生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (11): 1203-1219.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015313

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中国森林生物多样性监测: 科学基础与执行计划

米湘成1, 郭静1, 郝占庆2, 谢宗强1,*(), 郭柯1, 马克平1   

  1. 1.中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    2 .中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 沈阳 110016
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-12 接受日期:2016-08-10 出版日期:2016-11-20 发布日期:2016-12-14
  • 通讯作者: 谢宗强
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0500202)、中国科学院植物所植被与环境变化重点实验室研究群项目

Chinese forest biodiversity monitoring: scientific foundations and strategic planning

Xiangcheng Mi1, Jing Guo1, Zhanqing Hao2, Zongqiang Xie1,*(), Ke Guo1, Keping Ma1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016
  • Received:2015-11-12 Accepted:2016-08-10 Online:2016-11-20 Published:2016-12-14
  • Contact: Xie Zongqiang

摘要:

中国森林生物多样性保护和恢复措施的制订依赖于生物多样性的监测信息。设计一个有效的生物多样性监测网络是一项复杂的系统工程。监测网络的设计框架可分为监测目标、监测对象、监测指标、取样策略、数据采集和处理、网络维护以及组织工作等几个部分。目前, 国际上已有5个得到广泛认可的生物多样性监测网络, 包括地球观测组织-生物多样性监测网络、全球森林监测网络、热带生态评估与监测网络、泛欧洲森林监测网络和亚马逊森林清查网络, 它们的监测目标、监测内容和方法、样地布局及部分监测成果各有特色。我们试图在全国生物多样性监测、森林资源清查和森林生态系统定位研究的基础上, 通过网络布局、建设和运行, 形成中国森林生物多样性监测网(Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Network, Sino BON-CForBio)及其监测规范体系。该网络的科学目标是, 在全国尺度上研究不同典型地带性森林的生物多样性维持机制、监测森林生物多样性变化并阐明其机理、研究生物多样性变化的效应。该网络布局以《中国植被区划》中的森林植被区划成果作为顶层设计和监测样地选择的核心依据, 设计了4个层级的监测系统; 其监测指标体系以生物多样性核心指标为主, 并结合我国传统森林群落调查方法进行拓展; 预期建成国家水平上的森林生物多样性监测网络, 阐明森林生物多样性维持机制和生物多样性变化的效应, 同时对重大生态保护工程的生物多样性保护效果进行有效性监测和验证型监测。

关键词: 监测网络, 设计框架, 顶层设计, 监测规范与体系, 样区布局, 生物多样性核心指标, 有效性监测, 验证型监测

Abstract

The management and restoration of forest biodiversity is strongly dependent on information regarding biodiversity monitoring. The design of a monitoring network consists of monitoring objects and variables, an effective sampling strategy, data collection and analyses, network maintenance, and organization. Firstly, we reviewed the roles of these components in designing an effective monitoring network. We then introduced five large biodiversity networks, namely, GEO BON (Group on Earth Observations-Biodiversity Observation Network), ForestGEO (Forest Global Earth Observatory), TEAM (Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network), Pan-European Forest Monitoring Network, and RAINFOR (Amazonian Forest Inventory Network). Finally, we reviewed the history of Chinese forest biodiversity monitoring, and put forward the aims, monitoring variables and methods, and sampling strategy for forests in the Chinese Biodiversity Monitoring Network. Chinese forest biodiversity monitoring was based on a national forest resource inventory and long-term research of forests ecosystem from 1970s to 1980s. Regulations and methods of biodiversity monitoring were defined during the establishment and operation of the Chinese Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Networks (Sino BON-CForBio). Sino BON-CForBio has important achievements in biodiversity monitoring and maintenance. The planning aims of Sino BON-CForBio include: (1) to study biodiversity maintenance mechanisms of typical zonal forests, (2) to monitor trends of forest biodiversity change and to explore mechanisms at the national scale, and (3) to study the effects of biodiversity change based on manipulation experiments. Results will provide scientific foundations for management and restoration of forest biodiversity. The framework and sampling strategy of Sino BON-CForBio are based on the regionalization of forest vegetation. The framework for Sino BON-CForBio includes four levels of forest biodiversity monitoring. We will integrate essential biodiversity variables and indicators of conventional forest surveys as monitoring variables for Sino BON-CForBio. Sino BON-CForBio aims to establish forest biodiversity monitoring networks at the national scale and will continue to explore mechanisms of biodiversity maintenance and the effects of biodiversity change. In addition, Sino BON-CForBio will monitor the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation and validate the mechanisms of biodiversity change for key ecological conservation projects.

Key words: monitoring networks, design framework, top-down design, regulations and indicators system, sampling strategy, essential biodiversity variables, effectiveness monitoring, validation monitoring