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Table of Content
    Volume 30 Issue 4
    20 April 2022
    Based on published literatures and examination of relevant specimens from natural history museums in China, Wang et al (see 21326 of this issue) updated the checklist of the reptilian fauna in Yunnan Province. The cover image presents 16 representative reptilian species in Yunnan Province, including (from upper left corner): Diploderma iadinum, Dopasia gracilis, Acanthosaura liui, Ovophis zayuensis, Gekko cib, Manouria impressa, Trimeresurus guoi, Calotes jerdoni, Varanus irrawadicus, Argyrophis diardii, Platysternon megacephalum, Lycodon chapaensis, Gonyosoma boulengeri, Lycodon serratus, Pseudoxenodon macrops, and Cyrtodactylus wayakonei. (Photograph credit: Kai Wang, Jian Wang, Yufan Wang, and Xiangle Zeng)

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    Special Feature: On the Ecological Conservation Redline
    Understanding the connotation of the ecological conservation redline from its delineation process and attribute characteristics
    Kun Zhang, Changxin Zou, Yi Zhang, Xiaoman Liu, Jixi Gao
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21464.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021464
    Abstract ( 477 )   HTML ( 133 )   PDF (1493KB) ( 352 )   Save
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    Background & Aim: The ecological conservation redline (ECR) acts as the bottom line of national ecological security, as well as a major measure of ecological civilization reform in China. Since the implementation, the ECR has received great attention from both domestic and international communities, considering its innovation in models and systems of ecological conservation. However, the current understanding of the ECR is not deep enough. Some researchers have the misunderstanding that all categories of human activity are prohibited in the ECR, which confuses the ECR with the uninhabited areas. The misunderstanding limits the application and effectiveness of the ECR to a certain extent.

    Results: We provide a description on the evolution of the ECR. The ECR is transformed from theoretical assumption at local scale in 2000 to practical implementation at national scale in 2017. We demonstrate the scientific connotation and era interpretation of the ECR. We analyze the management standard of the ECR, and clearly proposes that the management should balance strictly controlling and appropriately utilization. The ECR should serve as the bottom line of ecological security and baseline for land use pattern optimization, rather than the uninhabited area. The ultimate goal of the ECR is the harmonious coexistence between human and nature and regional sustainable development.

    Recommendations: The ECR could be further improved in the following aspects: (1) expanding the connotation of the ECR based on the development trend of ecological protection, in order to strengthen the conservation effects of the ECR; (2) developing the identification technology of ecological corridors and incorporating them into the ECR, so as to improve the integration and connectivity of the ECR; (3) optimizing the value realization mechanism of high-quality ecological products to strengthen the supporting ability of the ECR to the “environment‒economy‒society” system; (4) enhancing the sustainability of the ECR with various measures, including financial transfer payments, ecological compensation, ecological industry supporting and education and medical improvement; (5) sharing the experience of the ECR with the global society via international talks, academic forums and researcher exchanges, in order to provide a new model for international ecological protection and biodiversity conservation.

    Relationship between ecological space and ecological conservation redline from the perspective of management requirements
    Shujie Zhang, Youbo Zhuang
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21441.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021441
    Abstract ( 267 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF (1884KB) ( 230 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Background and Aims: In the context of territorial spatial planning, the ecological conservation redline is the management requirements on ecological space. However, whether the requirements of the ecological conservation redline are compatible with that of various ecological spaces, and how to coordinate them, still require further study.

    Methods: This study constructed a classification system of the ecological space with “two attributes and three levels”, which are natural and managerial attributes, and macro, meso, and micro levels. From the management requirements perspective, the research focuses on the relationship analysis between 13 types of ecological space and the ecological conservation redline around the three aspects of management objectives, management content, and management intensity.

    Results: In terms of management objectives, supporting objectives and regulating objectives are highly compatible, while provisioning objectives and cultural objectives are quite different. In terms of management content, the differences are mainly in the nurture restoration and artificial utilization. In terms of management intensity, the two-level system of the ecological conservation redline and the three-level system of ecological space do not completely match.

    Recommendation: It is recommended to improve the ecological space classification with a system of “two attributes and three levels”. The management requirements of ecological space should be systematically constructed from three aspects: management objective, management content and management intensity. The management content and intensity of the ecological conservation redline should be further improved to better coordinate with the various ecological spaces.

