natural parks. (3) The type of “ecological natural park” should not be introduced. The names of natural parks such as forest parks, geological parks, and wetland parks, should not be changed to forest natural parks, geological natural parks, or wetland natural parks. (4) In cases where nature reserves, natural parks, and scenic areas are divided into two levels of management, these levels should be national and provincial. The term “level” should not be omitted in names like national forest parks, national wetland parks, national grassland parks, etc. (5) Drawing inspiration from the tiered setup method of control areas and functional areas of national park, nature reserves, natural parks, scenic areas, etc., can also adopt a tiered approach from control areas and functional areas. The three functional areas of core area, buffer area and experimental area of nature reserve should not be simplified into two control areas: core protection area and general control area. Scenic areas and natural parks should not be managed as a single general control area, but core protection areas (i.e., strictly controlled areas) can also be established. (6) The classification status and nature protection function of scenic areas with natural landscape as the main scenic resources and protected subjects in the protected areas system should be acknowledged and included in the protected areas integration and optimization plan. (7) It is not appropriate to encompass the entire protected area within the ecological conservation redline. Instead, it is more suitable to include the “land plots” with significant ecological functions and sensitive and fragile eco-environment in the forest land, grassland, water areas, and other land types in the protected area into the ecological conservation redline. (8) The protected area represents a geographical unit and a mosaic of ecological space, production space and living space. Permanent basic farmland is a “plot” of high-quality cultivated land, and its production space attribute remains unchanged if it is retained within the protected area. Therefore, it cannot be removed from the protected area.

    Conclusion: The approval of the integration and optimization plan for natural reserves, as well as the revision of the Protected Areas Law, National Parks Law, and Nature Reserve Regulations, should take into thorough account the development history and management status of various types of natural reserves.


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