生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (8): 1064-1072.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021202

• 2020年新物种专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

世界及中国菌物新命名发表概况(2020年)

王科, 蔡磊, 姚一建()   

  1. 中国科学院微生物研究所菌物标本馆, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-20 接受日期:2021-07-19 出版日期:2021-08-20 发布日期:2021-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 姚一建
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: yaoyj@im.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略生物资源计划(KFJ-BRP-017-49)

Overview of nomenclature novelties of fungi in the world and China (2020)

Ke Wang, Lei Cai, Yijian Yao()   

  1. Fungarium, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:2021-05-20 Accepted:2021-07-19 Online:2021-08-20 Published:2021-08-25
  • Contact: Yijian Yao

摘要:

菌物是全球生物多样性最丰富的生物类群之一, 每年有大量新物种被描述和发现, 统计和分析菌物新名称发表数据, 可实时展示菌物分类学的研究热点, 并为学科的未来发展提供参考数据。根据世界菌物名称信息库Fungal Names、Index Fungorum和MycoBank所收录的数据, 2020年全球共发表了4,996个菌物新名称, 包括652个新高阶分类单元、2,905个新种及种下单元、1,342个新组合和97个其他名称, 是历史上发表菌物新名称数量最多的一年。这些新名称隶属于12门44纲173目469科1,386属, 盘菌、小型子囊菌、地衣和伞菌是本年度最受关注的类群。来自全球的1,978位学者将上述菌物新名称发表在133个期刊的885篇论文和9部专著中, 其中669位作者是首次参与新名称发表, 是历年来新作者最多的一年。本年度发表的菌物新物种的模式标本来自世界103个国家和地区, 东亚和东南亚是新物种发现的最热点地区, 而中国是发现新物种最多的国家, 共发现663种, 占全球的23%, 是排名第二位的泰国的2.28倍。西南地区是我国新物种发现的热点地区, 云南、贵州、西藏三省区本年度发现的新物种数量占全国的44.80%。除了新物种来源, 中国学者在本年度的菌物分类学研究中取得了令人瞩目的成果, 333位中国学者参与发表了1,271个菌物新名称, 占全球新名称总数的1/4。这些菌物新名称隶属于8门24纲87目209科440属, 发表在45个期刊的258篇研究论文和1部专著中。通过上述研究发现, 全球菌物新物种发现的速度仍在加快, 命名作者和新名称发表数量在逐步增加, 研究类群规模在逐渐扩大。但菌物物种描述率仍处于较低水平, 持续、高效地发现菌物新物种将是菌物学者的重点研究方向之一。

关键词: 菌物分类学, 命名作者, 研究类群, 新种模式产地, 中国贡献

Abstract

Aims:Fungi have the richest biodiversity on earth, second to insects. Thousands of new fungal species have been discovered and described every year recently. Timely analysis of the published data of new fungal names can show the research hotspots of fungal taxonomy in details and provide reference data for the future development of mycology.

Method: The taxonomic data of new published fungal name were retrieved from the database of Fungal Names, Index Fungorum and MycoBank.

Results: In 2020, at least 4,996 new fungal names including 652 new higher taxa, 2,905 new species and new intraspecific taxa, 1,342 new combinations, and 97 other novelties, were published by 1,978 scholars in 885 articles and 9 monographs all over the world, reaching the historically highest annual record of new fungal names. These new names belong to 12 phyla, 44 classes, 173 orders, 469 families and 1,386 genera, among which ascomycetes had received more attentions. The type specimens of new species were from 103 countries and regions in the world. East and Southeast Asia were the hot spots of new species discovery, while China was the country with the highest number of new species discovered (663 species), accounting for 23% of the world's total. Besides, China had made remarkable achievements in fungal taxonomy in 2020, with 333 Chinese scholars participating in the publications of 1,271 new fungal names, accounting for about a quarter of the total number in the world.

Conclusion: As shown by the analysis, the discovery of new fungal species is accelerating, with the increased number of new published names and authors. However, the description rate of fungal species is still at a low level, which leaves a long-term and arduous task for mycologists to discover undescribed fungi efficiently.

Key words: fungal taxonomy, author of new fungal name, research group, type locality of new fungal species, China's contribution