    How to delineate and zone protected areas under the scope of ecological conservation redline strategy
    Bihu Wu, Yefeng Xie, Yi Li, Li Cong
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21372.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021372
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    Background & Aim: Under the scope of China’s ecological conservation redline strategy, this article focuses on how to handle the relationship between man and land in protected areas (PAs) by sound delineation and zoning, and adaptive management based on them. To understand the current status of China’s ecological conservation redline strategy and its major implementing area, i.e. protected areas, we collected and comprehensively analyzed the policies and literature regarding the topics of ecological conservation redline and PA governance.

    Results: (1) As a part of ecological conservation redline areas, PA’s delineation and zoning is not only a single natural scientific issue, but also a multi-objective; (2) The ecological conservation redline is not only a static physical space line but also a baseline for the dynamic control of the ecosystem; (3) Under the scope of ecological conservation redline strategy, PA’s delineation and zoning needs to consider geographical differentiation and should be based on local and time-based policies.

    Conclusion: The handling of the human‒land relationship within ecological conservation redline needs to clarify the development permission of PAs and scientifically concession uses of natural resources. The ecosystem characteristics of PAs should be studied to fully demonstrate their ability to withstand human activities under the premise of conserving the natural ecology. In this way, human activities will ultimately be controlled within the acceptable “baseline” of the stability of the ecosystem.

    Original Papers: Plant Diversity
    Driving factors of spatial turnover of plant species in Shennongjia
    Yanhui Li, Tianyuan Lan, Yue Wang, Yang Yu, Changming Zhao, Lihua Li, Wenting Xu, Guozhen Shen
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21377.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021377
    Abstract ( 241 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF (4610KB) ( 233 )   Save
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    Aims: Shennongjia is one of the key habitats for numerous relic, rare, endemic, and type species, as well as many of the world’s deciduous woody species in the Northern Hemisphere. Understanding plant compositional differences (beta-diversity) between local species assemblages is central in understanding the processes that maintain Shennongjia’s species diversity. Yet, little is known about which factors driving the changes in Shennongjia’s plant composition. Here, we aim to investigate that how the taxonomic composition of plant species shifts with environmental gradients, and to determine the key factors affecting on the current distribution of species by considering the factors of environment and human disturbance.

    Methods: In this paper, based on generalized dissimilarity modelling (GDM) and partial regression analysis, we explored the driving effects of geographical distance, climatic factors, and human disturbance (measured as distance to road and fragmentation) on plant beta-diversity in Shennongjia.

    Results: The results showed that the geographical distance, mean annual temperature (MAT), accumulated temperature ≥ 0℃ and accumulated temperature ≥ 10℃ are the main factors contributing to plant species turnover in Shennongjia. Geographical distance, climatic difference, and human disturbance explained 28.75%, 34.56% and 12.55% of the variation in plant species dissimilarities, respectively, and their interactions explained 8.52% of the variation. Geographical distance, climatic difference, and human disturbance together explained 43.47% of the variation.

    Conclusion: The results indicated that geographical distance and temperature differentiations were the key factors driving plant compositional changes between local species assemblages in Shennongjia. Protecting vegetation vertical band spectrum and diverse geomorphologic heterogeneities are the key to maintain the ecological process of species turnover in Shennongjia, and are also the primary focus of the construction of Shennongjia National Park and the protection area network in the northwest region of the Hubei Province should be concerned.

    Spatial distribution pattern and habitat-association of snags in karst evergreen deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests
    Mengzhen Lu, Fuping Zeng, Tongqing Song, Wanxia Peng, Hao Zhang, Liang Su, Kunping Liu, Weining Tan, Hu Du
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21340.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021340
    Abstract ( 193 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF (925KB) ( 157 )   Save
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    Aims: Tree mortality is a natural demographic process that plays a key role in determining forest dynamics and succession. Elucidating spatial patterns and driving factors of tree mortality would help researchers to better predict forest dynamics. In this respect, studies of the relationships between dead individuals and their habitats can aid the analysis of spatial distribution patterns. Previous studies on tree mortality have focused mainly on the causes and processes of tree death, temporal and spatial variabilities, impacting on ecosystems, and the abundance patterns and death dynamics of snags. Therefore, this study aims to determine the distribution patterns of dead individuals at different scales and the relationship between snags and habitats in a karst forest.

    Methods: Using the data collected from two surveys of a 25 ha forest dynamic plot in the Mulun National Nature Reserve in Guangxi, China, we analyzed the species composition, size class structure and spatial patterns of snags, and its association with habitats. First, the univariate pair correlation was employed to analyze the distribution pattern of dead individuals of different species. Then, the Torus-translation method was utilized to analyze tree mortality and habitat-type associations.

