生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (11): 1391-1404.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020240

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

食物网结构与功能: 理论进展与展望

王少鹏*()   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院生态研究中心, 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-15 接受日期:2020-07-26 出版日期:2020-11-20 发布日期:2020-09-13
  • 通讯作者: 王少鹏
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: shaopeng.wang@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31988102);国家自然科学基金(31870505);科技部重点研发计划(2017YFC0503906)

Food web structure and functioning: Theoretical advances and outlook

Shaopeng Wang*()   

  1. Institute of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2020-06-15 Accepted:2020-07-26 Online:2020-11-20 Published:2020-09-13
  • Contact: Shaopeng Wang

摘要:

食物网刻画了物种间通过捕食而形成的复杂网络关系。阐明食物网结构与功能之间的关系, 既是生态学的基本理论问题, 也是预测全球变化背景下生态系统响应的重要依据。早期关于食物网结构与功能的研究往往是分离的, 或是基于食物链等的简单网络模型, 而近期研究基于复杂食物网模型取得了重要理论进展。本文综述了食物网研究的理论方法和近期进展, 特别介绍了复杂食物网中的结构、多样性和功能的度量指标、结构-多样性-功能之间的关系以及全球变化对食物网结构与功能的影响。本文最后对未来的一些研究方向进行了展望, 包括与功能性状和化学计量学的整合、食物网与其他网络类型的整合以及拓展食物网研究的空间和时间尺度。

关键词: 杂食性, 模块性, 水平多样性, 垂直多样性, 能量流

Abstract:

The relationship between food web structure and functioning can have important implications for predicting the responses of ecosystems to global changes. Previous studies have mainly explored food web structure and functioning separately or in simple food web models (e.g. food chains), but recent studies made significant progress in understanding the structure and functioning of complex food webs. This paper reviews the theoretical approaches and recent advances of complex food webs. In particular, I summarize the multiple metrics for quantifying the structure, biodiversity, and functioning of complex food webs, explain the theoretical framework for modeling complex food webs, and review the recent progress in understanding the relationships between food web structure, biodiversity, and functioning, and how they respond to global changes. I end with discussion on potential future directions by integrating food web theory with functional trait, ecological stoichiometry, other types of ecological networks, metacommunity theory, and evolutionary models.

Key words: omnivory, modularity, horizontal diversity, vertical diversity, energy flux