生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (1): 97-105.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.08202

• 研究简报 • 上一篇    下一篇

《生物多样性公约》国际履约过程变化分析

黄艺*(), 郑维爽   

  1. 北京大学环境科学与工程学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2008-08-19 接受日期:2008-11-04 出版日期:2009-01-20 发布日期:2009-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄艺
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: yhuang@pku.edu.cn

Dynamics in international implementation of the Convention on Biological diversity

Yi Huang*(), Weishuang Zheng   

  1. College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2008-08-19 Accepted:2008-11-04 Online:2009-01-20 Published:2009-01-20
  • Contact: Yi Huang

摘要:

本文系统地分析了《生物多样性公约》(以下简称《公约》)国际履约的全过程, 得出履约是一个动态的、反馈的、注重实效的过程。其中核心议题变化、利益集团结盟和分化以及国家层面的履约是履行《公约》的三个相辅相成的过程。核心议题是历次缔约国大会的精髓, 核心议题产生关键性的决议, 其变迁导致公约组织机构、履约行动策略和计划发生变化, 也是利益集团分化的根本原因之一。利益集团分化是国际层面上对公约变化的响应, 是公约发展的驱动力之一, 然而利益集团难以协调也是目前阻碍《公约》发展的主要原因。国家层面上, 各国通过调整执行公约条款的优先顺序响应新的决议。不同国家根据各自国情有不同的履约优先顺序, 而我国履约实践存在优先顺序不明确, 缺少对《公约》的响应等问题, 直接导致我国履约效率低下。最后依据对《公约》履约过程变化分析结果, 宏观上提出中国履约对策建议。

关键词: 核心议题, 遗传资源惠益和分享, 缔约国大会, 履约优先顺序

Abstract

The implementation of the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) is a dynamic and reactive process that focuses on efficiency. The process has three essential components, i.e. the vicissitude of issues for in-depth consideration, group alliance, and reactions of parties at the national level. These components are related to each other through a feedback mechanism to modify the CBD. The issues for in-depth consideration are the core of the Conference of the Parties (COP), because the decisions reached from the discussion of these issues will lead to changes in the CBD organization, implementation of the strategies and plan, and group alliance. At the international level, interest group’s re-alliance occurs in response to new decisions from COP; correspondingly, groups actively raise issues beneficial to themselves in order to influence the development of CBD. Thus, disagreement among groups is one of the obstacles to the improvement of CBD. At the national level, countries implement CBD by adjusting their relative implementary priorities of the CBD articles in consequence to the new decisions made by COP. Analysis showed that different countries set up different priorities based on their own situation. China assigned highest priority to all the CBD articles which had led to low efficiency in the implementation. Based on this analysis, suggestions and recommendations are provided to promote China’s performance in fulfilling CBD.

Key words: issues for in-depth consideration, access and benefit sharing, conference of the parties, conservation priority