    Results: A total of 17,306 snag individuals, belonging to 57 families, 130 genera, and 194 species were found in the plot. The three families with the highest numbers of dead trees were Alangiaceae, Rosaceae, and Flacourtiaceae, with Alchornea, Pyracantha, and Alangium being the top three genera and Alchornea trewioides, Mallotus barbatus, and Mallotus japonicus the top three species with the highest mortality rates. The average diameter at breast height (DBH) of the snags was 3.83 cm, with the maximum DBH being 47.11 cm. The snags had an inverse J-type tree size structure. Within the scale of 0-50 m, the snags were mostly aggregated in the plot, but some large-sized trees were randomly distributed. The numbers of species whose mortality were positively associated with a hilltop, steep slope, gentle slope, and depression were 41, 13, 41, and 38, respectively, whereas the numbers of species with a negative association with the same habitat types were 38, 67, 33, and 10, respectively. Those of species with no association with hilltop, steep slope, gentle slope, and depression were 4, 3, 9, and 35, respectively. Among the 20 most dominant trees in the area, all were found to have either a positive or negative association with the four habitat types, with the mortality of each size class being positively correlated with hilltops but negatively correlated with gentle slopes.

    Conclusion: Our study revealed that the distribution of snags in the surveyed plot was aggregated in a karst evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Mulun National Nature Reserve,. This indicates that tree mortality was nonrandom and more highly impacted by the habitat type and topography.

    Comparative study of invasive and native herbs in natural forests and plantation forests: With Nonggang National Nature Reserve as an example
    Chaodan Guo, Caiyun Zhao, Feifei Li, Junsheng Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21356.  doi:10.17520/biods.20221356
    Abstract ( 409 )   HTML ( 23 )   PDF (1436KB) ( 324 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: Presence of many invasive plants have seriously threaten the biodiversity in nature reserves. The abundance of species is recorded in the Nonggang National Nature Reserve, but the invasion of alien plants has posed a threat to biodiversity. Exploring the invasion status of alien plants in different habitats and their interspecific relationships with dominant native plants can help the reserve identify priority habitats for the prevention and management of invasive plant species, as well as help managers to prevent further spread of invasive species by regulating the interspecific relationships between invasive species and native plants.

    Methods: The four habitats included in this study are: Bischofia javanica plantation forest, Dracontomelon duperreanumplantation forest, Dendrocalamus latiflorus natural forest, and Orophea polycarpa natural forest. Each of these habitats are located besides main traffic roads. In each habitat, we established a large sample plot of 10 m × 24 m, and 72 small quadrats of 1 m × 1 m were then set up at different distances from the roads in the large sample plot for vegetation surveys. The herbaceous species (including tree and shrub seedlings) in the 1 m × 1 m plots, as well as their number, height and cover were recorded. The diversity indices of invasive and native herbs, the niche width of invasive herbs, and their niche overlap and interspecific association indices with dominant native herbs were calculated and compared.

    Results: A total of 6 invasive herbs were recorded in four habitats in the Nonggang National Nature Reserve, belonging to 3 families and 6 genera, with the most species in the family Asteraceae. The highest diversity of invasive alien herbs exhibited in the Bischofia javanica plantation forest, followed by the Dendrocalamus latiflorusnatural forest, the Dracontomelon duperreanum plantation forest, and then the Orophea polycarpa natural forest. Except for the richness of invasive herbs in the Orophea polycarpa natural forest, which indicated a significant positive correlation with the richness of native herbs, there were no significant correlations in all the other habitats. The niche width of Bidens pilosa was the largest, and it was the most widespread invasive herb in all four habitats. The niche overlap and interspecific association between the invasive herbs and the dominant native herbs in all four habitats were low, and the interspecific competition between the invasive herbs and the dominant native herbs was weak.

    Conclusion: Our results provide a clear picture of the distribution of invasive herbs in the Nonggang National Nature Reserve and their interspecific relationships with native herbs.

    Distribution pattern of plant species richness of uninhabited islands in the Bohai Sea area
    Lan Xiao, Biao Dong, Linting Zhang, Chuanyuan Deng, Xia Li, Jianhui Liu, Duancong Wu
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21231.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021231
    Abstract ( 190 )   HTML ( 27 )   PDF (1311KB) ( 190 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aim: Our purpose is to investigate the distribution pattern and its characteristics of plant species richness in uninhabited isles in the Bohai Sea area.

    Methods: We collected quadrat and precipitation data from nine uninhabited isles. Combining species-area relationship and the species-abundance model (logarithmic normal distribution model), we explored the distribution pattern of plant species richness in uninhabited isles.

    Results: Our results revealed that: (1) The relative abundance distribution of woody plants on uninhabited isles located in temperate regions displayed the logarithmic normal distribution characteristics. Common species with a larger number of individuals of woody plant communities were less numerous, while rare species with smaller individuals were more common. (2) The number of species on most uninhabited isles was between 60 and 130 in the Bohai Sea, that showed relatively high species richness. (3) Combined with the geographic location analysis of the isles, it was found that the isles with high species richness were largely located in the reserve, suggesting that plant hotspots in the Bohai Sea area were effectively protected.

    Conclusion: Both the species abundance distribution model and the species-area relationship model are important tools to reveal the species richness distribution on isles. Our results suggest that the ecological niche theory is more important for maintaining the process of species diversity on the Bohai Sea area.

    Distribution patterns of medicinal plant diversity and their conservation priorities in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Rensheng Zhao, Shijia Xu, Pengfei Song, Xiang Zhou, Yazhou Zhang, Yan Yuan
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21385.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021385
    Abstract ( 384 )   HTML ( 52 )   PDF (2152KB) ( 320 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) harbors abundant resources of medicinal plants, but the public still lacks the knowledge of the distribution pattern of medicinal plant diversity. The public also has poor understanding of the effects of human activities on the resources of medicinal plants.

    Methods: In this study, we collected the distribution data of 254 medicinal plant species and quantified human activities in the QTP. Then we analyzed the diversity and endemism patterns and the effects of potential threats to medicinal plants. Finally we identified the conservation priority areas for medicinal plant resources.

    Results: Our results showed that the diversity and endemism of medicinal plants in the QTP are primarily concentrated in the eastern and southeastern regions. We found that stronger human influence overlapped with higher diversity and endemism of medicinal plants, and that these human activities all had a significant impact on diversity and endemism. We further use an algorithm combining biological and human factors to identify conservation priority areas, including northwestern Yunnan, southwestern and western Sichuan, eastern Qinghai and central Tibet, which revealed that the current protected areas in the QTP do not effectively protect hotspots identified in this study, and there is an abundance of conservation gaps.

    Conclusion: This study provides some suggestions on the protection of medicinal plant resources in the QTP, including improving laws, regulations and policy supervision, establishing more protection areas, supplementing the list of protected plants, strengthening the popularization of science, and promoting the collection, preservation and development of medicinal plant resources. These suggested measures will guide conservation policies and the delineation of protected areas in the future. We hope this study will publicize the serious threats of medicinal plants and arouse the attention of the public to conservation in the QTP.

    Trade of native orchids on Chinese online platforms
    Jing Huang, Mei Sun, Wenfeng Yu, Jianyong Wu, Huaizhen Tian
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21233.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021233
    Abstract ( 223 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (1144KB) ( 409 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: China has a high diversity of orchid species, and many of them have high medicinal and ornamental value. With the rapid development of online platforms, the online trade of orchids is becoming increasingly prevalent. This study aims to explore the scope of native online orchid trading in China by investigating the three main trading platforms: Taobao, Pinduoduo and Hmlan.

    Methods: We utilized the Pycharm Community software to sift through online trade information and manually browsed other information and recorded it. Then, we made a statistical analysis of the online orchid trade on Taobao, Pinduoduo and Hmlan.

    Results: In total, 339 species (including three varieties) classified into 84 genera of orchids were recorded in this survey, including 45 endemic species. Among them, Cymbidium and Dendrobium were the most traded orchid genera. There were 309 species (91.1%) sold for only ornamental use, 5 species (1.5%) for only medicinal use, and 25 species (7.4%) for both purposes. A total of 336 species (99.1%) of wild orchids were recorded, and merchants sell wild orchids on purpose. More than half of the orchids were sold at the price of ¥10-¥49 with the maximum sales on Taobao and Pinduoduo, and sales on Pinduoduo were lower and more concentrated within the price range of ¥15-¥35 occupied 57.5% of sales. Further statistics on the endangered degree of recorded orchids found that 188 species (55.5%) were in threatened, including 23 species (6.8%) in Critically Endangered (CR), 85 species (25.1%) in Endangered (EN) and 80 species (23.6%) in Vulnerable (VU). The source provinces of the orchid sold were mainly in Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian and Sichuan.

    Conclusion: To effectively strengthen the protection of wild orchid diversity in China, it is strongly recommended that each online platform reforms the rules of selling orchids based on the latest List of National Key Protected Wild Plants. Regions mentioned above should be paid more attention, and public education on orchid protection should be enhanced. Relevant departments need to exchange information about the sale of wild orchids on online platforms to protect them.

    Original Papers: Microbial Diversity
    Bacterial diversity differences and influence factors of four types of hydrochemical characteristic lakes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Guoping Shen, Rui Han, Zengqiang Miao, Jiangwa Xing, Yongzhen Li, Rong Wang, Derui Zhu
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21420.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021420
    Abstract ( 249 )   HTML ( 56 )   PDF (2220KB) ( 149 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aim: Extreme environmental lakes are most densely distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in China, and the lake types and the hydrochemical characteristics are diverse. However, little is known about the bacterial community composition and diversity of these lakes in the QTP.

    Methods: This study was carried out in four hydrochemical types of lakes on the QTP (e.g. chloride type, MgSO4 subtype, Na2SO4 subtype, and carbonate type). Illumina 16S rRNA gene (V3‒V4 region) sequencing was used to analyze the bacterial diversity, community composition, and the associations between dominant taxa and environmental factors in the QTP.

    Results: The hydrochemical characteristics indicated that two lake groups of MgSO4 subtype and chloride type belonged to extremely hypersaline environment, while most samples of Na2SO4 subtype and carbonate type groups belonged to mesosaline, brackish or fresh water environments. A total of 45 phyla, 81 classes, and 1,148 genera (52,031 OTUs) of bacteria were investigated. The Shannon diversity index of bacteria was carbonate type (5.27 ± 0.57) > Na2SO4 subtype (4.96 ± 0.51) > chloride type (4.12 ± 0.80) > MgSO4 subtype (3.64 ± 1.04). The dominant phyla within the bacterial communities were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was high, and the dominant classes were γ-, α- and β-Proteobacteria. Firmicutes mainly distributed in the MgSO4 subtype and chloride-type lakes, and the dominant class was Bacilli. Bacteroidetes mainly distributed in the carbonate type and Na2SO4 subtype lakes, and the dominant class was Flavobacteriia. The bacterial community composition of chloride type lakes was similar to a few samples of MgSO4 subtype lakes, and the distribution of the dominant genera (Pseudomonas, Lactococcus, and Acinetobacter) positively correlated with the total salinity, main ion (Mg2+, Cl-, Na+ and K+), and temperature. Among the MgSO4 subtype lakes, the distribution of the uniquely common genera Bacillus, Aeromonas, and Oceanobacilluspositively correlated with the concentration of SO42-. The bacterial community composition of the Na2SO4 subtype lakes was similar to the carbonate type lakes, while the distribution of some dominant genera, e.g. Aquiflexum, Haliea and Luteolibacter, significantly and positively correlated with the environment variables, including HCO3-content, altitude, and pH value.

    Conclusion: Compared with other lake groups in the world, lakes in the QTP have unique dominant and common bacterial genera. Bacterial community composition varies in different lake types, which may be related to hydrochemical type or geographical location.

    Original Papers: Ecosystem Diversity
    Simulation of changes in land use distribution and biodiversity under different development scenarios in Qinghai Province
    Wen Pan, Yunhui Liu, Zehao Wu, Zengli Liu, Wenxuan Han, Zhenrong Yu
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21425.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021425
    Abstract ( 278 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (30304KB) ( 340 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: Dramatic land use changes induced by intensified human activities are considered to be an important driver for the loss of biodiversity. In response to the demands of biodiversity conservation and socio-economic development of Qinghai Province for land use, this study provides a method of optimizing land use layout under different scenarios based on different conservation goals.

    Methods: Based on the relationships between land use type/disturbance intensity and biodiversity, this study formulated four development scenarios in Qinghai Province: Baseline scenario, Beautiful Qinghai (BQ), Intelligent Qinghai (IQ) and Harmonious Qinghai (HQ). And the land use patterns and mean species abundance (MSA) related to the local native communities of Qinghai Province in 2030 and 2050 were simulated under the four scenarios, with GeoSOS-FLUS model and FLUS-Biodiversity model, respectively.

    Results: Most land use types would change significantly compared to the current spatial pattern. Under Baseline scenario, the area of wetlands, forests, and grasslands would all decline by 2030 or 2050, resulting in a slow recovery of biodiversity accordingly. The other three scenarios (BQ, IQ, and HQ) would predict various optimized spatial patterns of the future land use in the next 10 or 30 years. A large portion of medium- and high-intensity grasslands would become wetlands, primary forests, or low-intensity grasslands. Part of the conventional farmlands would be converted into high-quality farmlands, and construction land area would be reduced, thus biodiversity be greatly improved.

    Conclusion: MSAvalues of the land use in Qinghai Province could achieve the target values by 2030 or 2050, and the biodiversity integrity/intactness would be increased compared with that in 2020 under all future scenarios.

    Data Paper
    A dataset on the life-history and ecological traits of Chinese lizards
    Yuxi Zhong, Chuanwu Chen, Yanping Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  22071.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022071
    Abstract ( 458 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF (333KB) ( 261 )   Save
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    China has a total of 226 native lizard species as of 2020 and is one of the countries with the richest lizard diversity in the world. Systematically gathering the trait data of Chinese lizards is of great importance in studying their origin, evolution, extinction, and conservation. However, there is no complete database on the life-history, ecological traits, and geographic distribution of Chinese lizards. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive dataset of species traits for Chinese lizards. Through extensive retrieval and collection, we systematically collated data on 19 characteristic traits for all the 226 native species of Chinese lizards: year of description, China Red List status, IUCN Red List status, Chinese endemism, insular endemism, mean snout-vent length, mean body mass, diet, clutch size, reproductive mode, leg development, activity time, substrate, habitat type, habitat width, elevation range, geographic range size, biogeographic realm, and domestic distribution. Nevertheless, data completeness varied from 47.14% to 100% among traits. Leg development, year of description, Chinese endemism, insular endemism, and domestic distribution were the only traits with a complete dataset. Our database is the latest and most complete one on species traits of Chinese lizards. This dataset can provide support for the research fields of ecology, evolution, biogeography, and conservation biology of Chinese lizards.

    Database/Dataset Profile

    Title A dataset on the life-history and ecological traits of Chinese lizards
    Authors Yuxi Zhong, Chuanwu Chen, Yanping Wang
    Corresponding author Yanping Wang (wangyanping@njnu.edu.cn)
    Time range Until the end of 2020
    Geographical scope The People’s Republic of China
    File size 247 kb
    Data format *.xlsx
    Data link http://dataopen.info/home/datafile/index/id/250
    http://doi.org/10.24899/do.202204003
    https://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/1005-0094/DATA/2022071.zip
    Database/Dataset composition The dataset consists of one subset and two descriptive files in total. It comprises 19 life-history and ecological traits of all the 226 native species of Chinese lizards.
    Bioinventories
    The updated checklist and zoogeographic division of the reptilian fauna of Yunnan Province, China
    Kai Wang, Zhitong Lyu, Jian Wang, Shuo Qi, Jing Che
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21326.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021326
    Abstract ( 1069 )   HTML ( 188 )   PDF (5068KB) ( 1062 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: Yunnan Province has the richest biodiversity among all administrative regions in China. Therefore, having detailed, updated checklists of different fauna and flora groups of Yunnan are particularly important for the conservation and scientific utilization of biodiversity in China.

    Methods: Based on published literatures and examination of relevant specimens in natural history museums in China, we update the checklist of the reptilian fauna of Yunnan. Following the update, we revised the zoogeographic division of reptilian fauna of Yunnan and compiled diversity-related statistics for each zoogeographic region.

    Results: As of 31th December, 2021, there are 235 recognized species of reptiles in 82 genera, 25 families, and 2 orders recorded from Yunnan Province of China, including 16 species of Testudines in 12 genera, 4 families, 72 species of Lacertilia in 20 genera, 6 families, and 147 species of Serpentes in 50 genera, 15 families. Comparing to the latest monograph, Amphibia and Reptilia of Yunnan, which was published in 2008, our updated checklist added 82 new records, retained 21 questionable records, and removed records of 23 recognized species from Yunnan. With the revised taxonomy and distribution data of Yunnan’s reptilian fauna, we continued to recognize six zoogeographic regions in Yunnan, namely Northwestern Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan, Western Hills of Yunnan, Southern Hills of Yunnan, Southeastern Hills of Yunnan, Northern and Central Yunnan Plateau, and Northeastern Hills of Yunnan; but we adjusted the ranges for four of these regions, namely Northwestern Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan, Western Hills of Yunnan, Southeastern Hills of Yunnan, and Northern and Central Yunnan Plateau. While the three southern zoogeographic regions have the highest overall diversity, the Northwestern Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan and Central Yunnan Plateau have the highest percentage of endemic species. In total, 13% of the recorded taxa are endemic to Yunnan, 33% of the taxa are only found in Yunnan within China, and 26% of the taxa have been initially described from Yunnan. Taxonomically, Lacertilia constitutes the highest percentage of endemic taxa, which is followed by Serpentes and Testudines. For conservation, about 34% of the assessed reptile species of Yunnan are considered threatened based on China’s Red List of Biodiversity•Vertebrates (Vol. III): Reptiles, and about 16% of the total species of Yunnan still lack conservation assessments. In contrast, only 12% of the recorded species are nationally protected. Of the six zoogeographic regions of Yunnan, the Southern Hills of Yunnan have the highest percentage of threatened species and the highest number of nationally protected species.

    Conclusion: The reptilian diversity of Yunnan is still underestimated, and the taxonomy of the recorded species is changing regularly. Taxonomy should continue to be the focus of herpetological studies in the future, and detailed distribution data at higher resolution are needed, preferably to the county level. The percentage of endemic species of Yunnan and the conservation threat of Yunnan’s reptilian fauna are both high. Habitat conservations of endemic species in northwest and central Yunnan warrants particular attention. Lastly, as taxonomy and conservation status of species are changing regularly, and given many threatened species are not currently protected by the List of Wild Animals under Special State Protection, we call for the update of the List of Wild Animals under Special Provincial Protection of Yunnan, so that the overlooked, threatened species and their habitats can have legal protection converge.

    Revision of the list of amphibian species in Yunnan Province
    Zhiyong Yuan, Jinmin Chen, Yunhe Wu, Xianqi Li, Jing Che
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21470.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021470
    Abstract ( 543 )   HTML ( 29 )   PDF (3199KB) ( 409 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: To update and improve the list of amphibian species in Yunnan Province, we summarize the taxonomic revisions for each taxon, the species distribution, the geographical distribution pattern of the species, and the conservation status of each species.

    Methods: Combining the latest studies and our field research in past decade, we have revised the species list and distribution of amphibians in Yunnan Province since the publication of the book Amphibia and Reptilia of Yunnan in 2008.

    Results: The revised list records a total of 191 species of amphibians which belong to 49 genera, 12 families, and 3 orders, which account for 32.5% of the amphibians in China. Since 2008, 70 species of amphibians from 23 genera and 1 family have been added to the list, and the taxonomic status of 47 species from 31 genera and 3 families has been revised. A total of 34 new species, 15 new Chinese records, and 10 new provincial records were discovered. Forty-five threatened amphibian species in Yunnan Province were recorded, accounting for 23.6% of amphibians in Yunnan Province and 25.6% of the threatened Chinese amphibians. Among them, 2 species are listed as Critically Endangered (CR) species; 9 species are Endangered (EN); and 34 species are Vulnerable (VU). Fifteen species are included in the list of key protected wild animals in China, accounting for 16% of the amphibians protected in the list. In addition, one and eight species are listed in CITES appendix I and II respectively, and five species are listed in the Wildlife Species with Extremely Small Populations in Yunnan Province.

    Conclusion: Most of the species have a clear taxonomic status while a few of them remain a challenge because they are less studied or live across different countries which means more international collaboration is needed. Most of the new species and new Chinese records were primarily found from the areas around the border of the Yunnan Province where there has been a lack of research in the past. The diversity of amphibian species from these areas was also identified as the richest. In the future, field studies must be conducted in these areas. Although many threatened amphibians from Yunnan were under protection, little is known about their life history. More research would contribute to the conservation of these amphibians.

    Diversity and inventory of non-volant small mammals in southern Anhui
    Xiaoxin Pei, Weiying Qu, Xueyang Ren, Jiangxiao Hu, Min Zhang, Lei Fang, Jiangshan Shao, Hailong Wu, Zhongzheng Chen
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21301.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021301
    Abstract ( 302 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (1029KB) ( 265 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: Southern Anhui has the richest animal diversity in Anhui Province, and is a biodiversity hotspot in East China. However, the research on the diversity of small mammals in this area is relatively lagging, and the background data of species still remains unclear.

    Methods: During 2018 and 2019, we employed “method of catch rats per day and one clamp” and “trap method” in 14 regions in southern Anhui, and identified the samples using traditional morphological methods and DNA barcoding (Cyt b and COIgenes). In addition, we also assembled a checklist of small mammals in southern Anhui based on the previous literatures.

    Results: A total of 647 specimens of small mammals were collected, belonging to 23 species, 17 genera, 8 families and 3 orders. The 3 orders contained 13 species of Rodentia, 9 species of Eulipotyphla and 1 species of Lagomorpha. The results of molecular analysis showed that Chodsigoa hypsibia, Megera latouchei, Berylmys bowersi, Callosciurus erythraeus and Mesechinus hughi in southern Anhui significantly differentiated from that in other regions. Combined with the checklist from literature review, we recorded a total of 34 species of small mammals belonging to 24 genera, 9 families and 3 orders in southern Anhui, with 23 species of Rodentia, 10 species of Eulipotyphla and 1 species of Lagomorpha.

    Conclusion: Southern Anhui has a high diversity of small mammals which are important for biodiversity conservation in East China, yet its diversity may still be underestimated. There should be deeper investigations of the small mammal diversity in the region for better biodiversity protection planning in southern Anhui and the surrounding areas.

    Review
    Methods and research progress on the origin of animal domestication
    Xinyu Cai, Xiaowei Mao, Yiqiang Zhao
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  21457.  doi:10.17520/biods.2021457
    Abstract ( 358 )   HTML ( 63 )   PDF (1284KB) ( 328 )   Save
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    Background & Aim: Domesticated animal coevolved with human for thousands of years. During the process of domestication, significant changes on phenotype and behavior traits have been taken place on animals, and changes are accompanied with human civilization. As one of the important topics in biological research, studying on animal domestication will not only extend our understanding on genetic diversity and adaptation, but also help to dissect the underlying molecular mechanisms on complex traits. This article focuses on the initiation of animal domestication.

    Progress: Firstly, we summarized the timing and locations where domestication happens, as well as domestication pathways and driving factors, spreading and breed formation after domestication. Secondly, we introduced classical and latest advancements, pros and cons, and future directions of the analysis strategies of animal domestication in both archaeology and molecular and population genetics areas. Finally, by integrating various evidences we introduced the research progress on the origin of domestication of pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) which were domesticated in China, as well as other major livestocks.

    Conclusion: This article provides a comprehensive perspective and new ideas for the study on the origin of animal domestication.

    Forum
    The view on functional changes of botanical gardens and the establishment of China’s national botanical garden system
    Hai Ren, Xiangying Wen, Jingping Liao, Xiangci Zheng, Ming Yang, Ju Zhou
    Biodiv Sci. 2022, 30 (4):  22113.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022113
    Abstract ( 384 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF (467KB) ( 321 )   Save
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    Background & Aims: Plant resources are the basic component of natural ecosystems and are crucial for sustainable economic and social development. They are also core resources related to national ecological security and biosafety. The conservation of plant diversity mainly includes in situconservation and ex situ conservation. The establishment of a natural reserve system with national parks as the main body is the main form of in situ conservation. The development of a botanical garden system led by national botanical gardens is mainly for ex situ conservation. The two conservation strategies are indispensable and complementary. They jointly form a relatively complete plant biodiversity conservation system in China. The ex situconservation of China’s plant diversity through the establishment of a national botanical garden system can also facilitate scientific research, garden display, public education, as well as the utilization of plant resources. It is of great significance to further promote the construction of ecological civilization and high-quality economic development.

    Progress: This paper reviews the functional changes of botanical gardens and the current situation of ex situconservation in botanical gardens around the world and China. The botanical garden originated from the cultivation, research and experimental of medicinal plants, and has gone through the development stages of medicinal botanical gardens or university medicinal botanical gardens, tropical (colonial economy) botanical gardens, European classic botanical gardens, municipal botanical gardens and special types of botanical gardens (including agricultural botanical gardens, horticultural botanical gardens, germplasm collection gardens, etc.). At present, ex situ conservation of plant diversity and public education are the main functions of botanical gardens. There are more than 3,700 botanical gardens in the world, growing about 1/3 of the world’s higher plants. China has 162 botanical gardens, with about 60% of the country’s higher plants conserved. There are over 100 national botanical gardens in 43 countries and regions around the world.

    Conclusions & Suggestions: This paper discusses the relationship between botanical gardens and plant ex situ conservation. On this basis, we put forward the definition and setting standards of national botanical gardens, and then discusses the significance, challenges, coordinating ex situconservation and in situ conservation of the national botanical garden system. Finally, suggestions on the establishment goals, management system, spatial layout and certification of China's national botanical garden system are proposed. We hope this paper would provide new insights into future development of the national botanical garden system in China.


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